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What you can view at: RAMETSI GAME FARM Place of Water Most common animals (Please refer to your: What did I see checklist for a list of all) SMS "RAMETSI"

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Presentation on theme: "What you can view at: RAMETSI GAME FARM Place of Water Most common animals (Please refer to your: What did I see checklist for a list of all) SMS "RAMETSI""— Presentation transcript:

1 What you can view at: RAMETSI GAME FARM Place of Water Most common animals (Please refer to your: What did I see checklist for a list of all) SMS "RAMETSI" followed by your complaint, problem or comment to 32545 or email CARE@rametsi.co.zaCARE@rametsi.co.za Please also feel free to post to: www.rametsi.co.za/facebook, upload your photos, and your game/tree/birds/reptile lists REWARD: PLEASE REPORT LOUD MUSIC/NOISE, LITTERING, ABUSE, MISUSE, UNACCEPTABLE AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR http://dl.dropbox.com/u/12641002/rametsi/Rametsi%20Eco%20Game%20Farm%20Mammal%20List.pdfhttp://dl.dropbox.com/u/12641002/rametsi/Rametsi%20Eco%20Game%20Farm%20Mammal%20List.pdfGame List: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/12641002/rametsi/Rametsi%20Eco%20Game%20Farm%20Bird%20list.pdfhttp://dl.dropbox.com/u/12641002/rametsi/Rametsi%20Eco%20Game%20Farm%20Bird%20list.pdfBird List: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/12641002/rametsi/Rametsi%20Eco%20Game%20Farm%20Tree%20list.pdfhttp://dl.dropbox.com/u/12641002/rametsi/Rametsi%20Eco%20Game%20Farm%20Tree%20list.pdfTree List: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/12641002/rametsi/Rametsi%20Eco%20Game%20Farm%20Reptile%20list.pdfhttp://dl.dropbox.com/u/12641002/rametsi/Rametsi%20Eco%20Game%20Farm%20Reptile%20list.pdfReptile list:

2 Blue Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) Habitat: Prefer open grassveld and actively avoid areas with tall grass and dense vegetation. Blue Wildebeest are strongly attached to areas which are selected for all round visibility to enhance safety. Habitat: Prefer open grassveld and actively avoid areas with tall grass and dense vegetation. Blue Wildebeest are strongly attached to areas which are selected for all round visibility to enhance safety. Diet: Primarily a grazer, selecting grass and occasionally karroid shrubs and herbs. Diet: Primarily a grazer, selecting grass and occasionally karroid shrubs and herbs. Appearance: Dark brown to black body, with an erect mane and a long whitish tail. Both sexes have heavy forward curving horns. Calf horns are initially straight, developing the characteristic curve at around nine months of age. Appearance: Dark brown to black body, with an erect mane and a long whitish tail. Both sexes have heavy forward curving horns. Calf horns are initially straight, developing the characteristic curve at around nine months of age. Social Structure & Behaviour: Organize into three types of herds. Dominant territorial bulls spaced across a grid of individual defended territories competing to attract receptive cows. Female & young in closed herds of 11 to 50. Males forming bachelor herds seldom show any aggression. Older bulls are isolated from the social structure. Social Structure & Behaviour: Organize into three types of herds. Dominant territorial bulls spaced across a grid of individual defended territories competing to attract receptive cows. Female & young in closed herds of 11 to 50. Males forming bachelor herds seldom show any aggression. Older bulls are isolated from the social structure. Characteristics: Body length: 170-220 cm Shoulder height: 90-120 cm Tail length: 80-100 cm Weight: 110-180 kg Horns: 45-78 cm Gestation: 8 to 8.5 months # of young: 1 Weaning: after 4 months Sexual maturity: Females 1.5- 2.5 years, males 3 years. Breeding season is from Feb to Apr, with calves born between Nov and Dec. Life span: up to 20 years Characteristics: Body length: 170-220 cm Shoulder height: 90-120 cm Tail length: 80-100 cm Weight: 110-180 kg Horns: 45-78 cm Gestation: 8 to 8.5 months # of young: 1 Weaning: after 4 months Sexual maturity: Females 1.5- 2.5 years, males 3 years. Breeding season is from Feb to Apr, with calves born between Nov and Dec. Life span: up to 20 years Main Predators: Lion, Leopard, Cheetah, Crocodile, Spotted Hyena & Cape Hunting Dog. Main Predators: Lion, Leopard, Cheetah, Crocodile, Spotted Hyena & Cape Hunting Dog. Interesting Facts: Regarded as pests by early white settlers who almost hunted them to extinction. Tails were kept as fly swats. Hottentots named them Gnou because of the blaring ge-nu noise they emit. Interesting Facts: Regarded as pests by early white settlers who almost hunted them to extinction. Tails were kept as fly swats. Hottentots named them Gnou because of the blaring ge-nu noise they emit.

