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Fundamental Managerial Accounting Concepts Thomas P. Edmonds Bor-Yi Tsay Philip R. Olds Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Fifth Edition

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©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2006McGraw-Hill/Irwin Chapter Two Cost Behavior, Operating Leverage, and Profitability Analysis

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Cost Behavior Summarized Your monthly basic telephone bill is probably fixed and does not change when you make more local calls. Number of Local Calls Monthly Basic Telephone Bill Total Fixed Cost

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Number of Local Calls Monthly Basic Telephone Bill per Local Call The fixed cost per local call decreases as more local calls are made. Cost Behavior Summarized

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Your total long distance telephone bill is based on how many minutes you talk. Minutes Talked Total Long Distance Telephone Bill Cost Behavior Summarized Total Variable Cost

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Minutes Talked Per Minute Telephone Charge The cost per minute talked is constant. For example, 10 cents per minute. Cost Behavior Summarized Variable Cost Per Unit

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Fixed Cost Behavior Consider the following concert example where the band will be paid $48,000 regardless of the number of tickets sold. When activity....

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Fixed Cost Behavior $48,000 ÷ 3,000 Tickets = $16.00 per Ticket

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Operating Leverage A measure of the extent to which fixed costs are being used in an organization. Operating leverage is greatest in companies that have a high proportion of fixed costs in relation to variable costs. A measure of the extent to which fixed costs are being used in an organization. Operating leverage is greatest in companies that have a high proportion of fixed costs in relation to variable costs. Consider the following concert example where all costs are fixed. Fixed Costs Small percentage change in revenue Large percentage change in profits

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Operating Leverage When all costs are fixed, every additional sales dollar contributes one dollar to gross profit. 10% Revenue Increase 90% Gross Profit Increase

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Risk and Reward Assessment Risk refers to the possibility that sacrifices may exceed benefits. Risk may be reduced by converting fixed costs into variable costs. Lets see what happens to the concert example if the band receives $16 per ticket instead of $48,000.

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The total variable cost increases in direct proportion to the number of tickets sold. Variable unit cost per ticket remains at $16 regardless of the number of tickets sold. Risk and Reward Assessment

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Variable Cost Behavior When activity...

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Shifting the cost structure from fixed to variable not only reduces risk but also the potential for profits. Risk and Reward Assessment 10% Revenue Increase 10% Gross Profit Increase

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Relationship Between Cost Behavior and Revenue Fixed Cost Structure Fixed Cost Profit Loss Revenue $ Activity

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Relationship Between Cost Behavior and Revenue Variable Cost Structure Variable Cost Revenue Profit $ Activity

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The Effect of Cost Structure on Profit Stability Variable Costs Fixed Costs Do companies with higher levels of fixed costs experience more earnings volatility?

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The Effect of Cost Structure on Profit Stability Now lets see what happens when the number of units sold increases.

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The Effect of Cost Structure on Profit Stability The income increase is greater in the All Fixed Company.

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The Effect of Cost Structure on Profit Stability Variable Costs Fixed Costs If sales decrease, will the income decrease be greater in the All Fixed Company?

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The Effect of Cost Structure on Profit Stability Yes, the income decrease is greater in the All Fixed Company.

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The Effect of Cost Structure on Profit Stability Variable Costs Fixed Costs

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Is it Variable, Fixed or Mixed Cost? Units Cost $ 2, Examine the Percent of Change of Units and Costs: 500-1,200=700=140% 500 2,200-5,280= 3,080=140% 2,200

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An Income Statement under the Contribution Margin Approach The contribution margin format emphasizes cost behavior. Contribution margin covers fixed costs and provides for income.

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Contribution margin Net income Operating Leverage = Show me an example. Measuring Operating Leverage Using Contribution Margin

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$20,000 $5,000 Operating Leverage == 4 A measure of how a percentage change in sales will effect profits. Measuring Operating Leverage Using Contribution Margin

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A 10 percent increase in sales results in a 40 percent increase in net income. (10% × 4 = 40 %) Measuring Operating Leverage Using Contribution Margin

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Consider the following two companies: What happens if each company cuts the service revenue to $7 per hour in order to double the amount of business? Using Fixed Cost to Provide a Competitive Operating Advantage

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Advantage to MaHall, the all fixed company. Using Fixed Cost to Provide a Competitive Operating Advantage

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What happens if the price is cut to $7 per hour and the demand remains at 2,000 hours for each company? Using Fixed Cost to Provide a Competitive Operating Advantage

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Both companies incur losses. Using Fixed Cost to Provide a Competitive Operating Advantage

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I suppose fixed costs are better if volume is increasing, but variable costs may be better if business is declining. Using Fixed Cost to Provide a Competitive Operating Advantage

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Cost Behavior Summarized When activity level changes...

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Example: Office space is available at a fixed rental rate of $30,000 per year in increments of 1,000 square feet. As the business grows more space is rented, increasing the total cost. The Relevant Range Continue

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Rent Cost in Thousands of Dollars 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 Rented Area (Square Feet) The Relevant Range 90 Relevant Range Total fixed cost doesnt change for a range of activity, and then jumps to a new higher cost for the next higher range of activity.

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Activity Total Cost Relevant Range The Relevant Range Our variable cost assumption (constant unit variable cost) applies within the relevant range. Possible Variable Cost Behavior Our Variable Cost Assumption

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Context Sensitive Definitions of Fixed and Variable Recall the earlier concert example, where the band was paid $48,000 regardless of the number of tickets sold. The cost of the band is fixed relative to the number of tickets sold for a specific concert. The cost of the band is variable relative to the number of concerts produced.

