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One Way Ticket to Midnight: Hard Rock & Heavy Metal.

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Presentation on theme: "One Way Ticket to Midnight: Hard Rock & Heavy Metal."— Presentation transcript:

1 One Way Ticket to Midnight: Hard Rock & Heavy Metal

2 More aggressive strains of blues rockMore aggressive strains of blues rock Drew inspiration from Rolling Stones, The Who, Cream, and (especially) Jimi HendrixDrew inspiration from Rolling Stones, The Who, Cream, and (especially) Jimi Hendrix –Reaction to the Beatles –And other British invasion pop bands

3 Hard Rock & Heavy Metal Combine characteristics of blues and acid rockCombine characteristics of blues and acid rock –Extended improvisations, including drum solos –Use of distortion, feedback, other noise effects –Powerful, LOUD, active drumming –Riff-based –Blues-influenced guitar –Modal harmonies

4 Hard Rock & Heavy Metal –Guitar & bass frequently play same line –High, harsh, dramatic blues-edged vocals –Highly engineered sound – reverb, echo –Built from mostly power chords

5 Difference between Hard Rock and Metal: Retains strong ties to the blues = hard rockRetains strong ties to the blues = hard rock More affiliation with acid rock, dark imagery = heavy metalMore affiliation with acid rock, dark imagery = heavy metal

6 Early hard rock/proto metal bands CreamCream SteppenwolfSteppenwolf –Born To Be Wild uses phrase heavy metal thunder Vanilla FudgeVanilla Fudge Iron Butterfly – In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida (17 minutes)Iron Butterfly – In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida (17 minutes) Led ZeppelinLed Zeppelin

7 Black Sabbath Aggressive reaction to psychedelic culture of San Francisco and WoodstockAggressive reaction to psychedelic culture of San Francisco and Woodstock Doomy musicDoomy music Black Sabbath – ParanoidBlack Sabbath – Paranoid –Hard-driving eight-beat rock rhythm –Power chords in bass & guitar –High, aggressive vocals

8 Black Sabbath – Paranoid Contains most of characteristics of heavy metalContains most of characteristics of heavy metal –Fast –LOUD –Dark subject matter –Riff-driven –Modal guitar solo

9 The Who Physicality, stage behavior important characteristic of bandPhysicality, stage behavior important characteristic of band –Windmill strumming of Townshend; leaps and splits –Daltry strutting, mic twirling –Townshend calls pop art Openly hostile on stage - early punk aestheticOpenly hostile on stage - early punk aesthetic –Anti-anti Beatles

10 Jim Marshall Electronic technician in LondonElectronic technician in London –Speakers and amp in separate cabinets –Can then add more speakers if desired Stacks of Marshall amps = louder volumeStacks of Marshall amps = louder volume Becomes known as a Marshall stackBecomes known as a Marshall stack

11 The Who - stylistic influences Early rock and roll, especially Chuck BerryEarly rock and roll, especially Chuck Berry Beatles and Rolling StonesBeatles and Rolling Stones Trad JazzTrad Jazz R&B, Motown and soulR&B, Motown and soul The Who - laterThe Who - later In late 60s, albums start to incorporate more experimental techniques, sophisticated musical ideasIn late 60s, albums start to incorporate more experimental techniques, sophisticated musical ideas

12 Synthesizers Produce artificially generated sound through manipulation of electrical currentsProduce artificially generated sound through manipulation of electrical currents –Create entirely new sounds –Or replicate sound of any instrument Oscillator creates sound waveOscillator creates sound wave Filters modify tone color by subtle alterations to wave formFilters modify tone color by subtle alterations to wave form Other oscillators or generators manipulate vibrato, attack, sustain, and decayOther oscillators or generators manipulate vibrato, attack, sustain, and decay

13 Synthesizers Invented in 50s, but expensiveInvented in 50s, but expensive –Could only create/play one sound at a time Four and eight voice polyphonic synthesizers introduced in early 1980sFour and eight voice polyphonic synthesizers introduced in early 1980s MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) invented 1983MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) invented 1983 –Makes synthesizers easy for novice to use –Quickly become pop rock standard Drum machinesDrum machines Fill in for strings, hornsFill in for strings, horns Creation of new, electronic soundsCreation of new, electronic sounds

14 Wont Get Fooled Again Intro – synthesizerIntro – synthesizer –Provides alternative tone color –Functions as rhythm guitar – lays out 8 beat rock rhythm Active, melodic bass lineActive, melodic bass line Irregular drumming by Keith Moon Irregular drumming by Keith Moon

15 Led Zeppelin Often called first heavy metal bandOften called first heavy metal band Most important band re: development of hard rockMost important band re: development of hard rock Influence on almost every metal or hard rock band of the 1970s and 80sInfluence on almost every metal or hard rock band of the 1970s and 80s Impact on business of rockImpact on business of rock

