Presentation on theme: "Changes in Automatic Fare Collection by Aaron Berkovich for Prof. Kopecs CIS-763 Spring 03."— Presentation transcript:
Changes in Automatic Fare Collection by Aaron Berkovich for Prof. Kopecs CIS-763 Spring 03
AUTOMATIC FARE COLLECTION -Changes noticed as soon as they come -Used to be focused on single operators -Currently focused to meet regional mobility
Brief history of fare control in New York City Tickets & ticket choppers operated by guards at each station. Turnstiles installed to prevent fare evasion by TA employees. First turnstiles accepted tickets Coin turnstiles introduced in honor of 1939-40 World Fair Tokens in use since MTA was formed in 1953 Coin-token turnstiles appeared in the 80s, as the first attempt of AFC, but this project didnt prove successful. Modern turnstiles introduced in 1994. These turnstiles accept tokens and MetroCard. High entrance-exit MetroCard only turnstiles replaced so-called Iron Maidens.
MetroCard in New York City 1994 – Introduction of MetroCard at selected subway stations and buses. May 15, 1997 – MetroCard is accepted all over the NYC Transit system. July 4, 1997 – Free bus-subway and subway-bus transfers are introduced. January 1, 1998 – Introduction of the one-fare bonus for each $15 spent on a card. July 4, 1998 – Unlimited ride MetroCards are introduced.
MetroCard vending machines Offer all kinds of MetroCard transactions Interacts with users via touch-sensitive screen Larger machines accept cash, credit cards, ATM/debit cards; smaller machines dont accept cash Doesnt sell tokens, but sells single-ride magnetic- stripe paper cards instead. Allowed to reduce number of token-booth clerks
Dealing with fare hikes TOKEN: nice to passengers, headache to TA In face of a coming fare hike, passengers could save money by purchasing tokens in advance, unless TA introduced new tokens as happened in 1995. METROCARD: nice to TA, not as nice to passengers : AFC system can be reprogrammed as soon as the new fare is effective. No reason to change cards. No way to save money by advanced purchase.
History of fare control in Moscow Metro 1935 thru 40s: fare is paid with cardboard/paper tickets 1942-43: first turnstiles, accepting coins, installed at some stations 1958: token turnstiles installed at some stations 1961: turnstiles reprogrammed from tokens to coins, due to monetary reform, and installed at all stations, as well as change machines 1992: new metal tokens introduced in March, and changed to plastic tokens in November 1993: two experimental turnstiles installed at one station to accept magnetic-stripe cards 1996 – AFC system installed throughout the Metro 1997 – first-generation magnetic-stripe tickets go out of use 1998 – experimental use of contactless smart cards, as well as single- and double-ride magnetic-stripe tickets 1999 – campaign against illegal magnetic-stripe cards; tokens go out of use 2000 – introduction of new smart cards good for subway and commuter rail 2002 – school passes completely changed from magnetic- stripe to smart cards.
Magnetic Stripe Technology Used in Credit, Debit, ATM cards Data are recorded to, read or erased from the magnetic stripe, similar to sound or video recording. Stripe has particles; each particle is given a magnetic polarity Data are recorded in tracks. The more tracks a stripe has, the more data it can store. ATM cards usually have three tracks. Standards are established for materials from which a card or a stripe is made, stripe locations, track locations, and data encoding methods
Smart Card Technology 8-bit chip microprocessor embedded in a card available for either or both contact or proximity (non-contact) reading Card as active participant in conversation 1 kilobyte of RAM, 24 kilobytes of ROM, 16 kilobytes of programmable ROM, and an 8-bit microprocessor running at 5 MHzkilobyteROM Widely used in Europe, but not so much in America
Magnetic Stripe vs. Smart Card: advantages and limitations MAGNETIC STRIPE Advantages: –Read/write capabilities –Relatively high data density –Security against casual counterfeiting –Reliability, and –Low cost-per-use Limitations: –Contact reading –Initial cost per card –Potential magnetic damage to low coercivity stripes SMART CARD Advantages –Large memory allows to personalize each card for its user –Multi-application use is possible (though not so widespread in the U.S., but widely used this way by many European transit systems) Limitations –cost –potential for physical damage
SmarTrip in Washington DC First smart card AFC system in the U.S., started in 1999 Based on GO CARD® System, developed by Cubic Transportation Systems Number of cards in use exceeded 100 in year 2000 used in place of a Metrorail paper farecard earns a 10% bonus value when $20 or more is added using cash, credit or ATM card maximum value of $180 (plus bonus) can be added onto a SmarTrip card
CTA: Transit Card vs. Chicago Card Magnetic stripe farecard, introduced in 1997 Completely replaced tokens by 1999 $1 bonus for each $10 spent Unlimited-ride cards also available Started in 2000 with Smart Card pilot program Costs $5 even if has no money on it A card can hold any amount from $0.05 to $100 Permanent store-value card, unlike the magnetic-stripe Transit Cards, which has expiration date Chicago Card contains no magnetic material and therefore cannot be demagnetized
Leader in AFC technology Involved in mass transportation market since 1971 The only company still in business since those times: all its competitors came and left this business Designs different kinds of AFC systems: magnetic stripe, smart card, automated ticketing Designed AFC systems worldwide: New York, Chicago, Sydney, Singapore, and many others UK/European operations are the largest part
Another worldwide Smart Card developer BERLIN: the first phase of smart card fare collection field trial was implemented in 1999. The previously existing Berlin transport system operated on a flat fare, paper-based ticketing system. The new system operates with a time- and distance-based fare structure where the smart card serves as a reusable ticket. Individuals can buy public transport "units" with cash or electronic transfer payments at distribution outlets or through stationary and mobile ticketing machines. These units are loaded directly onto their smart cards and can then be debited by special contactless check- in/check-out terminals at subway stations or aboard buses and trams. NANJUNG, China: smart-card-based AFC system introduced in the city shortly after Berlin. Another Chinese city that uses Motorolas AFC product is Lanzhou
Smart Card in New York? Why not? In December 01, Governor Pataki approved the first step toward the adoption of an integrated region-wide transit fare payment system. The new $51 million fare collection system, approved by the Board on Thursday, will ensure that the PATH system accepts both "smart cards" and MTA MetroCards. Using this technology, PATH riders, and eventually riders of other regional transit systems, will be able to deduct transit fare purchases against user accounts that can be linked to a credit card, as is done with E-Z Pass accounts. Riders who use both PATH and NYCTA subways and buses will also be able to use MetroCards in both systems, marking the first integration of MetroCards into other transit systems. The new smart card fare collection system, expected to be in place on PATH within two years, is designed to be accepted eventually on subway, bus and rail lines throughout the region.
Bibliography NYS official website: press release about Gov. Patakis approval of the proposed fare collection systempress release How staff works website: article on smart cardssmart cards Cubic Transportation Systems NYC subway resources Motorola: press releases on Berlin and LanzhouBerlinLanzhou Smart card evolution Katherine M. Shelfer, J. Drew Procaccino Metro.Ru: official web resource of Moscow MetroMetro.Ru Chicago Transit Authority IDAT Consulting: overview of magnetic stripe and smart cardmagnetic stripesmart card