3 Blesbok (Damaliscus albifrons) Habitat: Found only in South Africa they are more common to the open plains of the Free State, the Karoo areas and the Northern Cape where they graze in the mornings and late afternoons and lie down in the heat of the day. Habitat: Found only in South Africa they are more common to the open plains of the Free State, the Karoo areas and the Northern Cape where they graze in the mornings and late afternoons and lie down in the heat of the day. Diet: Gregarious, diurnal grazers, favouring grassland close to water, moving between feeding and resting sites in single file along well-worn paths. Diet: Gregarious, diurnal grazers, favouring grassland close to water, moving between feeding and resting sites in single file along well-worn paths. Appearance: Medium-sized antelope with short, fairly straight, ringed horns carried by both males & females. Brown neck and back, darker towards the middle & back. White blaze on muzzle and small dash of white between the horns. Appearance: Medium-sized antelope with short, fairly straight, ringed horns carried by both males & females. Brown neck and back, darker towards the middle & back. White blaze on muzzle and small dash of white between the horns. Social Structure & Behaviour: Territorial, with a social structure consisting of bachelor herds, and breeding herds consisting of a dominant male with his females. Males aggressively ward off intruding males by clashing horns, sometimes with fatal results. They mark their territory by making dung heaps and also by rubbing scent from preorbital glands on the face against blades of grass. Social Structure & Behaviour: Territorial, with a social structure consisting of bachelor herds, and breeding herds consisting of a dominant male with his females. Males aggressively ward off intruding males by clashing horns, sometimes with fatal results. They mark their territory by making dung heaps and also by rubbing scent from preorbital glands on the face against blades of grass. Characteristics: Body length: 140-160 cm Shoulder height: 90-95 cm Tail length: 30-45 cm Weight: 55-70(f), 65-80(m) kg Horns: 35-50 cm (Record 51) Gestation: 7.5 to 8.5 months # of young: usually 1 Weaning: 4 months. Males remain in the heard until calving time, females can remain with their mothers for up to 2 years. Reproduction: Peak mating occurs Mar to May, young are born from Aug to mid-Dec Life span: 17 years Characteristics: Body length: 140-160 cm Shoulder height: 90-95 cm Tail length: 30-45 cm Weight: 55-70(f), 65-80(m) kg Horns: 35-50 cm (Record 51) Gestation: 7.5 to 8.5 months # of young: usually 1 Weaning: 4 months. Males remain in the heard until calving time, females can remain with their mothers for up to 2 years. Reproduction: Peak mating occurs Mar to May, young are born from Aug to mid-Dec Life span: 17 years Main Predators: Lion, leopard, cheetah, hyena, Cape hunting dog. Main Predators: Lion, leopard, cheetah, hyena, Cape hunting dog. Interesting Facts: Hunted close to extinction around 1900. Named from the Afrikaans word for blaze ('bles'): a reference to the prominent white blaze on the forehead, which is divided into two by a brown band just above the eyes. Interesting Facts: Hunted close to extinction around 1900. Named from the Afrikaans word for blaze ('bles'): a reference to the prominent white blaze on the forehead, which is divided into two by a brown band just above the eyes.

