2 Other Applicable PIT Standards ANSI/ITSDF (INDUSTRIAL TRUCK STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION) B2/2/2004 ANSI/UL Standard for Safety for Electric-Battery- Powered Industrial Trucks3/2/2005 ANSI/NFPA Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases3/21/2005 ANSI/UL Standard for Safety for Internal Combustion-Engine-Powered Industrial Trucks4/13/2005 ANSI/NFPA Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code4/21/2005 ANSI/NFPA Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Maintenance, and Operation7/23/2005 ANSI/IES RP Practice for Industrial Lighting (not a safety standard)7/23/2005 ANSI Z Environmental and Facility Safety Signs
3 Reasons for TrainingPowered industrial truck accidents cause approximately 36,340 serious injuries in general industry and construction annually.It is estimated that % of the accidents are, at least in part, caused by inadequate training.Review changes to policy and procedureRequired by OSHAEach year approximately 36, 340 serious injuries occur involving powered industrial vehicles.The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by the successful completion of training and evaluation. Prior to permitting an employee to operate a powered industrial truck (except for training purposes), the employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully completed the training.
4 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics An average of 94 workers are killed each year as a result of forklift accidents.Since 2003, there were 12,278 non-fatal forklift injuries resulting in days away from work. Workers who have 1-5 years experience with the same employer are injured more than those in any other category. An average of 95 workers are killed each year as a result of forklift accidents.NIOSH investigations of forklift-related deaths indicate that many workers and employers (1) may not be aware of the risks of operating or working near forklifts and (2) are not following the procedures set forth in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards, consensus standards, or equipment manufacturer’s guidelines.Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
5 Defining ‘PIT’What is the definition of a powered industrial truck? Any mobile power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack or tier materials. Powered industrial trucks can be ridden or controlled by a walking operator. Earth moving and over the road haulage trucks are not included in the definition. Equipment that was designed to move earth but has been modified to accept forks are also not included.A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack or tier materials.Excluded are vehicles used for earth moving and over-the-road hauling.Commonly known as forklifts, pallet trucks, rider trucks, fork trucks, or lift trucks.Can be powered through electric or combustion engines.
6 Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks Counterbalanced rider type, stand upThree wheel electric trucks, sit-downCounterbalanced rider type, cushion tires, sit-down (high and low platform)Counterbalanced rider, pneumatic tire, sit-down (high and low platform)There are seven classifications of powered industrial trucks according to OSHA.
7 Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks High lift straddleOrder pickerReach type outriggerSide loaders, turret trucks, swing mast and convertible turret/stock pickersLow lift pallet and platform (rider)Picture example given is a rider reach truck
8 Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider Trucks ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Low lift platformLow lift walkie palletReach type outriggerHigh lift straddleHigh lift counterbalancedLow lift walkie/rider palletDiscuss your site-specific Class III PIT’s
9 Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Discuss your site-specific Class IV PIT’s
10 Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (Pneumatic Tires) Discuss your site-specific Class V PIT’s________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
11 Class VI - Electric & Internal Combustion Engine Tractors ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Discuss your site-specific Class VI PIT’s
12 Class VII - Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Discuss your site-specific Class VII PIT’s
13 Rough Terrain Straight Mast Forklifts This slide shows examples of Rough Terrain PIT’s with straight masts.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
14 Rough Terrain Extended-Reach Forklifts ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________This slide shows examples of Rough Terrain PIT’s with extend-reach capabilities.
15 Powered Industrial Trucks Used in Maritime ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________This slide shows examples of PIT’s used in Maritime.
16 Yard Trucks not used OTR Based on this section of the standard, a yard tractor that operates off-road would fall under the scope of the standard due to the fact that it can be classified as a tractor or other specialized industrial truck powered by an electric motor or internal combustion engine. Additionally, yard tractors fall into Class VI – Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Tractors of the forklift classification system.According to OSHA:OSHA standard (a)(1) states the following: This section contains safety requirements relating to fire protection, design, maintenance, and use of fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines. This section does not apply to compressed air or nonflammable compressed gas-operated industrial trucks, nor to farm vehicles, nor to vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling. Based on this section of the standard, a yard tractor that operates off-road would fall under the scope of the standard due to the fact that it can be classified as a tractor or other specialized industrial truck powered by an electric motor or internal combustion engine. Additionally, yard tractors fall into Class VI – Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Tractors of the forklift classification system.
