companion companion- person who is traveling with someone else She was hired as Mrs. Smiths companion for the trip to England. The puppy is being trained as a companion dog for a disabled person.
concealed concealed- past tense of conceal: to hide The tiger was concealed in the brush of the jungle. The boy concealed the snowball behind his back before he threw it.
hastened hastened- past tense of hasten: to hurry The boy was hastened to bed as it was way past his bedtime. The girl was running late so she hastened her step.
shuddered shuddered- past tense of shudder: to shake with horror He shuddered at the thought of being outside at night during the storm. He shuddered at the thought of running into the bully at the park.
despairing despairing- without hope Why didnt I listen to my teacher when she told me not to wait until the last minute to do my report? he groaned in a despairing voice. Ill never understand math, he said with a despairing cry.
delivered delivered- past tense of deliver: to save The passing boat delivered the shipwrecked passengers from certain death at sea. The people were hoping to be delivered from hunger and sickness.
flickering flickering- becoming brighter and then darker over and over The fire was flickering in the hearth. The firefly was flickering in the night air.
sympathetic sympathetic- understanding; having a kind feeling for someone She is an unselfish and sympathetic friend. Oh the poor puppy looks lost, she said in a sympathetic voice.
Concept Vocabulary: resolute Resolute means marked by firm determination. She was resolute in his attempt to climb to the top of the mountain.
Identify the common structure in the following words.
These words have the prefixes re- and dis-. Can you tell me what the prefix re- means? again or back *In Spanish the prefix re- also means again. Can you tell me what the prefix dis- means? opposite or reverse
Identify the root word for each word. reconsider reassured disappear disown consider assured appear own
Define each word based on its prefix and root. reconsider reassured disappear disown consider again assured again vanish reject
Identify the common structure in the following words.
These words have the prefix un-. The prefix un- changes the meaning of the root word. How does the prefix un- change the meaning of the root word? Un- means not, which changes the meaning of the root word to its opposite.
Identify the root word for each word. unknown uncertain unable unhappy known certain able happy
Define each word based on its prefix and root. not known not certain not able not happy unknown uncertain unable unhappy
Building Background Knowledge
Do you know… How did slave owners prevent slaves from escaping? What were some ways to escape slavery? Did all Americans agree on the issue of slavery? Where could escape slaves be safe? Would everyone have been allowed to ride on a train? Use your writing journal to record your thoughts.
At one time in America, slavery was legal in many states. Many Africans were kidnapped from their homes and forced into slavery in America. During that time, their descendents were born into slavery.
Many people were opposed to slavery, and early in U.S. history the practice had been outlawed in Northern states. People working to nationally outlaw the practice were called abolitionists because they wanted to abolish slavery. Abolitionist meeting
In 1848 African American men were referred to as boy. It was appropriate at that time, but is inappropriate language today. It is a put down. Prejudice is an opinion, usually an unfavorable one, based on insufficient knowledge, irrational feelings, or inaccurate stereotypes.Freedom is a state in which somebody is able to act or live as he or she chooses, without being subject to any, or any undue restraints or restrictions.
The Underground Railroad doesnt refer to an actual railroad but to a system of safe houses and guides who helped slaves escape to the North and then to Canada. Most escaped slaves undertook the journey on foot.
Many slaves were deeply religious. Although they suffered much, they were also thankful when good things happened in their lives. The Crafts, for instance, pray and offer thanks several time sin this selection.
CluesProblemsWonderings How does this selection relate to the theme Risk and Consequences? Why do you think they may be on a train? What does destination mean? How did they become slaves? What risks are the Crafts taking? What are some possible consequences?
Asking Questions- A good reader asks who, what, why, where or how questions as opposed to yes or no questions, and identifies when the answer is found in the text. Good readers asks questions to help clarify ideas and information in the text. A good reader asks questions that require drawing conclusions and making inferences. A good reader asks questions that go beyond the text and connects the text to the unit theme.
