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Kerberos 5 at DESY Andreas Haupt Wolfgang Friebel.

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Presentation on theme: "Kerberos 5 at DESY Andreas Haupt Wolfgang Friebel."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kerberos 5 at DESY Andreas Haupt Wolfgang Friebel

2 May 20, Motivation Work started at CERN to use Kerberos5 with AFS Kerberos4 used internal to AFS no easy replacement available is superseded by Kerberos5 has security weaknesses Kerberos5 is a supported standard lots of tools are K5 enabled (or prepared) token extension in LSF, SGEEE, UW-imap server, lprNG, Cisco Routers,… AFS can be configured to work with K5 K5 offers desired features missing in K4 K5 comes with an implementation of the GSS-API (another one is the GSI from Globus)

3 May 20, Kerberos Terminology Kerberos is a protocol to authenticate users and services (= principals) The Key Distribution Center (KDC) issues proofs of identity (= tickets, containing short living session keys) Identity is checked by exchanging messages (challenge - response) using a short lived session key, no passwords are sent over the network A key is a bit string used to en- or decrypt messages Services use randomly generated keys instead of passwords

4 May 20, Kerberos Keys and Tickets The KDC('s) have keys for all principals Services need access to (permanent) keys to authenticate against the KDC. They are stored in a file (usually in krb5.keytab) User passwords are transformed into keys by selectable (predefined) algorithms Authenticated users have a Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT), that is a service ticket for the Ticket Granting Service (TGS) stored in a file An AFS token is a service ticket for the service 'afs' and cached in kernel memory

5 May 20, Features of a ticket Valid for a limited time period (e.g. 25h) Can be renewed if valid and within the allowed time period for renewal (e.g. 14d) Can be made invalid initially Can be made forwardable to other hosts (TGT) can be used to obtain further (service) tickets Can be destroyed if not longer needed Is usually stored in a file (/tmp/...)

6 May 20, Getting a Service Ticket KDCClientTGSServer

7 May 20, Kerberos auth (simplified) Step 1: Requesting a ticket a) Client requests a ticket for the ticket granting service (TGS) b) Server returns ticket (contains newly generated session key encrypted with user key) c) Further communication is encrypted (session key) Step 2: User Authentication a) User types password b) Client converts password into key and sends a request for a Ticket granting Ticket c) Server issues TGT Step 3: Request service tickets with the TGT

8 May 20, Preauthentication (K5 only) In Keberos4 Users can request a TGT for arbitrary principals KDC sends a response which is encrypted with the principals key can be used for offline password attack Kerberos5 adds Preauthentication already at step 1a the user has to type a password, which is converted to a key timestamp encrypted with that key is sent with the initial request (or smart card data)

9 May 20, Kerberos Realms and AFS All principals stored in the KDC database belong to a common realm AFS assumes that a user in afs cell my.cell maps to a K4 principal There is documentation stating that a K5 realm different from K4 is possible, but it is harder to get and we have been unable to make it work K4 credentials cache supports multiple principals (different realms) – K5 does not

10 May 20, Available Software Kerberos Servers: MIT distribution Heimdal distribution DCE A KDC comes with Windows 2000 Kerberos Clients Collection of clients contained in all server packs At least 5 different PAM implementations Standalone Software that is Kerberos enabled through the use of GSS-API (useful for Grid) or through native Kerberos calls (MIT and Heimdal differ!)

11 May 20, Kerberos Servers Heimdal Integrated Kerberos4 and AFS support Easy conversion of the K4 user database Incremental propagation of database changes Comes precompiled with SuSE Fewer applications available which successfully build against Heimdal K5 libs than against MIT libraries Poor documentation Some features still unimplemented KDC does not implement ka_maintenance_service database administration with kas will not work CLI differs from MIT and from W2000 ones

12 May 20, Kerberos Servers (2) MIT A separate daemon needed for AFS, otherwise AFS-K5 integration provided Complicated procedure to convert AFS users to K5 Comes precompiled with Linux (Redhat) Some applications ready to use MIT libraries only No integrated server replication, it is done dumping the full database regularly (e.g for CERN > 10MB each time) Used by many US sites (Fermilab)

13 May 20, Kerberos Servers (3) W2000 No way to run it on AFS DB servers No smooth migration of AFS accounts to W2000, users without W2000 accounts need to get new account and password Authentication for AFS with Windows password Separate daemon required to obtain AFS tokens (tested and working: gssklog) Almost no Windows applications known that use the Kerberos protocol TGT contains data internal to W2000, this rules out to use non W2000 KDC's

14 May 20, Kerberos Servers (4) W2000 (cont.) No source code available, no chance to fix bugs quickly and no guarantee that K5 will survive There is a recipe to crash (reboot) W2000 KDC's, W2003 server disables a command to prevent it Other errors seem to be known for a long time but not fixed (some telnet core dumps) Only subset of K5 standard implemented Administration of K5 interwoven with W2000 internals and very different from both MIT and Heimdal administration