17 OSHAThis section does not apply to compressed air or nonflammable compressed gas-operated industrial trucks, nor to farm vehicles, nor to vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling.Contains safety requirements relating to fire protection, design, maintenance, and use of fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines.
18 Attachments and Modifications Specific operator trainingWeight of attachmentsIncreased load centerIf your company regularly uses attachments, talk about specifics related to that attachment.Also, your operators must be trained on the operating procedures and hazards associated with using your specific attachments.Your driving evaluation must include use of the attachment.Also, do your nameplates reflect the fact that your company uses attachments?(a)(4)
19 (a)(5)If the truck is equipped with front-end attachments other than factory installed attachments, the user shall request that the truck be marked to identify the attachments and show the approximate weight of the truck and attachment combination at maximum elevation with load laterally centered.OSHA requires the lift truck be marked to identify the attachment and the weight of the attachment.All attachments, such as carton clamps, drum clamps, paper roll clamps, rotators, and push-pull attachments, affect your lift truck’s capacity in two ways:-Adding an attachment is like permanently carrying a load. If the attachment weighs 1,000 pounds, your lift truck’s capacity is automatically reduced by 1,000 pounds-Attachments typically move the load further away from the lift truck, which increases your load center. If the attachment moves the load 8 inches away, it will reduce the capacity by approximately 800 pounds (100 pounds per inch) because loads that normally have a load center of 24" now have a 32" load center.
20 (a)(6)Nameplates must be maintained in legible order and reflect the accurate rating of the vehicle for which it is attached.The user shall see that all nameplates and markings are in place and are maintained in a legible condition.
21 Based on Verticle Uprights with Max. Fork Heights Up to 153 1/2” 50003000400020001218243036424854RATED CAPACITIESLoad Center--Distance from front face of forks to center of gravity load--inches.Copyright Wrenn Handling 1999
22 NEC Hazardous Location Types Also found in OSHA TABLE N SUMMARY TABLE ON USE OF INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS IN VARIOUS LOCATIONS(b)(12) The atmosphere or location shall have been classified as to whether it is hazardous or nonhazardous prior to the consideration of industrial trucks being used therein and the type of industrial truck required shall be as provided in paragraph (d) of this section for such location.ClassesThe classes defines the general nature of hazardous material in the surrounding atmosphere.DivisionsThe division defines the probability of hazardous material being present in an ignitable concentration in the surrounding atmosphere.ClassHazardous Material in Surrounding AtmosphereClass IHazardous because flammable gases or vapors are present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures.Class IIHazardous because combustible or conductive dusts are present.Class IIIHazardous because ignitable fibers or flying's are present, but not likely to be in suspension in sufficient quantities to produce ignitable mixtures. (Group classifications are not applied to this class.)It is important to understand hazardous atmospheres. (Explain the chart and your site specific atmosphere classifications)DivisionPresence of Hazardous MaterialDivision 1The substance referred to by class is present during normal conditions.Division 2The substance referred to by class is present only in abnormal conditions, such as a container failure or system breakdown.
23 Fuel Handling and Storage 1910.178(f) No ignition sources within 35’Maintain contact between nozzle and unitStay with refueling process while actively refuelingClean spills immediatelyIgnitions sources such as static electricity, internal combustion engines (while running), and others need to be eliminated or removed while within 35 feet of refueling operations. To dissipate static electricity, maintain contact between the discharge nozzle and the unit. Stay with the refueling process while actively refueling and always clean up spills immediately.
