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ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION. AN EXPERIENCE AT MALLAVI. By Dr. K. Sivapalan, By Dr. K. Sivapalan, 2003. Proceedings of the Jaffna Science Association.

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Presentation on theme: "ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION. AN EXPERIENCE AT MALLAVI. By Dr. K. Sivapalan, By Dr. K. Sivapalan, 2003. Proceedings of the Jaffna Science Association."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION. AN EXPERIENCE AT MALLAVI. By Dr. K. Sivapalan, By Dr. K. Sivapalan, 2003. Proceedings of the Jaffna Science Association

2 Introduction. Sanitation is basic human right – health and dignity.Sanitation is basic human right – health and dignity. 2.9 million people had no access to sanitation by the end of 20 th century.2.9 million people had no access to sanitation by the end of 20 th century. Negative impact of this is on vulnerable – poor, women and children.Negative impact of this is on vulnerable – poor, women and children. Sanitation should be brought to the centre of any development agenda.Sanitation should be brought to the centre of any development agenda.

3 Problems caused by environment. Diarrhea.Diarrhea. Amoebic dysentery.Amoebic dysentery. Bacillary dysentery.Bacillary dysentery. Intestinal worms.Intestinal worms. –Hook worms. –Round worms. Tuberculosis.Tuberculosis. TyphoidTyphoid Malaria.Malaria. Mosquitoes. Flies Stray dogs. Bad smell. Bad sight. Negative influence on childrens mental development.

4 Effect of environment on mental health.

5 Environmental health program should: Receive acceptance and support.Receive acceptance and support. Achieve desired objective with minimum expenses.Achieve desired objective with minimum expenses. Link its efforts with those of other health and socioeconomic development programs.Link its efforts with those of other health and socioeconomic development programs. WHO report.

6 Problems with environmental sanitation: NOT lack of medical know-how.NOT lack of medical know-how. Lack of resolve by officers concerned to remove bureaucratic controls and free local communities to take responsibility of their own health.Lack of resolve by officers concerned to remove bureaucratic controls and free local communities to take responsibility of their own health. WHO report.

7 Problem experienced in Mallavi. During 2000 – 2001 It was the centre for 2 AGA Divisions with a population of about 65,000 The town centre was foul smelling and full of flies.

8 1. Gravel quarry. Created long ago. To be filled by garbage and covered by earth. Prathesia Saba was responsible. Garbage disposal and covering it were not coordinated.

9 2. Latrines. Latrines were available only in a few houses and the hospital only.Latrines were available only in a few houses and the hospital only. Public latrine in the market was damaged and not repaired.Public latrine in the market was damaged and not repaired. New construction was impossible because,New construction was impossible because, –People were displaced and poor. –No funds from government or NGO sectors. –Embargo on building materials. The quarry became an OPEN TOILET.The quarry became an OPEN TOILET.

10 3. Seran Suviaham. [cooked food and ice-cream] Lot of waste water.Lot of waste water. Only place it can go is into the quarry.Only place it can go is into the quarry. Water stagnation with garbage and faces caused fermentation and smell.Water stagnation with garbage and faces caused fermentation and smell.

11 4. Market. All wastes- fish, meat, vegetables, birds and fruits- discarded in the quarry haphazardly.All wastes- fish, meat, vegetables, birds and fruits- discarded in the quarry haphazardly. Fish carrier boxes and motor cycles washed around the market well.Fish carrier boxes and motor cycles washed around the market well. The soakage pit was damaged and not repaired.The soakage pit was damaged and not repaired. Coconut husks were piled around the well.Coconut husks were piled around the well. Water stagnated around the well and provided a fertile medium.Water stagnated around the well and provided a fertile medium.

