3Section 1: The Postwar Period ESSENTIAL QUESTION:How was life in the U.S. different after WWII?
4Section 1: The Postwar Period What words do I need to know?suburbsbaby boomCold WarKorean War
5Television Changes America Television use expanded in the 1950sFrozen dinners were invented to heat quickly and eat in front of the TVMore televisions were in homes and people spent more time watchingABC, CBS, NBC were major networksEntertainment was importantPeople could now watch news events almost as they happened
6The Cold War Relations between the US and USSR became tense Cold War: a war of words and diplomacyUS and USSR were world’s most powerful countriesUSSR kept eastern Europe in communism behind the “iron curtain”Containment of communism led to war in Korea and Vietnam
7The Korean War Korea was divided after WWII 38th parallel was line between communist North and democratic SouthJune 25, 1950: North Korea invaded South KoreaUnited Nations countries sent troops to assist South Korea25,000 Americans killed; 500 GeorgiansPeace declared in July 1953; no winnerMany businesses benefited from doing business with the military bases and armed forcesClick to return to Table of Contents.
8Section 2: Georgia After WWII ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What events affected Georgians after World War II?
9Section 2: Georgia After WWII What words do I need to know?National School Lunch ActGeorgia Minimum Foundation Program for Education Actone-person, one-vote conceptreapportionment
10An Atlanta Tragedy December 7, 1946: Winecoff Hotel fire Hotel was Atlanta’s tallest at 15 floorsThere were nearly 300 guests; 119 killed1948: Georgia enacted stricter fire codes for hotels and other businesses
11Industries Move into Georgia Businesses continued to move into the stateAir conditioning began to be installed making year round work more comfortableGeorgia’s low taxes were attractive to workers and businessesLockheed became largest employerCDC: Centers for Disease Control – Atlanta headquarters established
12The Three Governors Episode Newly re-elected governor Eugene Talmadge died before taking officeThe previous governor, Ellis Arnall, the Lieutenant Governor, and Talmadge’s son, Herman, fought over who would governThe Georgia Supreme Court ruled that a special election must be heldHerman Talmadge was elected
13Georgia GovernorsMelvin Thomas: purchased Jekyll Island to build a state-owned resort; established UGA Veterinary SchoolHerman Talmadge: Minimum Foundation Program for Education Act – established 9-month school year raised standards for schoolsMarvin Griffin: began educational television; oversaw purchase of Stone Mountain for park
14“One Person, One Vote”The concept that each citizen’s vote should equal every other citizen’s voteCounty-unit system was declared unconstitutional in 1962This change caused more representatives to come from urban areasGeneral Assembly had to reapportion (redraw) voting districts to ensure districts of equal population size
15Georgia GovernorsCarl Sanders: elected in 1962; worked to diffuse racial violence; increased spending on education; used television ads to campaignLester Maddox: elected 1967; surprise winner; appointed more African Americans to state office than all other governors combined; integrated the State Patrol; “People’s Days” – any Georgian could visit and talk with the governorClick to return to Table of Contents.
16Section 3: The Civil Rights Movement ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat advances were made in civil rights during the postwar period?