24 Battery Charging Inspect battery connectors for damage Refer to the forklift’s manual for specific refueling procedures.Can all the operators change out or inspect batteries, or is this job limited to specially trained individuals?Hydrogen gas is released during the recharging process, so smoking in the area is not a good idea.Clean up electrolyte spills with baking soda (acid neutralizer) and water.Never remove battery caps except to add water or take hydrometer readings.Always wear PPE when working with batteries because you never know when the electrolyte might bubble or gas up.Inspect battery connectors for damageNo smoking in battery-charging areaImmediately clean up electrolyte spillsPPE includes face mask, acid-resistant gloves, and an apron
25 Preoperation Inspection As an authorized operator, it is your responsibility to make sure your forklift functions properlyOSHA requires preoperation inspectionsYour goal is to provide a hazard free workplace which includes maintaining equipment in the safest manner possibleDistribute the preoperation inspection form and review with the students any inspection policy(ies) and/or procedure(s) that apply to your site.Note that the inspection described is for sit-down counterbalance lift trucks. However, it can easily be adjusted for other types of lift trucks.Discuss the frequency for which preperation inspections are done at your facility. This information should be detailed in your PIT Program. OSHA requires inspections at the beginning of each shift if the forklift is used continuously. If the lift is used only sporadically each shift, then the inspection needs to be done only once per day.According to OSHA studies, 6 percent of lift truck-related accidents are caused by improper maintenance. A thorough preoperation inspection will catch almost any maintenance issue before it results in an accident.Preoperation inspections must be done for the three reasons listed on the slide:If an accident occurs because of a mechanical failure, it will be the operator’s responsibility if a preoperation inspection was not done.OSHA requires preoperation inspections.We want to demonstrate compliance with OSHA by having documented preoperation inspections conducted.
26 Preoperation Inspection To begin a preoperation inspection, you will need to do a “walk around.” First—be sure the forklift has been properly disengaged. The key should be off, the parking brake on, the forks down, and the gears in neutral.As you approach the lift, check for fluid under or around the lift . Check the tires, be sure there is no debris around the axle or behind the mast, and make sure the overhead guard is solidNext, look at the front of the truck—check that the forks and hoses are in good condition, fork pins are in place, the backrest is solid, and the mast and chains are greased.Last, walk to the rear. Check that the counterbalance bolt is tight and the radiator is clear of debris.If your PIT has a hood to access the engine compartment, check engine oil, transmission oil, coolant level, brake fluid, hydraulic fluid, fan belt tight and fan clear of debris, and make sure the radiator is clear of debris.Inspect the propane tank and hose attachment for good condition.Electric lift trucks: Inspect the battery to ensure that it is in good condition.Walk AroundForklift properly disengagedForks down, key off, neutral gear, parking brake onLeft/right sideTire condition, tight lug nuts, no debris around axle, overhead guard is solid, no debris behind the mastFrontForks in good shape, fork pins in place, backrest solid, mast & chains greased, hoses in good shapeRearCounterbalance bolt is tight, radiator clear of debrisLook for fluids on floor under vehicle
27 Preoperation Inspection In the seatNonmoving checksGauges, lights, horn, back-up alarm, blinking warning light, operate the tilt & lift mechanism, check the parking brakeMoving checksPut on the seat belt, check the running brakes, check the steeringWhen checking the steering wheel tilt, listen for unusual sounds.When checking the lift mechanism, inspect the hoses and chains and listen for unusual sounds.Check the parking brake by putting the forklift in gear (both forward and reverse) and stepping on the accelerator. The forklift should not move.Check the running brakes by moving forward and backward at a high speed and slamming on the brakes. The lift trucks should quickly stop.Inspect the steering by doing full turns to the right and left; listen for unusual sounds.
28 Preoperation Inspection Safety equipment such as seatbelts, horns, lights, cages, etc. need inspecting as well. When mounting and dismounting the lift, be sure to use the three point mount and dismount method. Notice the picture…the operator uses the hand grip on the lift, the arm rest on the seat and the foot rest as the three points of contact.Forklifts are designed to be safe:SeatbeltsHornsLights (if equipped)CageThree point mount/dismount
29 Operating a Lift Truck Avoid loose objects or holes If load blocks view, travel in reverseNever carry passengersPedestrians always have the right-of-waySafe distance from edge of ramps or docksNever eat or drinkNo stunt driving or horseplayLoose objects or holes can cause the forklift to tip over. Obviously, if the load blocks your forward vision, you must drive in reverse. Passengers are never to be carried because they don’t have a seat, there is no seat belt, and their body will be outside the protective cage. Always be aware of pedestrians. Operating too close to an edge such as a loading dock is a disaster waiting to happen. Eating and drinking distracts from the job of operating safely.Horseplay does not need explanation. It is dangerous!