15 May 20, Design decisions Slow migration from K4 to K5 Start with a limited number of hosts (PAM configured for K5) Free choice between K4 and K5 for users All changes in the user base must be in K4 Use Heimdal for the following reasons: Incremental and synchronous K5 DB propagation One daemon only for K5, K4, AFS Sync of K4 and K5 without service interrupt possible, could be triggered by K4 DB change Use PAM to get Tickets and AFS token Transparent for the users No change in PAM aware applications

16 May 20, Implementation Built Kerberos 5 realm IFH.DE (heimdal) Master KDC is on Solaris 8 Two slave servers (Solaris 8, Solaris 6) Software compiled for Linux + Solaris Server and clients Heimdal Heimdal compliant PAM

17 May 20, Implementation (2) Client and server configuration using cfengine for that purpose krb5setuphd (ksh script) available as well Synchronization of K4 and K5 DB heimdal_sync (perl script), only required in migration phase when still kaserver running Init scripts to start KDC and slaves Needed only during test phase Maintained by cfengine (deployment to hosts) In production phase KDC is controlled by OpenAFS bosserver

18 May 20, Implementation (3) Ticket lifetimes Need to be short for security reasons Need to be renewable for a long time for batch jobs (now from AFS ka database converted accounts unlimited, new accounts: 30d) Users could make use of it to refresh AFS tokens almost forever without typing a password (security concerns?) Default ticket lifetime now in sync with AFS (25h)

19 May 20, Problems solved Set up production environment at DESY Zeuthen with 3 servers First integrated Realm with Heimdal and AFS in HEP(?) OpenAFS kaserver replaced by Heimdal KDC Compliance of KDC with old kaserver Patched KDC not to check addresses in K4 tickets (kaserver does not do this either) Heimdal provides a global option only for disabling both K4 and K5 address checking

20 May 20, Problems solved (2) Working PAM configuration including K4 ticket and AFS token handling Solaris8, Linux in production, Solaris6 with minor problems on individual machines OpenSSH version 3.6.1p1 with heimdal-patch does K5, K4, AFS token forwarding (with patch also with older version of OpenSSH) kas no longer available replaced kas commands in user and password management using Heimdal-Kadm5 perl module IMAP server and Client (pine) with K4/5

21 May 20, Problems solved (3) Login with one time passwords Host with special PAM configuration Provides K5, K4 and AFS token Users generate S/Key list after K5 authentication Keys of users stored in keytab (are copied nightly to login server) PAM modules used: Pam-skey S/Key authentication Pam-krb5keytab (own development) Ticket generation from keytab Looked at FNAL solution, came up with this one

22 May 20, Differences to old scheme Master/slave concept for KDC No load balancing of KDC requests No DB manipulation if master is down No counter for unsuccessful Kerberos authentication attempts Locking of users can be done at the K5 level When using kinit tickets for foreign cells/realms get destroyed (AFS tokens in memory survive)

23 May 20, No cross realm trust Needed to do mutual authentication between different sites (e.g CERN-DESY) or on site Unix and Windows realms Realms share a common secret stored in keys User from realm A is trusted in realm B after obtaining ticket from realm A User has also in realmB only a ticket AFS ACL's in realm B will not be honored and the user is not in system:authuser Needs to be handled by extra PTS entries

24 May 20, Next steps Provide a native K5 arc server and client Working version available from SLAC Tighter integration with Windows 2003 server Planned for June in collaboration with CASPUR

25 May 20, Conclusions K5 deployment is fairly easy Real switch took less than an hour Very short service interruption (authentication) Porting of existing scripts a bigger problem K5 integration with services was more tedious PAM configuration, ssh, IMAP Not yet finished: batch (SGEEE), other potentially Kerberos5 aware services W2000 interoperability is possible harder and less useful than thought

26 May 20, Conclusions (2) Users did not notice a difference in behaviour (except e.g. different output of klist) No multi realm support with kinit (AFS users will prefer K4 klog) Sessions with long living AFS tokens will become possible (without storing passwords), not yet used

27 May 20, Useful URL's Patches and tools:ftp://ftp.ifh.de/pub/unix/kerberos K5 protocol:http://www.isi.edu/people/bcn/krb-revisions FAQ:http://www.nrl.navy.mil/CCS/people/kenh/kerberos -faq.html MIT K5:http://web.mit.edu/kerberos/www KTH K4:http://www.pdc.kth.se/kth-krb Heimdal K5:http://www.pdc.kth.se/heimdal Kerberos Projects:http://www.nectar.cc/krb Heimdal PAM:http://www.rit.bme.hu/~balsa/pam_krb5 GSS-API:http://docs.sun.com (search for GSSAPI) gssklog:ftp://achilles.ctd.anl.gov/pub/DEE


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