12 5. Slaughter house. Less than 400 meters from the quarry.Less than 400 meters from the quarry. Ruminal waste discarded all over.Ruminal waste discarded all over. Animal wastes disposed on the banks of Mallavi Tank, about a mile away.Animal wastes disposed on the banks of Mallavi Tank, about a mile away. Often dogs bring rotten bone, skin and meat into residential area.Often dogs bring rotten bone, skin and meat into residential area.

13 6. Obstruction by a man. An influential person claimed that the quarry is his land.An influential person claimed that the quarry is his land. He would not permit anyone including the Prathesia Saba to do any activity in the quarry except depositing the garbage and defecation.He would not permit anyone including the Prathesia Saba to do any activity in the quarry except depositing the garbage and defecation.

14 Action taken before. People had written to MOH, AGA, and Prathesia Saba. People had written to MOH, AGA, and Prathesia Saba. MOH had written to AGA and Prathesia Saba. MOH had written to AGA and Prathesia Saba. The AGA had written to Prathesia Saba. The AGA had written to Prathesia Saba. The Prathesia Saba had given several promises to improve the situation. The Prathesia Saba had given several promises to improve the situation. Nothing has changed. Nothing has changed.

15 First attempt – January 2000. Decided to involve all sectors and a meeting was organized: Government side:Government side: –AGA, ACLC, MOH, PHI, Officers from Prathesia Saba. LTTE side:LTTE side: –OIC TEHS, PHI TEHS, Area Leader of Political wing, Administrative Service Officer, Finance Officer. Others:Others: –Local Police Officer, Market Contractor, Mallavi Traders Organization, Manager of Seran Suviaham, Manager of the Slaughter House, and well wishers. ** All participated and concerned about the state of Mallavi town.

16 Decisions taken. Fencing the quarry- Prathesia Saba and Administrative Service- defecation in it stoped. Market well- Cleaning by Prathesia Saba and chlorination by PHI. Prathesia Saba and Administrative Service will repair the soakage pit. Fish boxes to be washed at designated spot only. Market latrine to be repaired and the Meat stall to be shifted away from the latrine. Turtles and birds will not be slaughtered in the market. Fish waste will be buried every day in the quarry.

17 Decisions taken- ctd. Animal house will be clean. Animal wastes to be disposed into a large pit dug at the site. Mallavi Traders Association will place half barrels along the road for collection of garbage. Disposal of garbage in the quarry will be in organized manner to recover land. Seran Suviaham will direct its waste water further into the quarry and ensure no stagnation.

18 Achievements. Every body was waiting for somebody else to do or provide something. Every body was waiting for somebody else to do or provide something. Every time MOH office staff approached about this matter, positive reply was received but no action seen. Every time MOH office staff approached about this matter, positive reply was received but no action seen. About one year spent on promises. About one year spent on promises.

19 Final Attempt. All participants of the previous meeting were invited for another meeting. Same decisions were taken once again. One more decision was to have monthly review meetings.

20 Progress. At the subsequent meeting nothing has happened.At the subsequent meeting nothing has happened. Difficulties encountered in implementing each decision were discussed.Difficulties encountered in implementing each decision were discussed. Alternative methods or necessary advice given at the meeting.Alternative methods or necessary advice given at the meeting. With open and constructive discussions, things started to move.With open and constructive discussions, things started to move.

21 Solution to laborers problem. The prathesia Saba had only 4 laborers to clean market and the bazaar in Mallavi and Thunukai.The prathesia Saba had only 4 laborers to clean market and the bazaar in Mallavi and Thunukai. They could keep saying that they worked here and there without working anywhere.They could keep saying that they worked here and there without working anywhere. They were placed under multiple supervision: PHI, PHI TEHS, Finance section of LTTE, Administrative service of the LTTE, and officers of the Prathesia Saba.They were placed under multiple supervision: PHI, PHI TEHS, Finance section of LTTE, Administrative service of the LTTE, and officers of the Prathesia Saba. When collective observation was discussed, the bluff was called off and the laborers started to work.When collective observation was discussed, the bluff was called off and the laborers started to work.