30 Operating a Lift Truck Only trained, authorized operators Immediately report forklift-related incidentsNo person should stand under elevated portion of lift truckForklift controls operated only from driver’s seatNever block exits or emergency equipmentSmoking is not permittedKeep forks as low as safely possibleOnly trained and AUTHORIZED operators should operator PIT’s. Follow the company policy on reporting near-misses and incidents. Just as in lock out/tag out, gravity is a source of energy so never allow a person to stand under the elevated portion of the lifting mechanism unless the person is properly trained.Remember to operate the lifting controls from the operator’s seat.
31 Operating a Lift Truck Always look in the direction of travel Regardless of travel direction, remember to always look in the direction of travel while keeping all body parts in the cage. Moving and raising the mast may save time, but could cause an accident. The center of gravity could shift unexpectedly and cause the lift to tip over. Operate the horn when approaching intersections such as pedestrian doors and aisles, other PIT intersections, etc.Always look in the direction of travelKeep body inside the cageWhen moving, the mast must not be raisedSound the hornOperate at safe speedsWhen turning, watch rear end swingClearance under overhead installations
32 Operating a Lift Truck Be aware of blind spots where pedestrians can walk into your path oftravel________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
33 Operating a Lift Truck View is obscured by the masts Compare an automobile to a forkliftView is obscured by the masts________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
34 Compare a tugger (AKA Tow Tractor, Tow Motor, etc.) to a Forklift Operating a Lift TruckCompare a tugger (AKA Tow Tractor, Tow Motor, etc.) to a ForkliftIf tuggers are used at your facility…Explain the difference in the operation of a tugger to a forklift. A tugger operates like a train but without tracks to follow.A typical configuration for a tugger includes one tugger and two to three carts. Each cart can carry the same dunnage as a forklift. Thus, a three cart system carries three times the dunnage of a forklift.A forklift can travel in reverse while carrying a load.
35 Powered Pallet JacksGradually start and stop the jack to prevent the load from slippingEnsure that your pathway is clear and that you will not trip backwards or run into obstacles.Keep your body and your coworkers clear of the pallet jack to avoid being crushed by the machineNever ride on a pallet jack and avoid horseplay when you are using one.Watch for coworkers and obstacles at all times when you are using an electric pallet jackPowered pallet jacks make quick work of moving loads around the workplace. Pallet jacks protect your back from strains and injuries by moving heavy and awkward loads and objects that would be unsafe to lift manually. But, as with any powered tool, if used improperly, powered pallet jacks can become a safety liability.If you operate an powered pallet jack on the job, get training on the use of the equipment from an experienced worker. Your training should include practical, hands on application exercises to ensure that you can safely operate the specific equipment at your worksite. Only operate the pallet jack if you have been authorized to do so by your employer.Be familiar with the powered pallet jack that you will use on the job. Review the manufacturer’s operating instructions and details on the jack’s capacity. A lift rating capacity plate should be mounted on the jack; never exceed the manufacturer's load rated capacity. Know how to use the power controls and brakes properly. Use the forks and attachments correctly. Always inspect the equipment prior to each use; never operate an electric pallet jack if it is malfunctioning. When charging the jack, use a GFCI outlet and ensure that you use precautions to avoid electric shock.Learn and follow the general safety rules for powered pallet jack use. Load the jack securely to prevent materials from shifting during movement. Gradually start and stop the jack to prevent the load from slipping. Use extreme caution when you are pulling the jack; ensure that your pathway is clear and that you will not trip backwards or run into obstacles. Keep your body and your coworkers clear of the pallet jack to avoid being crushed by the machine. Never ride on a pallet jack and avoid horseplay when you are using one.Watch for coworkers and obstacles at all times when you are using an electric pallet jack. Give people the right of way instead of expecting them to get out of your way. Slow down and proceed cautiously when you are at a crosswalk or obscured throughway in the workplace. Try to stack and move loads in a manner that will not block your line of vision. Always use a spotter to assist you if you cannot see around the load.Use extra caution in narrow aisles, on slopes and inclines, and other restricted areas where your maneuverability will be limited. If you are authorized to use the jack in an elevator, always enter it with the load first; do not back up into the elevator. Use the same technique when entering any constricted space with a pallet jack. Ensure that trucks and railcars that you are authorized to enter are properly blocked from movement.
