Presentation on theme: "Hoda Rafiee Seyed Shahab Miri"— Presentation transcript:
1Hoda Rafiee Seyed Shahab Miri FunctionalismHoda RafieeSeyed Shahab MiriThis template can be used as a starter file for presenting training materials in a group setting.SectionsRight-click on a slide to add sections. Sections can help to organize your slides or facilitate collaboration between multiple authors.NotesUse the Notes section for delivery notes or to provide additional details for the audience. View these notes in Presentation View during your presentation.Keep in mind the font size (important for accessibility, visibility, videotaping, and online production)Coordinated colorsPay particular attention to the graphs, charts, and text boxes.Consider that attendees will print in black and white or grayscale. Run a test print to make sure your colors work when printed in pure black and white and grayscale.Graphics, tables, and graphsKeep it simple: If possible, use consistent, non-distracting styles and colors.Label all graphs and tables.February 14th, 2012(Bahman 25th, 1390)
2Sociology Sociology is the scientific study of society Sociology is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activities.Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
3Theorya formal set of ideas that is intended to explain why sth happens or exists (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 8th edition)is a hypothesis which is supported by observational evidences.
4Sociological Theory High-Level Theories Functionalism… Comes in a variety of shapes and sizes…Sociological TheoryHigh-Level TheoriesFocus on trying to explain how and why society is orderedFunctionalism…Mid-Range TheoriesMarxism…Focus on trying to explain some general aspect of social behaviourInteractionism…Feminism…Low-Level TheoriesFocus on trying to explain a specific aspect of social behaviour.Why do girls achieve higher educational qualifications than boys?Why do I always fall asleep in Psychology lessons?
5Functionalism… “Society Is Like”: A Human Body Characteristics of human body…Each part of the body works in harmony with all other partsCharacteristics of society…Each part of society works in harmony with all other parts
6Marxism… “Society Is Like”: A League Table Characteristics of league table…A league is characterised by competition between teamsCharacteristics of society…Society involves competition between social groups / classes
7Interactionism… “Society Is Like”: A Play Characteristics of a play… A play has actors who play their individual rolesCharacteristics of society…Society consists of individual actors who play a variety of roles
8Feminism… “Society Is Like”: A League Table Characteristics of league table…A league is characterised by competition between teamsCharacteristics of society…Society involves competition between men and women
9Post-Modernism… “Society Is Like”: A Theme Park Characteristics of theme park…A theme park has numerous different ridesCharacteristics of society…Society is characterised by a multiplicity of choices (work, education, leisure, etc.)
10FunctionalismThis is another option for an Overview slides using transitions.
12Functionalism is mainly associated with the work of two sociologists; Émile Durkheim& Talcott Parsons
13other sociologist who worked on this topic as well; Herbert Spencer, Davis and Moore, Robert Merton and Almond and Powell.
14Sociological theories always have to be understood in terms of the time in which they were developed
15Emile DurkheimDavid Émile Durkheim was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline and, with Karl Marx and Max Weber, is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology.
16- the specialised division of labour For Durkheim key features of 19th century were:Industrialisation- the specialised division of labour
17..and the movement of people from country to city –urban life
18Talcott ParsonsTalcott Parsons was an American sociologist who served on the faculty of Harvard University from 1927 to 1973.
19For Parsons two particular things struck him about life in 1950s USA The considerable affluence enjoyed by many
20..and the vast scale of urban society Downtown Los Angeles – early 1900s and 2010
21TheoryUse a section header for each of the topics, so there is a clear transition to the audience.
22Both sociologists developed a view which focuses on the idea that societiesEVOLVE , grow or develop - a bit like living organisms
23Societies are simply organised to start with, but over time they grow and become more complex
24Like an organism, societies have certain needs These needs are called ‘functional prerequisites’
25All societies have these needs – but they can achieve them in different ways
37Robert Merton said industrial societies could be Dysfunctional
38…if essential needs are not being met or if some groups cannot achieve the goals of the whole society
39But how could you criticise it? Not a bad theoryBut how could you criticise it?
40It assumes value consensus ClockwiseTurkey, UK, UkrainePolitical discussions around the world
41It generally has an inadequate view of power – everyone seems fairly equal Do we all start from the same position with equal power and resources?
42It seems deterministic – as with Marxism, people still seem very much at the mercy of social structures
43Like all theories it has strengths and weaknesses Over to youLike all theories it has strengths and weaknessesBut one point worth remembering is that even sociologists who don’t like functionalism much, usually recognise the importance of Durkheim– He believed in the idea of social structures.
44Discussion Are you in favor or against functionalism? Why? Why not? How do you think this theory (functionalism) can be improved?Discuss outcomes of the case study or class simulation.Cover best practices.
45SummaryFunctionalists are very POSITIVE about society and always see the GOOD in everything. They even think that crime is good for society! - They look at society on a MACRO scale [this means that they look at society on a large scale]. They want to generalize their ideas to the whole of society. For example they look at what education does for society as a whole not just certain people in society.Functionalists also believe that society is based on CONSENSUS, this means agreement, i.e. we are all SOCIALISED [brought up] to agree on how to behave [known as NORMS] and what is right and wrong [known as VALUES].Functionalists believe that each part of society has a FUNCTION [a job to do] to make sure that society runs smoothly and everything stays in harmony. For example education has a function to make sure people are educated to be good at the job they will get after school.Summarize presentation content by restating the important points from the lessons.What do you want the audience to remember when they leave your presentation?Save your presentation to a video for easy distribution (To create a video, click the File tab, and then click Share. Under File Types, click Create a Video.)
46Microsoft Engineering Excellence ReferencesWikipedia, the free encyclopediaOxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 8th editionLongman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied LinguisticsMicrosoft Confidential
47Microsoft Engineering Excellence RefrencesFun basics functionalism presentationEncyclopedia Britannica ultimate reference suitePictures taken from various websitesAnd some others that cannot be mentioned because of lack of the spaceMicrosoft Confidential
49Microsoft Engineering Excellence Is your presentation as crisp as possible? Consider moving extra content to the appendix.Use appendix slides to store content that you might want to refer to during the Question slide or that may be useful for attendees to investigate deeper in the future.Microsoft Confidential
50Winter 2012 Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University Microsoft Engineering ExcellenceWinter 2012 Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training UniversityIs your presentation as crisp as possible? Consider moving extra content to the appendix.Use appendix slides to store content that you might want to refer to during the Question slide or that may be useful for attendees to investigate deeper in the future.Microsoft Confidential