16 Jimmy Page (1944- ) One of the most popular studio musicians in UKOne of the most popular studio musicians in UK –Plays on The Kinks, You Really Got Me (contested) The Kinks, You Really Got Me (contested) The Who, I Cant ExplainThe Who, I Cant Explain Joins Yardbirds 1966Joins Yardbirds 1966 –Retains name, roster of tour dates when band breaks up in 1968

17 Led Zeppelin PagePage John Paul Jones [John Baldwin] (1946 - )John Paul Jones [John Baldwin] (1946 - ) Robert Plant (1948- )Robert Plant (1948- ) John Bonham (1948-1980)John Bonham (1948-1980)

18 Led Zeppelin - Style Hard-edged rock sound steeped in the blues and the psychedelic rock of late 60sHard-edged rock sound steeped in the blues and the psychedelic rock of late 60s Multitude of other influencesMultitude of other influences –Indian and Arabic music –Celtic, English folk music –Reggae –Country music and bluegrass

19 Vocal style - Robert Plant Influenced by blues shoutersInfluenced by blues shouters Extremely high voice for rock singerExtremely high voice for rock singer Changes tone color and texture like guitaristChanges tone color and texture like guitarist Adds shrieks, moans, vocalizationsAdds shrieks, moans, vocalizations

20 Jimmy Page - guitar style Along with Jimi Hendrix, founder of metal guitar styleAlong with Jimi Hendrix, founder of metal guitar style Avoids clean soundAvoids clean sound Prefers distortion, thick texturePrefers distortion, thick texture Frequently employs pedal effects, feedbackFrequently employs pedal effects, feedback Sound more important than notesSound more important than notes

21 Characteristics Riff-based styleRiff-based style –Often in bass –Frequently changes or shifts over duration of song Engineered with reverb, echo, distortion, and other sound effectsEngineered with reverb, echo, distortion, and other sound effects Unbridled emotionalismUnbridled emotionalism

22 Characteristics Loud, active drummingLoud, active drumming Mixed or additive meters, or irregular accent patterns, commonMixed or additive meters, or irregular accent patterns, common Sonically vastSonically vast Wide range of texturesWide range of textures

23 Stairway to Heaven Sectional form: A A B CSectional form: A A B C –Sections defined by changes of instrumentation, texture Essentially strophic within sectionsEssentially strophic within sections –Each 3-line phrase to same melody –New melodic idea (or variant) introduced in each section Folk-music influenced melody, and folk-like deliveryFolk-music influenced melody, and folk-like delivery End-weighted – texture and tension gradually build to last sectionEnd-weighted – texture and tension gradually build to last section

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26 Stairway - Influence After Stairway, record companies more willing to allow longer album tracksAfter Stairway, record companies more willing to allow longer album tracks –Even though 8 minutes long, AOR stations played –Fans bought the album as if it were a single –Finally abolishes 3-4 minute frame for rock songs

27 Zeppelin – performance style Like Stones, front man and guitar godLike Stones, front man and guitar god –Focus actually Page, not Plant Drummer given feature in every concertDrummer given feature in every concert –Drum solo becomes new rock standard Focus on improvisationFocus on improvisation –Long keyboard, guitar solos –Free jams –Frequent exchanges of ideas between Plant, Page

28 Dazed and Confused Cover of song by American folk singer Jake Holmes Cover of song by American folk singer Jake Holmes Intro: descending chromatic scale in bassIntro: descending chromatic scale in bass –Ostinato – repeats over and over –Distorted guitar line sketched above First verseFirst verse Break - riff doubled by guitar an 8ve higher, and 8ve above that by secondBreak - riff doubled by guitar an 8ve higher, and 8ve above that by second

29 Dazed and Confused BreakBreak –triplet feel in bass –Followed by riff doubled by guitar Third verseThird verse Break becomes extended improvisationBreak becomes extended improvisation –Call and response –Triple time section leads to Final verseFinal verse OutroOutro

30 Dazed and Confused On album, 6 minutes 20 secondsOn album, 6 minutes 20 seconds In concert, often 20In concert, often 20 –More extended improvs. –Violin bow solo, to emulate distortion and effects added in studio

31 Zeppelin - Influence Hard rock vocal and guitar stylesHard rock vocal and guitar styles Shatter 4 minute barrier for songsShatter 4 minute barrier for songs Fix importance of AOR radioFix importance of AOR radio Establish new expectations for concert performanceEstablish new expectations for concert performance –Duration –Increase bands % of profits from tickets Change in concert circuit, and way business was done in re: toursChange in concert circuit, and way business was done in re: tours Establish importance of the album as primary revenue generatorEstablish importance of the album as primary revenue generator


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