36 Compare an automobile to a forklift Operating a Lift TruckWith a forklift, the rear end swings outwardly. Provide details as to the advantage of front wheel steering as in an automobile: no rear end swing of the vehicle.Compare an automobile to a forklift
37 Operating a Lift Truck Pedestrians Poor lighting Ramps Congestion Slippery floorsWeak trailer floorsPoor lightingCongestionJack stands missingFeel free to change this slide to mention hazards that are specific to your company.Encourage the students to think of other hazards associated with operating the forklift.It is important that you are aware of all the potential hazards of the area in which you will be operating the lift truck.Other hazards include operating on dirt or gravel, working around loading docks, pits in the floor, loads that block the forward vision, pedestrians with poor attitudes, etc.While handling a load:Large/bulkyUneven weightBroken palletPoorly stackedOthers?
38 Operating a Lift Truck Tipping Over Do not jump Hold onto the steering wheelBrace your feetLean away from the fallStay in the cage!!!Proper maneuvering of the PIT will remove the possibility of the PIT overturning. But should a tipover occur, do not jump. You should be wearing the seat belt so that it would be hard to jump if you had the seat belt secured. Many operators who thought they could jump clear of a tipover have been crushed by the overhead guard or the mast of the forklift.Seat belts must always be worn. Many fatalities have occurred when an unseatbelted operator was thrown clear of the forklift and struck his or her head on a solid object.Brace yourself by holding firmly to the steering wheel and planting your feet.Lean away from the fall.
39 Case Study April 25, 2008 Corpus Christi ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________April 25, 2008 Corpus ChristiA 19-year-old man was killed Tuesday in a forklift accident at the Tractor Supply Company in Alice. Sources have identified the victim as Michael Gomez of the Benbolt area. The Tractor Supply Company just opened a few weeks ago. It’s located on the east end oftown, along Highway 44. Although the details were limited Tuesday night, the Jim Wells County Sheriff’s Department tells us that the man was operating a forklift in the back of the store, when he lost control, fell off and was somehow pinned underneath it. He died at around 4:30 PM, about an hour after the incident at Christus Spohn Alice medical center.In this case study, we see an inexperienced driver who failed to wear his seat belt and as evidence shows may have been driving in an unsafe manner which cost him his life.
40 Case Study April 11, 2008 Spokane Washington A Spokane man suffered fatal injuries in a forklift accident in Kendrick Friday morning. Officials said at about 9:30 the Latah County Sheriff’s office responded to a report of an industrial accident at Brocke and Son’s warehouse in Kendrick. Authorities said 26-year-old Darrell Noakes was negotiating the forklift in an outdoor area near the warehouse when it rolled onto its side, landing on top of Noakes. According to reports, the forklift wasn’t carrying anything at the time. No other injuries were reported in the accident.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Another case study shows a PIT operator who, when the PIT began to tip, fell out of the cage and under the PIT.
41 Case Study March 06, 2008 Mount Union A 38-year-old man is dead following an accident involving a forklift at a Snyder County construction site. State police identify the victim as 38-year-old Ronald Collins, of Mount Union. The accident happened Wednesday at the Monroe Marketplace construction site in Hummels Wharf. Police say Collins was walking alongside the forklift and was run over by the back wheel. A Snyder County deputy coroner says he died at the scene of a traumatic head injury.Though not operating the PIT, this PIT operator fell victim simply by walking too close to the PIT.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
42 Stability Triangle Forklift’s center of gravity The stability triangle is an effective way to show an operator how their actions can cause a lift truck to tip over so that they know what actions to avoid.This information on stability is primarily for sit-down counterbalance lift trucks. Other lift trucks, such as stand-up narrow aisle, will probably have different stability concerns.A sit-down counterbalance lift truck has a three-point suspension with the weight supported at each front tire and the center of the rear axle. This creates a triangle. As long as the combined center of gravity of the load and the forklift remain within this stability triangle, the forklift will not tip over.The center of gravity of an unloaded forklift will be just below the operator’s seat.With a load, the combined center of gravity (black circle) is close to the font edge of the stability triangle.A near-capacity load with a longer load center (e.g., 30 inches) will create a combined center of gravity that has moved beyond the front edge of the triangle. The forklift will tip forward.3-point suspensionForklift’s center of gravityCombined center of gravityLoad center beyond 24”
43 Center of Gravity Balance point Distance from the edge of the 48”ADistance from the edge of theitem to the item’s center of gravity20”40”BThe center of gravity is the exact point on which the entire load will balance. For loads of consistent material, this point will always be near the center of the load.If a load contains materials with different weights or densities, the load center will be on the side containing the heavy material. For example: If a pallet contains bricks on one side and pillows on the other, the center of gravity will obviously be closer to the side of the pallet containing the bricks.The distance from the edge of the load to the center of gravity is very important. The load must always be picked up on the side that is closest to the center of gravity. This will keep the load’s weight closer to the forklift.
