3Contents Contents Unified modeling language Characteristics of Unified modeling languageUnderstanding and Preparing Overview Activity DiagramsUnderstanding and Preparing Detailed Activity Diagrams
4Unified modeling language A modeling language for specifying , visualizing , constructing and documenting an information system.
5UML activity diagramA diagram that shows the sequence of activities in a process
6ACIVITY DIAGRAM SYMBOLS" Solid circle. Start of a process in an activity diagramRounded rectangle. Event, activity, or triggerContinuous line. Sequence from one event or activity to the next.Dotted line. Flow of information between eventsDocument. Represents a source document or reportDiamond. A branchTable. A computer file from which data may be read from or recorded during business events.Note: refers the reader to another diagram or document for detailsBull's eye. End of processSee f.3
7UML activity diagrams and maps have characteristics 1Both maps and activity diagrams provide graphical representations of information that are easier to comprehend than narrative descriptions2Maps use standard symbols to convey information3Maps and activity diagrams are prepared by experts but can be read by users with little training.
8Continue ….4Both maps and activity diagrams can provide high-level, as well as low-level, views.5The overview diagram presents a high-level view of the business process by documenting the key events, the sequence of these events, and the information flows among these events.6The detailed diagram is similar to a map of a city or town. it provides a more detailed representation of the activities associated with one to two events shown on the overview diagram
9Understanding Overview Activity Diagrams Before explain how to draw an activity diagram, you should learn how to read one.
10Example Angelo's Diner: The customer arrives and sits at a table or at the counter. If a table is not available, the customer waits in the waiting area. When a table becomes available, the customer sits at the table. When the customer is ready to order, he calls the server. The server records the customer's order on a prenumbered sales ticket.The server gives the sales ticket to the kitchen staff. The kitchen staff prepares the meal using the information on the sales ticket.The customer gives the cash and the completed sales ticket to the cashier. The cashier enters the code of each item. The register uses the price lookup tables stored in the register to display the price. After all the items have been entered, the register displays the total. The register stores the information about sales of various items during the day. The cashier puts the cash in the drawer and gives the customer the appropriate amount of change.When the meal is ready, it is placed on the shelf between the kitchen and dining area. The server picks up the meal and the sales ticket from the shelf and serves the food. While the customer is eating, the server enters the prices on the sales ticket and leaves it at the customer's table.
11Continue ….At the end of each shift, the cashier closes the register. He prints the sales summary.the cashier gives the sales summary to the manager. The manager checks that all prenumbered sales tickets issued during the day have been collected. He then computes the total dollar amount of these tickets. Next, the manager counts the cash and compares this amount with the total shown on the sales summary and the total of the sales tickets.
12Event Event 5: pay cash Event 1 : Order food Event 6: Ring up sale Event 2: Take orderEvent 3: Prepare food.Even 7: Close registerEvent 4: Serve foodEvent 8: Reconcile cash
13Overview activity diagrams for Angelo's Diner CustomerServerKitchen staffCashierManagerregisterOrder foodTake orderS: sale ticketcompletedS: sale ticketIn progressPrepare foodP: Price LookupServe foodS: sale ticketcompletedS: SalesPay cashRing up saleS: sale ticketcompletedClose regReconcile cashSS: sale summary
14Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams: Step for Preparing the Activity DiagramPreliminary Steps
15Preliminary Steps: Step 1 Read the narrative and identify key events. Annotate the narrative to clearly show event boundaries and event names.
16Preparing the Activity Diagram Step 3Represent agents participating in the business process using swim lanesStep 4Diagram each event. Show the sequence of these events.Step 5Draw documents created and used in the business process. Show the flow of information from events to documents and vice versa.