4 Eland (Taurotragus oryx) Habitat: Elands are found in grassland, mountain, sub-desert, acacia savannah and miombo woodland areas. They distance themselves from deserts, forests and swamps. Habitat: Elands are found in grassland, mountain, sub-desert, acacia savannah and miombo woodland areas. They distance themselves from deserts, forests and swamps. Diet: Browse more than graze, feeding in areas where shrubs & bushes provide the leaves they prefer & use their horns to bring twigs and branches into reach. They also consume some fruits, large bulbs and tuberous roots. Diet: Browse more than graze, feeding in areas where shrubs & bushes provide the leaves they prefer & use their horns to bring twigs and branches into reach. They also consume some fruits, large bulbs and tuberous roots. Appearance: Both sexes have tightly spiralled horns, with females having longer but thinner horns than males. A tuft of black hair grows out of the males prominent dewlap and a tuft of hair on the forehead grows darker with age. Appearance: Both sexes have tightly spiralled horns, with females having longer but thinner horns than males. A tuft of black hair grows out of the males prominent dewlap and a tuft of hair on the forehead grows darker with age. Social Structure & Behaviour: Older males develop solitary tendencies, while younger animals may form small groups. Calves lick & groom each other, developing stronger bonds than the calf has with its mother. Females will defend all juveniles, not just their own. Bulls display cross dominance tendencies to each other. Social Structure & Behaviour: Older males develop solitary tendencies, while younger animals may form small groups. Calves lick & groom each other, developing stronger bonds than the calf has with its mother. Females will defend all juveniles, not just their own. Bulls display cross dominance tendencies to each other. Characteristics: Body length: 200-345 cm Shoulder height: 2 meters Tail length: 60-90 cm Weight: 600(f), 945(m) kg Horns: 65 cm up to 1 meter Gestation: 9 months # of young: 1 any time of year Weaning: around 3 months, but calves may stay with their mothers and even nurse after the next calf is born. Sexual maturity: Sexually mature at 3 years, however social hierarchy prevents females breeding for a further 3 years. Life span: 15 to 20 years Characteristics: Body length: 200-345 cm Shoulder height: 2 meters Tail length: 60-90 cm Weight: 600(f), 945(m) kg Horns: 65 cm up to 1 meter Gestation: 9 months # of young: 1 any time of year Weaning: around 3 months, but calves may stay with their mothers and even nurse after the next calf is born. Sexual maturity: Sexually mature at 3 years, however social hierarchy prevents females breeding for a further 3 years. Life span: 15 to 20 years Main Predators: Lion & Humans. Main Predators: Lion & Humans. Interesting Facts: The worlds largest & slowest antelope, but it can maintain a trot almost indefinitely, and can jump a 8 foot fence from standstill. Scent glands just above hind hooves leave scent trail as they walk. They get darker as they age, from tawny, to bluish grey, with oldest animals almost black. Interesting Facts: The worlds largest & slowest antelope, but it can maintain a trot almost indefinitely, and can jump a 8 foot fence from standstill. Scent glands just above hind hooves leave scent trail as they walk. They get darker as they age, from tawny, to bluish grey, with oldest animals almost black.

5 Gemsbok (Oryx gazella) Habitat: Well adapted to a waterless wasteland. Under extreme drought conditions they limit their day-time activities to the absolute minimum and feed during the night and early mornings, when plants contain the most moisture. Essentially a species of open, arid grassland or savannah. Habitat: Well adapted to a waterless wasteland. Under extreme drought conditions they limit their day-time activities to the absolute minimum and feed during the night and early mornings, when plants contain the most moisture. Essentially a species of open, arid grassland or savannah. Diet: Predominantly grazers but will browse in times of drought. They can survive for extended periods without any water to drink. Diet: Predominantly grazers but will browse in times of drought. They can survive for extended periods without any water to drink. Appearance: Considered one of the most handsome antelope in Africa, with it's long rapier-like horns and striking markings. Difficult to distinguish between males and females, generally bulls horns are shorter and more robust. Appearance: Considered one of the most handsome antelope in Africa, with it's long rapier-like horns and striking markings. Difficult to distinguish between males and females, generally bulls horns are shorter and more robust. Social Structure & Behaviour: If food is abundant solitary males will be encountered defending their territories. The heard is led by a high-ranking cow, but is controlled by the alpha bull who usually takes his position at the rear of the heard. In large herds several other bachelor males may be tolerated by the territorial bull. Social Structure & Behaviour: If food is abundant solitary males will be encountered defending their territories. The heard is led by a high-ranking cow, but is controlled by the alpha bull who usually takes his position at the rear of the heard. In large herds several other bachelor males may be tolerated by the territorial bull. Characteristics: Body length: 150-200 cm Shoulder height: 120-140 cm Tail length: 80-90 cm Weight: 180-220 kg Horns: 111 cm Gestation: 8.8 months # of young: 1 Weaning: after 3.5 months Sexual maturity: Males 5 years, Females 2 years. No set breeding pattern, but peaks with higher rainfall. Life span: 19 years Characteristics: Body length: 150-200 cm Shoulder height: 120-140 cm Tail length: 80-90 cm Weight: 180-220 kg Horns: 111 cm Gestation: 8.8 months # of young: 1 Weaning: after 3.5 months Sexual maturity: Males 5 years, Females 2 years. No set breeding pattern, but peaks with higher rainfall. Life span: 19 years Main Predators: Lion, Leopard, Hyena & Wild Dogs. Gemsbok will back into a bush and formidably protect themselves against any adversary. Main Predators: Lion, Leopard, Hyena & Wild Dogs. Gemsbok will back into a bush and formidably protect themselves against any adversary. Interesting Facts: Highly gregarious, herds of up to 300 animals have been observed in the Namib desert. Pure white belly reflects the heat of scorching desert sands. Often referred to as The spirit of the desert. Interesting Facts: Highly gregarious, herds of up to 300 animals have been observed in the Namib desert. Pure white belly reflects the heat of scorching desert sands. Often referred to as The spirit of the desert.