44 Center of GravityThe concept of load center is a crucial part of understanding the capacity of a forklift. Most forklifts are rated for a 24-inch load center. The examples used below are based on this assumption. Always refer to the manufacturers specifications for forklift specific load data.Use site specifics to your facility as examples: I.e. - If you move around crates that are 60 inches by 80 inches, discuss the load center distances (30" or 40") and how that reduces your lift truck’s capacity.The load center is the distance from the carriage, or vertical face of the forks, to the center of gravity of the load. For example, a pallet full of consistent material (e.g., bricks) usually measures about 4 feet by 4 feet. Therefore, the load center will be about 24 inches.If your forklift is rated for 5,000 pounds at 24 inches, it can safely lift a 5,000-pounds load as long as the center of gravity is 24 inches or less from the front face of the forks.If the load center is greater than 24 inches, it will reduce the lift truck’s capacity. Each forklift is different; however, it is safe to assume that for every additional inch beyond 24 inches, the capacity will be reduced by 100 poundsTry to lift a load that is 80 inches long. The load center is 40 inches, or 16 inches greater than the rated load center of 24 inches. If 100 pounds capacity is lost per inch of extra load center, then the capacity of the lift truck is reduced by 1,600 poundsDistance from vertical face of the forks to the load’s center of gravityTypical Load center = 24"80”B1 inch = 100 lbsImportant reason for keeping the load resting against the vertical face of forks
46 Loading/Unloading Before raising a load, understand: Approximate weight of the loadLocation of the load’s center of gravityInspect load for stability, projections, damaged pallets before liftingRestack unstable loadsNever place weight on the back of a lift truck to increase its capacityTowing always done from rear towing pinTilt the load back for better load stabilityKeep forks low when traveling with a load(ideal 4” above driving surface)Placing a weight on the back of a forklift can be extremely dangerous. Some companies might use sandbags, blocks of steel, or even people to keep the rear of the forklift on the ground if lifting the load causes the rear of the forklift to lift off the ground. Obviously, the forklift is trying to lift a load over its capacity if this happens.Also, adding weight to the back of the lift truck does not increase the capacity of the mast, hydraulic system, chains, tilt cylinders, etc.Never drill a hole in the forks to use as a way of towing something or as a place to put a chain hook when hoisting. This ruins the integrity of the forks.Forklifts are equipped with a tow bar in the back for towing.Safe attachments can be purchased for use when hoisting.
47 Ramps and Railroads Never turn on a ramp Turning on a ramp is a good way to tip over.Keeping the load upgrade will keep the combined center of gravity in the center of the stability triangle.When not loaded, driving with the forks downgrade will keep the center of gravity toward the front, or wide, part of the stability triangle.Crossing railroad tracks diagonally will help keep the lift truck stable.If you park within 8 feet of the center of railroad tracks, you may be hit by a train when it passes.Never turn on a rampOn ramps the load should be upgradeAscend or descend ramps slowlyRailroad tracks are crossed diagonallyNever park within 8 feet of the center of railroad tracks
48 Dock Safety Inspect the dock plate Check the trailer floor condition Trailer wheels are chocked, and/or docks are locked.Nose of the trailer is supported by the tractor or a fixed jackThese four habits are crucial to safety when loading/unloading trailers with a lift truck:Check the dock plate for cracks or signs of wear, and be sure it is properly secured.The trailer floor may have holes that the tire of a forklift could fall into, causing a tipover.Chock the trailer wheels to prevent trailer creep.Support the nose of the trailer.
