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**Introduction to Probability**

Lecture 11 Introduction to Probability

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**Which one would you be most likely to play**

Consider the following three games. Which one would you be most likely to play? Which one would you be least likely to play? Explain your answer mathematically. Game I: You toss a fair coin once. If a head appears you receive $3, but if a tail appears you have to pay $1. Game II: You buy a single ticket for $10 for a raffle that has a total of 500 tickets. Two tickets are chosen without replacement from the 500. The holder of the first ticket selected receives $300, and the holder of the second ticket selected receives $150. Game III: You toss a fair coin once. If a head appears you receive $1,000,002, but if a tail appears you have to pay $1,000,000

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**11.1 Experiment, Outcomes, and Sample Space**

- Is a process that, when performed, results in one and only one of many observations. Outcomes - These observations are called the outcomes of the experiment Sample Space - The collection of all outcomes for an experiment is called a sample space denoted by S

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**11.1 Experiment, Outcomes, and Sample Space**

Example Experiment Outcomes Sample Space Toss a coin once H, T Roll a dice once Toss a coin twice Play Lottery Take a test

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Tree diagram In a tree diagram, each outcome is represented by a branch of the tree. Example Draw the tree diagram for the experiment of tossing a coin twice.

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**11.1.1 Simple and Compound Events**

Simple event An event that includes one and only one of the outcomes for an experiment is called a simple event Compound event A compound event is a collection of more than one outcome for an experiment. Compound events

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**11.1.1 Simple and Compound Events**

Example In a group of people, some are in favor of genetic engineering and others are against it. Two persons are selected at random from this group and asked whether they are in favor of or against genetic engineering. How many distinct outcomes are possible? List all the outcomes included in each of the following events and mention whether they are simple or compound events. Both persons are in favor of genetic engineering. At most one person is against genetic engineering. Exactly one person is in favor of genetic engineering.

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**11.2 Calculating Probability**

Probability is a numerical measure if the likelihood that a specific event will occur, is denoted by P. the probability that a compound event A will occur is denoted by 𝑃(𝐴).

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**Two Properties of Probability**

0≤𝑃(𝑥)≤1 𝑃(𝑥) =1

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**11.2.1 Three Conceptual Approached to Probability**

Classical probability Relative frequency concept of probability Subjective probability concept.

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**Classical Probability**

The classical probability rule is applied to compute the probabilities of events for an experiment for which all outcomes are equally likely. Example 4.2.1 Find the probability of obtaining a head and the probability obtaining a tail for tossing a coin once. Example 4.2.2 Find the probability of obtaining an even numbers for rolling a dice once.

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**Relative Frequency Concept of Probability**

The relative frequency probability rule is applied to compute the probabilities of events for an experiment for which the various outcomes for the corresponding experiments are not equally likely. If an experiment is repeated n times and an event A is observed f times, then, according to the relative frequency concept of probability: 𝑃 𝐴 = 𝑓 𝑛

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**Relative Frequency Concept of Probability**

Example Ten of the 500 randomly selected cars manufactured at a certain auto factory are found to be malfunctioning. Assuming that the lemons are manufactured randomly, what is the probability that the next car manufactured at this auto factory is malfunctioning?

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**Subjective Probability**

Subjective probability is the probability assigned to an event influenced by the biases on subjective judgment, experience, information and belief.

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**11.3 Marginal and Conditional Probabilities**

Marginal Probability Marginal probability is the probability of a single event without consideration of any other event. They are calculated by dividing the corresponding row margins (total of the rows) or column margins (total of the columns) by the grand total.

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**Marginal Probability Example 11.3.1**

In Favor Against Male 15 45 Female 4 356 Example 𝑃 𝑀𝑎𝑙𝑒 = 𝑁𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑒𝑒𝑠 = = 𝑃 𝐹𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑒 = 𝑃 𝐼𝑛 𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟 = 𝑃 𝐴𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑡 =

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**Conditional Probability**

Conditional probability is the probability that an event will occur given that another event has already occurred. If A and B are two events, then the conditional probability of A given B is denoted as 𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 = 𝑃(𝐴∩𝐵) 𝑃(𝐵)

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**Conditional Probability**

In Favor Against Male 15 45 Female 4 356 Example Refer to Table 4.2, find: 𝑃( 𝐼𝑛 𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟 𝑀𝑎𝑙𝑒) 𝑃( 𝐼𝑛 𝐹𝑎𝑣𝑜𝑟 𝐹𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑒) 𝑃( 𝐴𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑡 𝑀𝑎𝑙𝑒) 𝑃( 𝐴𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑡 𝐹𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑒)

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**11.4 Intersection of Events and the Multiplication Rule**

The intersection of two events is given by the outcomes that are common to both events. The intersection of events A and B is also denoted by either 𝐴∩𝐵 or 𝐵∩𝐴.