Summarizing- A good reader should be able to give a summary that includes only the important or main ideas. Stop during your reading and summarize what you have read so far. A good reader draws conclusions from the text in the summary statement. A good reader makes global interpretations of the text, such as recognizing how elements of the text fit the genre.
Making Connections- A good reader makes connections between or relates personal experiences to what is read in the text (text to self connections). A good reader uses those personal experiences to explain something encountered in the text. A good reader makes connections across or relates information within and across selections (text to text connection). A good reader makes connections or relate information between what is happening in the text to what is happening in the world today (text to world connections). A good reader notes ideas in the text that are new or conflict with what he or she previously thought.
Keep this question in mind as you read the selection. Why do people take risks?
Focus Questions Is it sometimes riskier to do nothing? What is important enough to make you risk your life?
Open your Student Reader to page 45.
Asking questions is a good way to keep you involved with what you are reading and to check your understanding. I have a question. Why do William and Ellen disguise the fact that she is a woman? We should keep reading to see whether our question is answered. 1
Making connections between what we know and what we are reading helps us understand the text. We know that some slaves escaped by traveling north to freedom. William and Ellen must have been afraid of being caught, but I can understand why they risk their lives for freedom. No on wants to be anothers property. 2
I have another question. William and Ellen already have been traveling for four days. I wonder, because the trip is so risky, how much longer they will have to travel before getting to Philadelphia. 3
I think summarizing what has happened so far will help us understand the events. It also can help us determine what things we do not understand, so we can reread parts of the selection and figure them out. William and Ellen Craft decide to escape from slavery. Ellen is light-skinned, so she disguises herself as an injured white man, and William pretends to be her slave. The board the train headed for Philadelphia. The plan goes well until a Yankee officer stops William. William and Ellen must go to the office. 4
I have another question. The officer will not allow slaves to leave Baltimore without proper permission, because the railroad is responsible for slaves who escape using their trains. I wonder if this means that the railroad would have to give the actual owner money for the escaped slave. Perhaps the officer would have to provide the money himself. Who do you think would enforce this rule? 5
Making connections between what is known and the text helps us understand what we are reading. I think the officer gives in because he is feeling pressure from many sympathetic people. I know if I were being watcher by a group of people, it would be hard to be mean. 6
Neither William nor Ellen has had any real sleep for more than a week, and have been under a huge amount of pressure the whole time. When William feels that the pressure is off, it is no wonder he falls asleep. I think I would have gone to sleep the first chance I got too. 7
I remember once when I arranged to meet a friend, and she didnt show up. I worried what might have happened to her. Ellen must be much more worried about William in such a risky situation.
This is a good place to summarize because much has happened in the last several pages. After narrowly escaping capture at Washington, D.C., William falls asleep. He and Ellen are separated at Havre- de-Grace, Maryland. Ellen boards the ferry alone, with no money, and is afraid that something has happened to William. 9
Daily Editing Correct the following sentences. eric misspelld a words Eric misspelled a word. The boxxes were piled, two the cieling; The boxes were piled to the ceiling.
Writing When revising your drafts, you might think of new information you can add to make your stories more interesting. Good writers are always adding and deleting information to make their writing better. Lets look at some strategies for improving a draft.
Strategies for Improving a Draft Adding or deleting information Clarifying ideas Reorganizing paragraphs Rearranging text
Lets Review the Elements of Realistic Fiction The characters are regular people. The setting is or could be an actual place. The plot, or series of events, could happen.
Revising Your Draft As you reread your drafts, you might find that you have repeated information, or that your sentences are short and choppy. You can consolidate your sentences to make them stronger. You also might find that you have thought of new information that you can add to your story to make it more interesting.
Identify the common structure in the following words.
These words begin with the prefix en-. The prefix en- means to make a certain way.