17Preparing the Activity Diagram Step 6Draw tables (files) created and used in the business process. Show the flow of information from events to tables and vice versa
19Step 4 : Events Customer Server Cashier Manager register Kitchen staff Order foodTake orderPrepare foodServe foodPay cashRing up saleClose regReconcile cash
20Step 5: Documents Customer Server Cashier Manager register Kitchen staffCashierManagerregisterOrder foodTake orderS: sale ticketcompletedS: sale ticketIn progressPrepare foodServe foodS: sale ticketcompletedPay cashRing up saleS: sale ticketcompletedClose registerReconcile cashSS: sale summary
21Step 6: Tables Customer Server Cashier Manager register Kitchen staff Order foodTake orderS: sale ticketcompletedS: sale ticketIn progressPrepare foodP: Price LookupServe foodS: sale ticketcompletedS: SalesPay cashRing up saleS: sale ticketcompletedClose regReconcile cashSS: sale summary
22Understand Detailed Activity Diagrams 1. arrives at the diner2. sits at a counter/table3. waits in waiting area if table is not available.4. sits at a table when one is available.5. calls server6. Records customer's order on a prenumbered sales ticketCustomerServer7. gives the sales ticket to the kitchen staff.
23Continue …. Server Customer Kitchen staff 8. Prepares the meal 9. places meal on shelf.Kitchen staff10. picks up meal and sales ticket.11. Serves food.12. enters prices on sales ticket.13. leaves sales ticket at customer;s table.Server14. gives cash and completed sales ticket to cashier.Customer
24Continue …. Register Cashier Cashier 15. enters item code. 16. displays price.17. displays total18. stores sales dataRegister19. puts the cash in the drawer.20. gives change to customer21. closes register22. prints sales summary.23. gives the sales summary and cash to the manager`Cashier
25Continue …. Manager 24. checks prenumbered sales tickets. 25. computes dollar amount of sales tickets26. counts cash27. compares cash receipts with sales summary and sales ticket totals.Manager20042003200220012000
26Activity Diagram For Take Order Event Customer serverArravesNot availableWaits for tableavailableSits down at tableRecords OrderCalls server
27Detailed Activity Diagram for Prepare food and Serve food events. server Kitchen StaffS: Sales ticketIn progressGives SalesTicketPrepare FoodPlaces FoodOn ShelfPick Up FoodServes FOODEnter pricesS: Sales ticketCompletedLeaves Ticket atCustomer Table
28Detailed Activity Diagram for Ring up Sales Event. customer cashier RegisterS: Sales ticketcompletedGives cash/Sales TicketP: Price LookupEnters ItemCode & quantityDisplayPricesDisplaysTotalStores SalesDataPuts CashIn DrawerS: SalesGiveschange
29Detailed Activity Diagram for Close Register and Reconcile Cash Events. cashier managerS: Sales ticketcompletedClosesRegisterS: Sales ticketIn ProgressPrints SalesSummarySS: SalesSummaryGives Cash/Summary toManagerChecksPrenumberedTicketsComputesTotal of SalesTicketsCountsCashSS: SalesSummaryChecks CashAnd totals
30Customer Server Cashier Manager register Kitchen staff Pay cash See Fig 3.6Order foodTake orderP: PricelookupS: sale ticketIn progressS: sale ticketcompletedPrepare foodSee Fig 3.7S: Sales(and record)Serve foodSee Fig 3.8S: sale ticketcompletedSee Fig 3.9Ring up salePay cashS: sale ticketcompletedClose registerReconcile cashS: sale ticketcompletedSS: sale summary
31Preparing Detailed Activity Diagram Step 1Annotate narrative to show activitiesStep 2prepare a workflow table.Step 3identify necessary detailed diagrams.
32Continue ……Step 4for each detailed diagram, perform the following substeps4a. set up swimlanes for the agents participating in the event or events represented in the detailed diagram.4b. add a rounded rectangle for each activity in the events being documented in that detailed diagram.4c Use continuous lines to show the sequence of the activities.4d. set up any documents created or used by the activities in that diagram.4e. use dotted lines to connect activities and documents.4f. Document any tables created, modified, or used by the activities in the diagram in the computer column.4g. use dotted lines to connect activities and tables.