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**11.5 Union of Events and the Addition Rule**

The union of two events, A and B includes all outcomes that are either in A or in B or in both A and B. The union of events A and B is also denoted by 𝐴∪𝐵. 𝑃 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑃 𝐴 +𝑃 𝐵 −𝑃(𝐴∩𝐵)

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**11.5.1 Union of Events Example 11.5.1**

A university president has proposed that all students must take a course in ethics as a requirement for graduation. Three hundred faculty members and students from this university were asked about their opinion on this issue. The table below gives a two-way classification of the responses of these faculty members and students.

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Union of Events Find the probability that one person selected at random from these 300 persons is a faculty member or is in favor of this proposal? Is a student or is opposed of this proposal? Is a student or is neutral of this proposal? Favor Oppose Neutral Faculty 45 15 10 Student 90 110 30

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**Intersection and Union**

Example In a group of 2500 persons, 1400 are female, 600 are vegetarian and 400 are female and vegetarian. What is the probability that a randomly selected person from this group is a male or vegetarian?

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11.6 Complementary Events The complement of event A, denoted by 𝐴 and read as “A bar” or “A complement”, is the event that includes all the outcomes for an experiment that are not in A. 𝑃 𝐴 +𝑃 𝐴 =1

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**11.6 Complementary Events Example 11.6.1**

In a group of 2000 taxpayers, 400 have been audited by IRS at least once. If one taxpayer is randomly selected from this group, what are the two complementary events of this experiment, and what are their probabilities?

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**11.7 Mutually Exclusive Events**

Events that cannot occur together are said to be mutually exclusive events. Such events do not have any common outcomes. 𝑃 𝐴∩𝐵 =0 𝑃 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑃 𝐴 +𝑃(𝐵)

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**11.7 Mutually Exclusive Events**

Example Consider the following events for rolling a dice once. A = an even number is observed = {2, 4, 6} B = an odd number is observed = {1, 3, 5} C = a number less than 5 is observed = {1, 2, 3, 4} Are events A and B mutually exclusive? Are events A and C mutually exclusive?

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**11.8 Independent and Dependent Events**

Two events are said to be independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of the occurrence of the other. In other words, A and B are independent events if 𝑃 𝐴∩𝐵 =𝑃 𝐴 𝑃(𝐵) 𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 =𝑃 𝐴 𝑜𝑟 𝑃 𝐵 𝐴 =𝑃(𝐵)

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**11.8 Independent and Dependent Events**

A and B are dependent events if 𝑃 𝐴∩𝐵 =𝑃 𝐴 𝑃( 𝐵 𝐴) 𝑃 𝐴∩𝐵 =𝑃 𝐵 𝑃( 𝐴 𝐵)

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**11.8 Independent and Dependent Events**

Example A box contains a total of 100 CDs that were manufactured on two machines. Of them, 60 were manufactured on Machine I. Of the total CDs, 15 are defective. Of the 60 CDs that were manufactured on Machine I, 9 are defective. Let D be the event that a randomly selected CD is defective, and let A be the event that a randomly selected CD was manufactured on Machine I. Are events A and D independent?

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Bayes’ Theorem In a population of 100,000 citizen, 0.2% having a kind of disease. If a test is conducted, the test is 99% accurate to detect the disease. Suppose you did a test and the result is positive. What is the probability that the you do not have the disease?

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Bayes’ Theorem If {A1, A2, …, An} is a partition of a sample space S, and B is any event, then for each i = 1, 2, …, n we have that 𝑃 𝐴 𝑖 𝐵 = 𝑃 𝐵 𝐴 𝑖 . 𝑃( 𝐴 𝑖 ) 𝑃 𝐵 𝐴 1 . 𝑃 𝐴 1 +𝑃 𝐵 𝐴 2 . 𝑃 𝐴 2 +…+𝑃 𝐵 𝐴 𝑛 . 𝑃( 𝐴 𝑛 ) RMIT University; Taylor's College

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Bayes’ Theorem According to American Lung Association, 7.0% of the population has a lung disease. Of those having lung disease, 90.0% are smokers, of those not having lung disease, 25.3% are smokers. Determine the probability that a randomly selected smoker has lung disease. RMIT University; Taylor's College

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