17Section 3: The Civil Rights Movement What words do I need to know?Brown v. Board of EducationSouthern Christian Leadership ConferenceSit-inStudent Nonviolent Coordinating CommitteeCivil Rights Act of 1964Voting Rights Act of 1965
18Section 3: The Civil Rights Movement What people do I need to know?Martin Luther King, Jr.Charlayne Hunter & Hamilton HolmesIvan AllenAndrew Young
19The Supreme Court and Education 1948: racial integration ordered in armed forces1950: Brown v. Board of Education – case struck down “separate but equal” concept; schools were to be integratedSibley Commission: found that most Georgians would rather close schools than integrateMore private schools opened1961: Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes first African American students at UGA1971: All Georgia public schools integrated
20Montgomery Bus Boycott Dec. 1, 1955: Rosa Parks, African American, refused to give up her bus seat to whites in Montgomery, ALDr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the NAACP organized civic leaders and prepared marchesSupreme court ruled segregation on public transportation unconstitutional
21A Nonviolent Movement is Born Martin Luther King, Jr. of AtlantaDeveloped a nonviolent approach to social changeFour-prong approach:direct, nonviolent actionslegal remediesballotseconomic boycottsSCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference – civil rights group led by Dr. KingSit-in: Dr. King’s strategy to people refuse to leave a public building until their demands are met
22The Albany Movement1961: Albany, GA becomes center of civil rights activitySNCC: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee – challenged segregated bus system in AlbanyNearly 500 people jailedBiracial committee formed to study concerns of African Americans
23Protests Move to Alabama 1963: Martin Luther King, Jr. begins work to integrate all aspects of public life in Birmingham, ALOver 3000 people arrestedBomb killed 4 black children in their churchAfrican Americans and whites from the north and south began to join together to stop the violence
24The Civil Rights Act President Kennedy created new civil rights laws Kennedy was assassinated before the new laws came into effectLyndon Johnson became president and pushed for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964All public facilities had to be integratedDiscrimination was prohibited in business and labor unions
25The Voting Rights Act1964: Freedom Summer – Martin Luther King, Jr. and SNCC worked to get African Americans registered to voteSelma-to-Montgomery, AL march led by Dr. KingNearly 30,000 marchersCongress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 – one million African Americans were registered to vote
26A Shift in MoodSome people moved from the nonviolent strategies to more aggressive onesSNCC and “Black Panthers” confronted policeMalcolm X preached black separatismRace riots in Los Angeles, Detroit, and NewarkApril 1968: Dr. King assassinated in Memphis, TN while working with striking sanitation workers
27Atlanta: A Case Study in Change Integration in Atlanta was relatively peacefulChurch leaders get much credit for this peaceful changeWilliam Hartsfield: Atlanta mayor who expanded Atlanta’s airport and worked with African American and white leaders; worked to integrate Atlanta’s schoolsIvan Allen: Atlanta mayor ordered removal of “white” and “colored” segregation signs in the City Hall; integrated police and fire services and city governmentTroubled times followed but were overcomeThe city became known as “the city too busy to hate”Click to return to Table of Contents.
28Section 4: A Period of Protests and Challenges ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat problems faced Americans during the 1970s?
29Section 4: A Period of Protests and Challenges What words do I need to know?Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authoritywomen’s rights movementaffirmative action programNational Organization for WomenNational Women’s Political CaucusEqual Rights AmendmentTitle IXVietnam WarWatergate
30Georgia in the 1970sTed Turner: TBS television network expanded from one station to a national networkMARTA: Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority – began rapid rail service in AtlantaJames Earl Carter: 1970 – elected governor of Georgia; served as President of the United StatesAs president, negotiated peace between Israel and EgyptProblems as president: high energy costs, high interest rates, high inflation, 52 American hostages held in IranGeorgia cities began to lose population to the suburbsCities have worked to attract residents
31The Women’s Rights Movement Women’s Rights Movement: women gained confidence that they could do the same jobs as men and should have the same rightsWomen often could not get credit at banksNOW: National Organization for Women – promoted women’s rights issuesERA: Equal Rights Amendment – never became part of the Constitution1972: Title IX – President Nixon signed law which prohibited discrimination in education (academics or athletics)
32Vietnam Divides America North Vietnam: communistSouth Vietnam: democraticUSA began support South Vietnam against the North1968: Over 500,000 Americans involved in Vietnam WarProtests against the war increased1973: war ended with no clear victor – Vietnam is now united and communist
33Watergate1972: Group of men arrested for breaking into the Watergate building in Washington, DC to “bug” Democratic National Committee officesEvidence supported that President Nixon knew of the burglary and tried to cover it upNixon resigned and Vice-President Gerald Ford became president
34The Energy Crisis 1973: US supports Israel in its war with Egypt Arab nations stop selling oil to the USPrice of gas went up and there were shortagesGeorgians began to drive less and purchase fuel-efficient carsPrudhoe Bay, Alaska: Alaskan Pipeline brought oil to the “lower 48” statesClick to return to Table of Contents.