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A Brief History of Parole Revenge of the Rehabilitative Ideal and that scoundrel Martinson.

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Presentation on theme: "A Brief History of Parole Revenge of the Rehabilitative Ideal and that scoundrel Martinson."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brief History of Parole Revenge of the Rehabilitative Ideal and that scoundrel Martinson

2 What is Parole? A process of discretionary release from prison A process of discretionary release from prison Parole Boards Parole Boards A process of post-release supervision A process of post-release supervision Parole Supervision Parole Supervision

3 Early Precursors to Parole Parole born in the 19 th century, as governments moved away from corporal punishments (to reform) Parole born in the 19 th century, as governments moved away from corporal punishments (to reform) Prisons born first, and starting to become the punishment of choice. Prisons born first, and starting to become the punishment of choice. Spain: (1835) Manuel Montesinos Spain: (1835) Manuel Montesinos Germany (1842) Georg Obermaier Germany (1842) Georg Obermaier England (1837) Alexander Maconochie England (1837) Alexander Maconochie And a little love from Sir Walter Crofton (Ireland) And a little love from Sir Walter Crofton (Ireland)

4 The Grammy goes to…. Maconochie/Crofton Alexander Maconochie Alexander Maconochie Warden for English penal colony at Norfolk Island (off coast of Austrailia) Warden for English penal colony at Norfolk Island (off coast of Austrailia) Criticized determinate prison terms Criticized determinate prison terms Developed the mark system Developed the mark system Good conduct, labor, study… got marks Good conduct, labor, study… got marks Marks got you privilege, and eventually release Marks got you privilege, and eventually release Fired in 1844 Fired in 1844 BUT, in 1853, England substitutes prison for transportation, and legalizes ticket-of-leave system BUT, in 1853, England substitutes prison for transportation, and legalizes ticket-of-leave system Hired (1849) and Fired (1851) again in a different prison Hired (1849) and Fired (1851) again in a different prison

5 Sir Walter Crofton Administrator of Irish Prison System Administrator of Irish Prison System Implements Macs plan in 1854 Implements Macs plan in 1854 Tickets of leave only for reformation Tickets of leave only for reformation Achievement (industry/education), positive attitudes Achievement (industry/education), positive attitudes The Irish System The Irish System Strict Imprisonment Strict Imprisonment Intermediate Intermediate Ticket-of-leave Ticket-of-leave Closer to parole than the English ticket (conditions, supervision) Closer to parole than the English ticket (conditions, supervision)

6 Meanwhile, back in the U.S. National Prison Association National Prison Association Importance of 1870 Meeting in Cincinnati Importance of 1870 Meeting in Cincinnati Irish System part of Declaration of Principles Irish System part of Declaration of Principles Principles = Rehabilitative Ideal Principles = Rehabilitative Ideal Indeterminate Sentences, Parole, mark system Indeterminate Sentences, Parole, mark system Zebulon the Wolverine Brockway Zebulon the Wolverine Brockway Elmira Reformatory (NY) in 1876 Elmira Reformatory (NY) in 1876 Indeterminate sentence x parole Indeterminate sentence x parole Grades of Classification (first--good--to third--bad) Grades of Classification (first--good--to third--bad) Parole supervision for six months Parole supervision for six months Volunteer Guardians Volunteer Guardians

7 The Rise of Parole s Indeterminate Sentencing x Parole spread rapidly Indeterminate Sentencing x Parole spread rapidly NY first state (1907) NY first state (1907) All but three states by 1927 All but three states by 1927 This system reaches its peak in the 1970s This system reaches its peak in the 1970s By 1977, 72% of offenders released on parole By 1977, 72% of offenders released on parole Prisoner Reform (in reality?) Prisoner Reform (in reality?) Institutional Control Institutional Control Solution to Prison Crowding Solution to Prison Crowding

8 The Attack on Parole Parole not liked by the American public Parole not liked by the American public But, polls as early as 1934 reveal this (still holds today)…why in the 1970s? But, polls as early as 1934 reveal this (still holds today)…why in the 1970s? But, danger of polling questions? But, danger of polling questions? The 1970s revolution The 1970s revolution Conservatives (chance to pounce) Conservatives (chance to pounce) JQ Wilson (deterrence/incapacitation only option) JQ Wilson (deterrence/incapacitation only option) Parole as coddling criminals Parole as coddling criminals Liberals Liberals End racial/gender bias, boards as political fodder End racial/gender bias, boards as political fodder Fogel, Von Hirsch = Justice Model Fogel, Von Hirsch = Justice Model

9 The Results of the Attack Maine eliminates parole in 1976 Maine eliminates parole in 1976 By the end of 1998, 14 states abolish By the end of 1998, 14 states abolish 1984: Feds phase out (still supervised release) 1984: Feds phase out (still supervised release) 21 additional states limit discretion of parole board 21 additional states limit discretion of parole board Only 15 states still give broad discretion Only 15 states still give broad discretion Only 28% of inmates released by parole boards in 1997 Only 28% of inmates released by parole boards in 1997 End result? End result? No increase in time-served (other valves) No increase in time-served (other valves) Truth in sentencing has had an effect Truth in sentencing has had an effect Both prison time and parole time have increased Both prison time and parole time have increased

10 Changes in the Nature of Parole Supervision Like probation, parole supervisors embraced the surveillance and control model in the 1980s Like probation, parole supervisors embraced the surveillance and control model in the 1980s Whither counseling, job training, housing? Whither counseling, job training, housing? Offenders as in need of attitude adjustment Offenders as in need of attitude adjustment POs absolved of responsibility for change POs absolved of responsibility for change Drug testing, but no drug tretment Drug testing, but no drug tretment

11 Current forms of Release Mandatory Release Mandatory Release Conditional supervision if goodtime credits or other early release Conditional supervision if goodtime credits or other early release If full sentence, (expiration) no supervision, unless… If full sentence, (expiration) no supervision, unless… Supervision included in sentence Supervision included in sentence Federal Guidelines = supervised release Federal Guidelines = supervised release Discretionary Parole Release Discretionary Parole Release


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