6 Impala (Aepyceros melampus) Habitat: Widespread in the north-eastern areas of the southern African sub region where they prefer open savannah and woodland. Found from the Congo in the north, to the Orange river in the south. Habitat: Widespread in the north-eastern areas of the southern African sub region where they prefer open savannah and woodland. Found from the Congo in the north, to the Orange river in the south. Diet: Predominantly grazers, feeding on short grasses during lush seasons, but will readily browse on leaves, blossoms or fruit during the dryer seasons. Diet: Predominantly grazers, feeding on short grasses during lush seasons, but will readily browse on leaves, blossoms or fruit during the dryer seasons. Appearance: Most common species in many parts of the bush and easily identifiable by the 3 black stripes on the rump near the tail. Only males carry the lyre shaped horns. Short, reddish glossy coat over a light tan torso. Appearance: Most common species in many parts of the bush and easily identifiable by the 3 black stripes on the rump near the tail. Only males carry the lyre shaped horns. Short, reddish glossy coat over a light tan torso. Social Structure & Behaviour: Active 24-hours a day, alternatively resting and grazing, drinking at least once a day. Herds have a home range of between 2 to 6 square km. About a third of the males hold territories of.2 to.9 square km. Territories are viciously defended against rival males and marked with urine and faeces. Bachelor herds continuously harass herd rams. One male can maintain a harem of 10 to 100 ewes. Social Structure & Behaviour: Active 24-hours a day, alternatively resting and grazing, drinking at least once a day. Herds have a home range of between 2 to 6 square km. About a third of the males hold territories of.2 to.9 square km. Territories are viciously defended against rival males and marked with urine and faeces. Bachelor herds continuously harass herd rams. One male can maintain a harem of 10 to 100 ewes. Characteristics: Body length: 120-160 cm Shoulder height: 75-95 cm Tail length: 30-45 cm Weight: 40-80 kg Horns: 45-92 cm Gestation: 6.5 to 7 months # of young: Usually 1 Weaning: after 4 to 6 months Sexual maturity: Females after 1 year, males after 18 months. After birth, young lie concealed away from their mothers, and subsequently join nursery groups. Two birthing peaks occur each year, one in spring and one in autumn. Life span: up to 15 years Characteristics: Body length: 120-160 cm Shoulder height: 75-95 cm Tail length: 30-45 cm Weight: 40-80 kg Horns: 45-92 cm Gestation: 6.5 to 7 months # of young: Usually 1 Weaning: after 4 to 6 months Sexual maturity: Females after 1 year, males after 18 months. After birth, young lie concealed away from their mothers, and subsequently join nursery groups. Two birthing peaks occur each year, one in spring and one in autumn. Life span: up to 15 years Main Predators: Lion, leopard, wild dog, spotted hyena, crocodile caracal, jackal & python. Main Predators: Lion, leopard, wild dog, spotted hyena, crocodile caracal, jackal & python. Interesting Facts: Without effort, Impala can gracefully leap over 9 meters, and 2.5 meters high, often over bushes and other impala. When threatened they flee into dense bush, rather than open grasslands like other grazers. Interesting Facts: Without effort, Impala can gracefully leap over 9 meters, and 2.5 meters high, often over bushes and other impala. When threatened they flee into dense bush, rather than open grasslands like other grazers.