Identify the root word for each word. enrich enable endear enlarge rich able dear large
Identify the definition for each word. enrich enable endear enlarge make rich make able make dear make large
Assignment Skills Practice 1 pages We will do the first two items as a class. You are to do the rest by yourself or with your partner.
Several different people talked to William about how he could get his freedom in Philadelphia and offered advice on places to stay. I want to know whether slaves who reached free states such as Pennsylvania remained free for the rest of their lives. 10
At the beginning of the story, we wondered how long it would take William and Ellen to get to Philadelphia. It is December 24 when they arrive in Baltimore, and they reach Philadelphia on December 25. So it takes one day. 11
Now that we are at the end, it makes sense to summarize the story to make sure we are clear about what happened. After a long and difficult journey, William and Ellen get off the train in Philadelphia and go straight to the abolitionists boardinghouse, where they kneel and thank God. It is Christmas Day of 1848, and they are finally free. 12
We never found the answer to two of the questions we asked earlier- why they disguise Ellen as a man and whether freed slaves remain free. Maybe we can do some research or make some inferences to find the answers. 13
Daily Editing Correct the following sentences. where were the path. Where was the path? Carson asked his sister samantha to goes fore a walk, Carson asked his sister Samantha to go for a walk.
Writing: Revising Word choice is an important element in realistic fiction. When you are drafting, you merely wanted to get your ideas on paper. While revising, you should take time to ensure every word is precise.
Your work will be better after editing because more descriptive and exact words are used that will help your audience visualize your stories. Work with your partner to revise your stories using words that tell exactly how something looked, sounded, tasted, smelled or felt.
Create the following chart in your notebook to sort this weeks spelling words.
replace discount review unfold midterm rewind unfair midlife displace untie renew undone disown reheat midnight uncover Midwest disagree midway disappear ** dissolve ** rearrange ** unfamiliar Sort the words into the correct category and then underline the root word for each word.
Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics What are some verbs that show action that you can see and actions that takes place in your head? Lets make two lists to categorize our ideas. Actions You Can See Actions That Take Place in Your Head
Did you come up with… Actions You Can See Actions That Take Place in Your Head running jumping hitting talking smiling pouting writing Laughing frowning thinking pondering worrying discomforting imagining assuming sensing agonizing caring
The boy looked at the eggs in the nest. He hoped the baby birds would hatch soon. Action verbs can express a physical or mental action. In the first sentence, looked expresses a physical action. In the second sentence, hoped expresses a mental action.
Assignment: Write five sentences using some of these action verbs. raced skip think hopping wondered imagined wrote worried sat flipped drew hoped dreamed yelled read snipped
despairing hastened companion sympathetic person who is traveling with someone else understanding; having a kind feeling for someone without hope hurried Vocabulary Quiz
concealed flickering delivered shuddered shook with horror hid saved to become brighter and then darker over and over Vocabulary Quiz
Identify the common structure in the following words.
These words begin with the prefix mid-.
Identify the root word for each word. midnight Midwest midway midterm night west way term Some words with the prefix mid- are hyphenated; for example, mid-July.
What other words have the prefix mid-? Did you think of: midair? mid-afternoon? midlife? midbrain? midcourse? midday?
Write each word in an original sentence. midnight Midwest midway midterm
Reading with a Writers Eye Florence B. Freedman uses dialogue in this biography to bring her characters- and their plight- to life. The dialogue must sound the way people might have spoken in the mid-1800s. Lets look at the dialogue on page 50. What words or phrases do you think sound authentic for the setting? Possible Answer: The guard says, he thought you had taken leave for parts unknown, and have your liberty. These phrases are not commonly spoken today.
Drawing Conclusions Readers draw conclusions when they use clues found in the text to make a statement about a character or event. A conclusion might not be stated in the text, but should be supported by examples from the text. We can conclude that William and Ellen are brave. Otherwise, they would not have undertaken this dangerous journey. We can conclude that hey are intelligent to have thought up such a clever plan. Finally, we can conclude that Ellen did not know how to write, because she bandaged her writing hand.