49 Docks Seat belts must always be worn Date: September 2, 2003 Early Departure A service crew employee was unloading a trailer containing roll banding materials. The employee had made a trip into the trailer and was beginning to enter the trailer again when the truck driver pulled away from the dock. The front wheels of the forklift were practically off of the dock and the employee had his foot firmly on the brake. When the forklift operator released his foot from the brake the forklift fell forward off of the dock landing on the mast as shown in this photo. The forklift operator was wearing his seat belt keeping him from being injured by being thrown into the mast or other support structure.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
50 Parking Lower the forks Set gear to neutral Set the parking brake Review (If applicable) your company policy for removing the key when parking.Does your company have designated areas for parking forklifts? Make sure you do not park in a way that will block exits or access to emergency equipment. To park follow the steps in the slide.Lower the forksSet gear to neutralSet the parking brakeTurn off the keyWhen is a PIT considered unattended?1. When the operator is 25’ or more away from vehicle2. When the operator leaves the vehicle and the vehicle is no longer in his/her view3. Neither 1 nor 24. Both 1 and 2
51 Training Program (l)(l)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by the successful completion of the training and evaluation specified in this paragraph (l).(l)(1)(ii) Prior to permitting an employee to operate a powered industrial truck (except for training purposes), the employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully completed the training required by this paragraph (l), except as permitted by paragraph (l)(5).OSHA requires each operator to be competent to operate a PIT. Before allowing the employee to operate the PIT, training according to OSHA must be complete.OSHA requires each operator to be competent to operate a PIT. Before allowing the employee to operate the PIT, employers are required to provide training to each PIT operator.
52 Training Program (l)Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:Under direct supervision of a person who has the knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and,Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees.While attending training, trainees may operate the PIT only under direct supervision of the trainer and in such a manner that does not endanger the trainee nor anyone else.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
53 Training Program (l)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Training shall consist of a combination of:Formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, written material),Practical training (demonstrations and exercises performed by the trainee), andEvaluation of the operator’s performance in the workplaceTraining must consist of formal instruction, practical skills training and an evaluation process.
54 Training Program 1910.178(l) Truck-related topics Operating instructions, warnings and precautionsDifferences from automobileControls and instrumentationEngine or motor operationSteering and maneuveringVisibilityOperating LimitationsFork and attachment adaptation, operation, useVehicle capacity and stabilityVehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to performRefueling/Charging/ Recharging batteriesOther instructions, etc.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________During the training program, specific truck related topics must be covered. (Review the list with the students to include site-specific topics. Provide examples of relevancy)
55 Workplace-related topics Training Program (l)Workplace-related topicsSurface conditionsComposition and stability of loadsLoad manipulation, stacking, unstackingPedestrian trafficNarrow aisles and restricted areasOperating in hazardous (classified) locationsOperating on ramps and sloped surfacesPotentially hazardous environmental conditionsOperating in closed environments or other areas where poor ventilation or maintenance could cause carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust buildupWork-place specific topics must also be covered during training.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
56 Training Program (l)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The requirements of the OSHA standard on powered industrial trucks must also be included in the initial operator training program.The OSHA requirements must also be covered. Review in summary the requirements of OSHA
57 Refresher and Remedial Training An evaluation of each powered industrial truck operator’s performance must be conducted:After initial training,After refresher training, andAt least once every three years________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Discuss your company specific initial, remedial and refresher training programs.
58 Refresher and Remedial Training Unsafe operationAccident or near-missEvaluation indicates needDifferent type of equipment introducedWorkplace condition changesIt is important to express the reasons for remedial and refresher training.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
59 An authorized operator… OSHA clearly states that only trained and authorized personnel are permitted to operate a forklift.Authorized operators have the authority and the responsibility to prevent unauthorized operators from even getting on a forklift. The untrained individual can easily hurt or kill someone or damage the facility.Keep pedestrians safely away from the forklift when moving, lifting, etc.If the forklift is found to be unsafe during a preoperation inspection, the authorized driver has the responsibility to lock it out until it is repaired.is trained and authorized to operate a powered industrial truckshould keep unauthorized employees off of forkliftsshould keep pedestrians away from the operating zone of a forkliftwill lock out unsafe lifts as determined in a preoperation inspection
60 SummaryBE SAFE!!!________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________It is everyone’s responsibility to be safe when operating a PIT or operating around PIT’s.