7 Red Hartebees (Alcelaphus buselaphus) Habitat: Open plains, grassland and Savannah bushveld. Found in north-west South Africa, central and northern Namibia and southern Botswana. Habitat: Open plains, grassland and Savannah bushveld. Found in north-west South Africa, central and northern Namibia and southern Botswana. Diet: Do not browse at all, only graze. Can go for a week without water, taking enough moisture from the grass they eat. Diet: Do not browse at all, only graze. Can go for a week without water, taking enough moisture from the grass they eat. Appearance: Tall reddish coloured antelope which got its name from its heart-shaped horns. They have high shoulders and a sloping back, and run with a rocking-horse stride exaggerated with the bobbing motion of the long face. Black forehead and muzzle, with black pre-orbital glands below the eyes. Appearance: Tall reddish coloured antelope which got its name from its heart-shaped horns. They have high shoulders and a sloping back, and run with a rocking-horse stride exaggerated with the bobbing motion of the long face. Black forehead and muzzle, with black pre-orbital glands below the eyes. Social Structure & Behaviour: Extremely gregarious, forming large herds in excess of 20 animals, usually led by a dominant bull who aggressively wards off rivals. In the absence of a bull, an adult female will assume leadership. Very inquisitive and will run for a short distance then stop and look back. If not fenced in, they will range over vast distances up to 1000 square kilometres in dry times. Social Structure & Behaviour: Extremely gregarious, forming large herds in excess of 20 animals, usually led by a dominant bull who aggressively wards off rivals. In the absence of a bull, an adult female will assume leadership. Very inquisitive and will run for a short distance then stop and look back. If not fenced in, they will range over vast distances up to 1000 square kilometres in dry times. Characteristics: Body length: ? cm Shoulder height: 120-150 cm Tail length: ? cm Weight: 125 (f), 150 (m) kg Horns: 23-62 cm (record 79cm) Gestation: 6 to 7 months # of young: 1 Weaning: after ? months Sexual maturity: rut is adjusted to the rainy season and calves are born just before the rains. Newly born calves are on their feet within 20 minutes and can run within 2 hours. Life span: 16 Characteristics: Body length: ? cm Shoulder height: 120-150 cm Tail length: ? cm Weight: 125 (f), 150 (m) kg Horns: 23-62 cm (record 79cm) Gestation: 6 to 7 months # of young: 1 Weaning: after ? months Sexual maturity: rut is adjusted to the rainy season and calves are born just before the rains. Newly born calves are on their feet within 20 minutes and can run within 2 hours. Life span: 16 Main Predators: Lion, Hyena, and young taken by Cheetah. Main Predators: Lion, Hyena, and young taken by Cheetah. Interesting Facts: At 70km/h they are one of the fastest runners in Africa, and can keep up this speed for considerable distances. Their eyesight is not great but they have exceptional smell and hearing. Lying still and shaking a bush will generally bring them closer to you to investigate. Interesting Facts: At 70km/h they are one of the fastest runners in Africa, and can keep up this speed for considerable distances. Their eyesight is not great but they have exceptional smell and hearing. Lying still and shaking a bush will generally bring them closer to you to investigate.