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Lake Resorts provides water-skiing lessons for its guests with the following costs: Equipment rental$80 per day Instructor pay$15 per hour Fuel$ 2 per hour What is the average cost per one-hour lesson for 2 lessons per day? 5 lessons per day? 10 lessons per day? Cost Averaging

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Average costs decline as activity increases when fixed costs such as equipment rental are involved. Managers must use these average costs with caution as they differ at every level of activity. Rental Cost per Lesson: $80 ÷ 2 Lessons = $40 per lesson

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Cost Averaging Average costs decline as activity increases when fixed costs such as equipment rental are involved. Managers must use these average costs with caution as they differ at every level of activity. Rental Cost per Lesson: $80 ÷ 5 Lessons = $16 per lesson

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Cost Averaging Average costs decline as activity increases when fixed costs such as equipment rental are involved. Managers must use these average costs with caution as they differ at every level of activity. Rental Cost per Lesson: $80 ÷ 10 Lessons = $8 per lesson

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A mixed cost has both fixed and variable components. Mixed Costs Consider the following electric utility example.

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Fixed Monthly Utility Charge Variable Utility Charge Activity (Kilowatt Hours) Total Utility Cost Mixed Costs Total mixed cost

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Estimating Fixed and Variable Costs High-Low Method Scattergraph Method

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Iris Company recorded the following production activity and maintenance costs for two months: Using these two levels of activity, compute: the variable cost per unit. the fixed cost. the total cost. The High-Low Method

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Unit variable cost = $4,000 ÷ 5,000 units = $.80 per unit Fixed cost = Total cost – Total variable cost Fixed cost = $9,700 – ($.80 per unit × 10,000 units) Fixed cost = $9,700 – $8,000 = $1,700 Total cost = Fixed cost + Variable cost Total cost = $1,700 + $0.80X The High-Low Method

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If sales salaries and commissions are $15,000 when 85,000 units are sold and $20,000 when 120,000 units are sold, what is the variable portion of sales salaries and commission? a. $.08 per unit b. $.12 per unit c. $.14 per unit d. $.17 per unit If sales salaries and commissions are $15,000 when 85,000 units are sold and $20,000 when 120,000 units are sold, what is the variable portion of sales salaries and commission? a. $.08 per unit b. $.12 per unit c. $.14 per unit d. $.17 per unit The High-Low Method

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If sales salaries and commissions are $15,000 when 85,000 units are sold and $20,000 when 120,000 units are sold, what is the variable portion of sales salaries and commission? a. $.08 per unit b. $.12 per unit c. $.14 per unit d. $.17 per unit If sales salaries and commissions are $15,000 when 85,000 units are sold and $20,000 when 120,000 units are sold, what is the variable portion of sales salaries and commission? a. $.08 per unit b. $.12 per unit c. $.14 per unit d. $.17 per unit $5,000 ÷ 35,000 units = $.14 per unit The High-Low Method

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If sales salaries and commissions are $10,000 when 80,000 units are sold and $14,000 when 120,000 units are sold, what is the fixed portion of sales salaries and commissions? a. $ 2,000 b. $ 4,000 c. $10,000 d. $12,000 If sales salaries and commissions are $10,000 when 80,000 units are sold and $14,000 when 120,000 units are sold, what is the fixed portion of sales salaries and commissions? a. $ 2,000 b. $ 4,000 c. $10,000 d. $12,000 The High-Low Method

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If sales salaries and commissions are $10,000 when 80,000 units are sold and $14,000 when 120,000 units are sold, what is the fixed portion of sales salaries and commissions? a. $ 2,000 b. $ 4,000 c. $10,000 d. $12,000 If sales salaries and commissions are $10,000 when 80,000 units are sold and $14,000 when 120,000 units are sold, what is the fixed portion of sales salaries and commissions? a. $ 2,000 b. $ 4,000 c. $10,000 d. $12,000 The High-Low Method

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Plot the data points on a graph (total cost vs. activity) * Total Cost in 1,000s of Dollars * * * * * * * * * Activity, 1,000s of Units Produced X Y The Scattergraph Method

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Draw a line through the data points with about an equal numbers of points above and below the line * Total Cost in 1,000s of Dollars * * * * * * * * * Activity, 1,000s of Units Produced X Y The Scattergraph Method

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* Total Cost in 1,000s of Dollars * * * * * * * * * Activity, 1,000s of Units Produced X Y Estimated fixed is $10,000 Vertical distance is total cost, approximately $16,000. Variable cost per unit is represented by the slope of the line. The Scattergraph Method

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* Total Cost in 1,000s of Dollars * * * * * * * * * Activity, 1,000s of Units Produced X Y Total variable cost = Total cost – Total fixed cost Total variable cost = $16,000 – $10,000 = $6,000 Unit variable cost = $6,000 ÷ 3,000 units = $2 The Scattergraph Method Estimated fixed is $10,000 Vertical distance is total cost, approximately $16,000.

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Regression Method of Cost Estimation A method used to analyze mixed costs if a scattergraph plot reveals an approximately linear relationship between the X and Y variables. This method uses all of the data points to estimate the fixed and variable cost components of a mixed cost. The goal of this method is to fit a straight line to the data that minimizes the sum of the squared errors.

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End of Chapter Two

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