22 Half barrels for garbage collection. The Traders Association, after repeated pressure, found money and time to purchase some empty kerosene barrels, cut into half and placed one for every four shops.The Traders Association, after repeated pressure, found money and time to purchase some empty kerosene barrels, cut into half and placed one for every four shops.

23 Fencing the quarry. Persistent negotiation with the encroacher at GA and higher levels of LTTE resulted in compromise.Persistent negotiation with the encroacher at GA and higher levels of LTTE resulted in compromise. The Prathesia Saba and the Administrative Service of the LTTE pooled their resources and erected a barbed wire fence around the quarry.The Prathesia Saba and the Administrative Service of the LTTE pooled their resources and erected a barbed wire fence around the quarry. The market cycle park was moved to the recovered portion of the quarry.The market cycle park was moved to the recovered portion of the quarry.

24 Garbage disposal. The laborers deposited the garbage in the quarry at the spot specified by the PHI.The laborers deposited the garbage in the quarry at the spot specified by the PHI. The Prathesia Saba changed the practice of putting 6 tractor loads of earth every 6 months to one load every month, after informing the PHI.The Prathesia Saba changed the practice of putting 6 tractor loads of earth every 6 months to one load every month, after informing the PHI. The PHI could now ensure adequate covering of the garbage by earth.The PHI could now ensure adequate covering of the garbage by earth.

25 Latrene problem.

26 Latrine problem. People were seen to sneak through the fence for defecation.People were seen to sneak through the fence for defecation. The local Police agreed to petrol the area during early hours of the morning.The local Police agreed to petrol the area during early hours of the morning. Steps were being taken to construct public latrines and repair the damaged one with funds from TRO.Steps were being taken to construct public latrines and repair the damaged one with funds from TRO. The Traders were persuaded to construct toilets for the use of traders.The Traders were persuaded to construct toilets for the use of traders.

27 Fish market.

28

29 The fish market was reorganized with fish cutting area so that cleaning is easy. The fish market was reorganized with fish cutting area so that cleaning is easy. Fish and bird venders agreed to contribute to appoint one person who will take all wastes to the centre of quarry and deposit in a big pit dug for the purpose. Fish and bird venders agreed to contribute to appoint one person who will take all wastes to the centre of quarry and deposit in a big pit dug for the purpose. Seran suviaham which had a bakery also agreed to provide ash to cover the fish waste in the pit. Seran suviaham which had a bakery also agreed to provide ash to cover the fish waste in the pit.

30 Meat stall.

31 Slaughter house.

32 Interior of the slaughter house.

33 Animal waste disposal. Barbed wire cage is constructed to protect from dogs temporarily. Deep in the jungle, a deep pit is constructed and all wastes dumped in it. Dogs, if jump in, will not be able to come out.

34 Other measures. The well has been cleaned and chlorinated and maintained properly.The well has been cleaned and chlorinated and maintained properly. Coconut husks have been removed from the market.Coconut husks have been removed from the market.

35 Comments. These changes were possible only because of dedication and corporation and open and free discussion from all concerned.These changes were possible only because of dedication and corporation and open and free discussion from all concerned.

36 Suggestion from IRC. Creation of political commitment and development of sanitation policies.Creation of political commitment and development of sanitation policies. Integration of sanitation in water, health and resource management.Integration of sanitation in water, health and resource management. Institutional commitment and capacity to address sanitation issues.Institutional commitment and capacity to address sanitation issues. Reliable low-cost technologies.Reliable low-cost technologies. Effective involvement of private sector.Effective involvement of private sector. Mobilization, communication and social marketing while influencing behavior and attitudes towards sanitation.Mobilization, communication and social marketing while influencing behavior and attitudes towards sanitation. Appropriate user organization capacity building.Appropriate user organization capacity building. School based sanitation and hygiene education programs.School based sanitation and hygiene education programs.

37 Thank you.


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