8 Common Reedbuck (Redunca arundinum) Habitat: Found in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, northern Botswana, northern Namibia and eastern South Africa. Prefers vleis and marshy areas, with hilly broken terrain dominated by grasses & scattered trees. Always found near water. Habitat: Found in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, northern Botswana, northern Namibia and eastern South Africa. Prefers vleis and marshy areas, with hilly broken terrain dominated by grasses & scattered trees. Always found near water. Diet: Mainly specialize in coarse grass, reed shoots and sometimes shrubs & leaves. They do need all year round nutritious supply of food. Diet: Mainly specialize in coarse grass, reed shoots and sometimes shrubs & leaves. They do need all year round nutritious supply of food. Appearance: (Also commonly referred to as Southern Reedbuck) Only males have the short curved horns, both sexes have grey/brown hair on the body, a dark scent patch beneath the ears, white undersides, and a bushy tail that is also white underside. Males are larger than females. Appearance: (Also commonly referred to as Southern Reedbuck) Only males have the short curved horns, both sexes have grey/brown hair on the body, a dark scent patch beneath the ears, white undersides, and a bushy tail that is also white underside. Males are larger than females. Social Structure & Behaviour: Semi gregarious, found singly, in pairs or in small groups. Females take the leading role of the group. Most active in the early morning and late afternoon. Nocturnal in the wet season but can be active during the day in the dry season. Males are very territorial and much in fighting occurs among them, resulting in many young adult males dying of their injuries. Males typically defend a territory of 15 to 48 hectares. Social Structure & Behaviour: Semi gregarious, found singly, in pairs or in small groups. Females take the leading role of the group. Most active in the early morning and late afternoon. Nocturnal in the wet season but can be active during the day in the dry season. Males are very territorial and much in fighting occurs among them, resulting in many young adult males dying of their injuries. Males typically defend a territory of 15 to 48 hectares. Characteristics: Body length: 120-160 cm Shoulder height: 65 to 105 cm Tail length: 18 to 30 cm Weight: 70 - 80 kg, Ave 58 Horns: Males only 25 to 46 cm Gestation: 7 to 8 months # of young: 1 Weaning: Sexual maturity: Puberty in females is 12 months, and they can give birth every 9 months. Lambs are produced all times of the year, but peak from Dec to May. Life span: 10 years (18 in captivity) Numbers reducing in the wild due to habitat destruction. Characteristics: Body length: 120-160 cm Shoulder height: 65 to 105 cm Tail length: 18 to 30 cm Weight: 70 - 80 kg, Ave 58 Horns: Males only 25 to 46 cm Gestation: 7 to 8 months # of young: 1 Weaning: Sexual maturity: Puberty in females is 12 months, and they can give birth every 9 months. Lambs are produced all times of the year, but peak from Dec to May. Life span: 10 years (18 in captivity) Numbers reducing in the wild due to habitat destruction. Main Predators: Hyena, Cheetah, Lion, Leopard, Jackal, Baboon, Wild dog and Python. Main Predators: Hyena, Cheetah, Lion, Leopard, Jackal, Baboon, Wild dog and Python. Interesting Facts: First means of defence is to conceal itself, but when alarmed will give a striking whistle and flash its white tail as it runs away. If they detect the scent of a lion or leopard, they can maintain this whistle for half an hour. Interesting Facts: First means of defence is to conceal itself, but when alarmed will give a striking whistle and flash its white tail as it runs away. If they detect the scent of a lion or leopard, they can maintain this whistle for half an hour.

9 Blackbacked Jackal (Canis mesomelas) Habitat: Found throughout South Africa, but have been exterminated by farmers in some areas. Found in grasslands and woodlands where burrows or shelter is available. Often live in close proximity to humans. Diet: Omnivorous animals that will eat carrion, grass, fruit, berries, seed as well as spiders, insects, rodents, reptiles, hares, birds, frogs, and anything else they can overpower. Responsible for stock loss and have been known to harass and attack young offspring of smallish antelope. Appearance: Body varies from reddish-brown to ginger, with white chest and whitish under parts. Very distinct broad mantle of black hair running from the base of the neck to the end of the bushy tail. Face resembles a dog with pointy muzzle and high pointed ears. Social Structure & Behaviour: Monogamous with only one mate for life. Males and females both mark their territory and will defend against intruders; male against male and female against female. Territories are just over two square kilometres. Close family life with offspring assisting in raising the next litter. Early on, females change the den sites about every 2 weeks as a precaution against other predators. Mainly nocturnal when near humans but otherwise diurnal. Characteristics: Body length: 70-106 cm Shoulder height: 38 cm Standing height: 45-50 cm Tail length: 30-35 cm Weight: 5-10(f), 8-15(m) kg Gestation: 2 months # of young: 3 to 8, with avg 4 pups of which usually 3 survive Weaning: after 3 months Sexual maturity: pups follow adults from around 3 months and are on their own from 1 year. Life span: 6 to 7 years in the wild but can live to 14 in captivity. Characteristics: Body length: 70-106 cm Shoulder height: 38 cm Standing height: 45-50 cm Tail length: 30-35 cm Weight: 5-10(f), 8-15(m) kg Gestation: 2 months # of young: 3 to 8, with avg 4 pups of which usually 3 survive Weaning: after 3 months Sexual maturity: pups follow adults from around 3 months and are on their own from 1 year. Life span: 6 to 7 years in the wild but can live to 14 in captivity. Main Predators: Man, Hyena, Leopard, Python, Caracal & large Eagles. Interesting Facts: Paired adults have smaller home ranges than single adults searching for mates. Pups display dominance fights very early and this establishes future hierarchies of who stays and leaves the family unit. Known to cache their food, which is then consumed a day later.