Authors Purpose In a biography, the authors purpose usually is to inform readers about he lives of the subjects. One way to do this is to help readers understand the setting in which the subjects lived to better appreciate their accomplishments. The authors perspective and portrayal of the setting greatly influence readers understanding of the text and its subjects.
What do you think the author had to research about the setting to write a biography about a slave couple attempting to run away to freedom? She researched slavery during the time when the Crafts were trying to escape, including the laws in different Southern states about when, where, and with whom slaves could travel.
Other Words to know humbly- not proudly I humbly accept this nomination, said the candidate. furiously- with great energy. They work furiously to finish the project. consoled- tried to make someone feel better The mother consoled her wounded son.
Lets look at page 49. What evidence can you find that the author researched slavery in some depth? The railroad officers explanation about why he was detaining Ellen and William. How does Freedmans portrayal of the setting influence your understanding of the selection? Because of the research behind her writing, we have a setting that is clear and realistic. We can imagine and believe the setting. We can understand the characterssa nd appreciate their story and the challenges they have to overcome.
Dialogue Biography writers may include dialogue in their stories. Many times writers make up dialogue because they have no way of knowing exactly what was said during a persons life. Biography writers base their dialogue on what they have researched about the subjects life and they situation they are describing.
Lets look at the dialogue on pages 50 and 51. Why do you think the author decided to include dialogue her and elsewhere in the story instead of having the narrator tell what happened? Readers get a sense that these are real people, not some vague figures who lived a long time ago. They are more interested in what happens to them.
Lets look at pages 51 and 52 The senior officer lets William and Ellen go for at least two reasons. First, a crowd has gathered, showing sympathy toward Ellen. Second, the officer seems to feel bad for Ellen. The officer is doing his job by following the rules and questioning Mr. Johnson about his slave. Based on the thoughts and feelings of William and Ellen described at the top of page 51, we certainly can conclude that William and Ellen were enormously relieved that the officer let them go.
Word to Know escorted-past tense of escort: to go along with Mr. Alvarez escorted his daughter to the father-daughter dance.
Drawing Conclusions Readers draw conclusions as they gather more information from a story. On page 53, you can conclude that Ellen wept, not because she was sad, but because she was relieved and happy that she found freedom.
Drawing Conclusions Readers draw conclusions as they gather additional information from a story. What conclusions have you drawn about the characters? Work with your partner to come up with two conclusions you have come up with. You have two minutes. Be prepared to share and explain your thoughts. Did you have to change any of your previous conclusions because of new information?
Lets look at page 58 and 59. Readers draw conclusions as they gather more information from the story. Here are some conclusions we can draw. On page 58, the conductor is against slavery because he offers William advice on how to escape. On page 59, William is happy because he finally feels safe- and free.
Daily Editing Correct the following sentences. sam lookt up and saw too forest rangers Sam looked up and saw two forest rangers. How Long have he been gone. How long had he been gone?
Writing: Revising Think about the following as you revise your realistic fiction: Do the characters speak the way that a person would? For example, two small children would not use formal language when speaking with each other. Sentences should vary in length, have unique styles, and begin with different words to make the writing more interesting for readers.
Assignment: Revise your realistic story using the checklist on Skills Practice 1 page 10.
Separate the prefix from the base word in the following Spelling words. replace discount review unfold midterm rewind unfair midlife displace untie renew undone disown reheat midnight uncover Midwest disagree midway disappear ** dissolve ** rearrange ** unfamiliar
The conductor was irritated. Was is a linking verb in the sentence above. Some verbs show action, and others express states of being. These verbs are called linking verbs. Linking verbs connect the subject of a sentence with a noun or an adjective that renames or describes the subject.
Linking verbs usually are a form of the verb to be: am, is, are, was, were, be being, been. With your partner create five sentences using the linking verbs above. When you are done, give your sentences to another group for them to identify the linking verbs in your sentences.