10 Springbuck (Antidorcas marsupialis) Habitat: Prefer open planes and the more desert-like, arid savannahs of the country and Namibia. Can live in areas with virtually no vegetation of any sort. Most active early morning and late afternoon. No Springbuck exist in the Kruger National Park. Diet: Eat short grasses, leaves and also dig for bulbs and roots. Independent of water but will drink if water is available. Appearance: Medium sized with a distinctive chocolate stripe running across the middle of their bodies separating a light brown back from their pure white bellies. Both males and females have horns which differ in size & thickness. Classified as a gazelle. Social Structure & Behaviour: Often occur in large herds, consisting of a dominant male and a number of females. Males ousted from the herd group form into bachelor herds with older rams becoming solitary. Very alert and at the same time extremely curious animals. A number of sub-species exist, ranging from black to white, with the Kalahari springbok having large horns that dwarf the common types. Can jump as high as 3 meters and as far as 5 meters. Social Structure & Behaviour: Often occur in large herds, consisting of a dominant male and a number of females. Males ousted from the herd group form into bachelor herds with older rams becoming solitary. Very alert and at the same time extremely curious animals. A number of sub-species exist, ranging from black to white, with the Kalahari springbok having large horns that dwarf the common types. Can jump as high as 3 meters and as far as 5 meters. Characteristics: Body length: 120-140 cm Shoulder height: 75-84 cm Tail length: 19-27 cm Weight: 32-40 kg Horns: Up to 48 cm Gestation: 6 months # of young: 1 Weaning: after 4 months Sexual maturity: In lush areas they breed all year round, but otherwise they time their breeding with rainy seasons. They can prolong gestation period a few weeks to wait for rain and mass births, which increase chances of survival. Life span: 10 years Characteristics: Body length: 120-140 cm Shoulder height: 75-84 cm Tail length: 19-27 cm Weight: 32-40 kg Horns: Up to 48 cm Gestation: 6 months # of young: 1 Weaning: after 4 months Sexual maturity: In lush areas they breed all year round, but otherwise they time their breeding with rainy seasons. They can prolong gestation period a few weeks to wait for rain and mass births, which increase chances of survival. Life span: 10 years Main Predators: Cheetah, Leopard & Lion. Young endangered by Caracal, Jackal and the larger Eagles. Interesting Facts: The national symbol of South Africa. Springbuck can run up to 80kph when threatened. In the 18th century, travellers reported herds so vast they counted the number of days it took to pass their wagons instead of counting the animals. Still today, because of their numbers they are the most hunted buck in South Africa.

11 Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) Habitat: They occupy scrub, savannah grasslands, gallery forests and riverine woodlands close to water. Distribution covers west, central and eastern Africa, south of the Sahara. Diet: Grasses, leaves and reeds. Diet: Grasses, leaves and reeds. Appearance: Reddish brown to grey, longish hair, shaggy, coarse coat, darkening with age. Distinct white muzzle, lighter eyebrows and insides of the ears, with a cream-coloured 'bib' on the throat. Very distinctive white ring on the rump. Strong legs and a heavy set body. Only males carry the heavily ridged horns that sweep in an arc, first backwards then forwards. Appearance: Reddish brown to grey, longish hair, shaggy, coarse coat, darkening with age. Distinct white muzzle, lighter eyebrows and insides of the ears, with a cream-coloured 'bib' on the throat. Very distinctive white ring on the rump. Strong legs and a heavy set body. Only males carry the heavily ridged horns that sweep in an arc, first backwards then forwards. Social Structure & Behaviour: Generally quiet, sedate animals. Males become territorial at 6 to 7 years, and will agressively defend a 150- 650 acre area until the age of 10 when they are ousted by younger bulls. Female groups frequent a home range of around 600 acres that may span several male territories. Family groups of around 30 animals are common. Characteristics: Body length: 180-220 cm Shoulder height: 100-130 cm Tail length: 22-45 cm Weight: 205-250(f) 250-270(m) Horns: 55-100 cm Gestation: 8.5 to 9 months # of young: 1, rarely 2 Weaning: after 7 to 8 months Sexual maturity: Females at 12-14 months, males at 14-18 months. Births occur in the wetter seasons (Aug & Nov). After birth, the young lie concealed, away from their mothers for 2 to 3 weeks. The mothers return 3 to 4 times a day to suckle the babies for about 5 minutes per session. Life span: up to18 years Characteristics: Body length: 180-220 cm Shoulder height: 100-130 cm Tail length: 22-45 cm Weight: 205-250(f) 250-270(m) Horns: 55-100 cm Gestation: 8.5 to 9 months # of young: 1, rarely 2 Weaning: after 7 to 8 months Sexual maturity: Females at 12-14 months, males at 14-18 months. Births occur in the wetter seasons (Aug & Nov). After birth, the young lie concealed, away from their mothers for 2 to 3 weeks. The mothers return 3 to 4 times a day to suckle the babies for about 5 minutes per session. Life span: up to18 years Main Predators: Reluctantly hunted because of the strong odour of their coat, but taken by Lion, leopard, hyena, Cape hunting dog, crocodile & occasionally Hippo. Main Predators: Reluctantly hunted because of the strong odour of their coat, but taken by Lion, leopard, hyena, Cape hunting dog, crocodile & occasionally Hippo. Interesting Facts: Good swimmers that flee into water for safety. Males are driven out of the herd at 9 months and they then form bachelor groups where hierarchy is based on size & strength. The coat has a smelly, oily secretion thought to be for waterproofing. Males do not mark their territories with dung or urine, their presence and smell are sufficient.

12 Plains or Burchells Zebra (Equus burchelli) Habitat: Widespread throughout the tropical grasslands of east and southern Africa. Diet: Primarily grazers, with intestines 17 times their body length, that allows them to extract energy and nutrients from coarse, low-quality forage. The graze for two thirds of the day and are full of gas. Appearance: Off-white with black stripes that are vertical on the head, neck, erect mane, forequarters, main body, with horizontal stripes at the rear and on the broad, rather short legs. Members of the horse family and have excellent hearing & eyesight. Social Structure & Behaviour: Zebra have a harem type of social structure. Nomadic, with no specific territories, they stay in separate family groups consisting of a stallion with several mares, however different families will socialize into huge herds. In the Serengeti herds of up to 10,000 congregate during the rainy season. They often mingle with wildebeest and other animals. Zebras are very vocal; mares whinney when separated from foals and zebras use a yelping bark as a warning. Characteristics: Body length: up to 240 cm Shoulder height: 120-140 cm Tail length: 50 cm Weight: 300 kg (mature male) Horns: totally absent Gestation: 11 to 13 months # of young: 1 Weaning: after 9 months Sexual maturity: Females 2 years, males 3 to 5 years. It is believed zebras only foal every second season. Foals can walk after 15 minutes and run after an hour. Mother will keep all other zebras away for several days until the foal is imprinted on her. Life span: 20 years, sometimes as old as 28 Characteristics: Body length: up to 240 cm Shoulder height: 120-140 cm Tail length: 50 cm Weight: 300 kg (mature male) Horns: totally absent Gestation: 11 to 13 months # of young: 1 Weaning: after 9 months Sexual maturity: Females 2 years, males 3 to 5 years. It is believed zebras only foal every second season. Foals can walk after 15 minutes and run after an hour. Mother will keep all other zebras away for several days until the foal is imprinted on her. Life span: 20 years, sometimes as old as 28 Main Predators: The Zebras striping is effective camouflage against its main predator; Lion which is colour blind. Also hyena & wild dog. Lead stallion stays at the back of the herd and defends with a powerful kick. Interesting Facts: Ancient beliefs thought zebras were sent by the spirit of lightning and rain to remind people that all things change; good seasons change to drought, and that darkness cannot exist without light. The pattern of each animal is totally unique with greatest variance in the shoulder area. They can reach speeds of 56 KpH.


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