Section 1: The Postwar Period ESSENTIAL QUESTION : – How was life in the U.S. different after WWII?
Section 1: The Postwar Period What words do I need to know? –suburbs –baby boom –Cold War –Korean War
Television Changes America Television use expanded in the 1950s1950s Frozen dinners were invented to heat quickly and eat in front of the TV More televisions were in homes and people spent more time watching ABC, CBS, NBC were major networks Entertainment was important People could now watch news events almost as they happened
The Cold War Relations between the US and USSR became tense Cold War: a war of words and diplomacy US and USSR were worlds most powerful countries USSR kept eastern Europe in communism behind the iron curtainiron curtain Containment of communism led to war in Korea and Vietnam
The Korean War Korea was divided after WWII 38 th parallel was line between communist North and democratic South June 25, 1950: North Korea invaded South Korea United Nations countries sent troops to assist South Korea 25,000 Americans killed; 500 Georgians25,000 Americans killed Peace declared in July 1953; no winner Many businesses benefited from doing business with the military bases and armed forces Click to return to Table of Contents.
Section 2: Georgia After WWII ESSENTIAL QUESTION: –What events affected Georgians after World War II?
Section 2: Georgia After WWII What words do I need to know? –National School Lunch Act –Georgia Minimum Foundation Program for Education Act –one-person, one-vote concept –reapportionment
An Atlanta Tragedy December 7, 1946: Winecoff Hotel fireWinecoff Hotel fire Hotel was Atlantas tallest at 15 floors There were nearly 300 guests; 119 killed 1948: Georgia enacted stricter fire codes for hotels and other businesses
Industries Move into Georgia Businesses continued to move into the state Air conditioning began to be installed making year round work more comfortable Georgias low taxes were attractive to workers and businesses Lockheed became largest employerLockheed CDC: Centers for Disease Control – Atlanta headquarters established
The Three Governors Episode Newly re-elected governor Eugene Talmadge died before taking office The previous governor, Ellis Arnall, the Lieutenant Governor, and Talmadges son, Herman, fought over who would govern The Georgia Supreme Court ruled that a special election must be held Herman Talmadge was elected
Georgia Governors Melvin Thomas: purchased Jekyll Island to build a state-owned resort; established UGA Veterinary SchoolJekyll Island Herman Talmadge: Minimum Foundation Program for Education Act – established 9- month school year raised standards for schools Marvin Griffin: began educational television; oversaw purchase of Stone Mountain for parkStone Mountain
One Person, One Vote The concept that each citizens vote should equal every other citizens vote County-unit system was declared unconstitutional in 1962 This change caused more representatives to come from urban areas General Assembly had to reapportion (redraw) voting districts to ensure districts of equal population size
Georgia Governors Carl Sanders: elected in 1962; worked to diffuse racial violence; increased spending on education; used television ads to campaign Lester Maddox: elected 1967; surprise winner; appointed more African Americans to state office than all other governors combined; integrated the State Patrol; Peoples Days – any Georgian could visit and talk with the governor Click to return to Table of Contents.
Section 3: The Civil Rights Movement ESSENTIAL QUESTION – What advances were made in civil rights during the postwar period?
Section 3: The Civil Rights Movement What words do I need to know? –Brown v. Board of Education –Southern Christian Leadership Conference –Sit-in –Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee –Civil Rights Act of 1964 –Voting Rights Act of 1965
Section 3: The Civil Rights Movement What people do I need to know? –Martin Luther King, Jr. –Charlayne Hunter & Hamilton Holmes –Ivan Allen –Andrew Young
The Supreme Court and Education 1948: racial integration ordered in armed forces 1950: Brown v. Board of Education – case struck down separate but equal concept; schools were to be integrated Sibley Commission: found that most Georgians would rather close schools than integrate More private schools opened 1961: Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes first African American students at UGA 1971: All Georgia public schools integrated
Montgomery Bus Boycott Dec. 1, 1955: Rosa Parks, African American, refused to give up her bus seat to whites in Montgomery, AL Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the NAACP organized civic leaders and prepared marches Supreme court ruled segregation on public transportation unconstitutional
A Nonviolent Movement is Born Martin Luther King, Jr. of AtlantaMartin Luther King, Jr. Developed a nonviolent approach to social changenonviolent approach to social change Four-prong approach: –direct, nonviolent actions –legal remedies –ballots –economic boycotts SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference – civil rights group led by Dr. King Sit-in: Dr. Kings strategy to people refuse to leave a public building until their demands are met
The Albany Movement 1961: Albany, GA becomes center of civil rights activity SNCC: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee – challenged segregated bus system in Albany Nearly 500 people jailed Biracial committee formed to study concerns of African Americans
Protests Move to Alabama 1963: Martin Luther King, Jr. begins work to integrate all aspects of public life in Birmingham, AL Over 3000 people arrested Bomb killed 4 black children in their church African Americans and whites from the north and south began to join together to stop the violence
The Civil Rights Act President Kennedy created new civil rights laws Kennedy was assassinated before the new laws came into effect Lyndon Johnson became president and pushed for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 All public facilities had to be integrated Discrimination was prohibited in business and labor unions
The Voting Rights Act 1964: Freedom Summer – Martin Luther King, Jr. and SNCC worked to get African Americans registered to vote Selma-to-Montgomery, AL march led by Dr. King Nearly 30,000 marchers Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 – one million African Americans were registered to vote
A Shift in Mood Some people moved from the nonviolent strategies to more aggressive ones SNCC and Black Panthers confronted police Malcolm X preached black separatism Race riots in Los Angeles, Detroit, and Newark April 1968: Dr. King assassinated in Memphis, TN while working with striking sanitation workers
Atlanta: A Case Study in Change Integration in Atlanta was relatively peaceful Church leaders get much credit for this peaceful change William Hartsfield: Atlanta mayor who expanded Atlantas airport and worked with African American and white leaders; worked to integrate Atlantas schools Ivan Allen: Atlanta mayor ordered removal of white and colored segregation signs in the City Hall; integrated police and fire services and city government Troubled times followed but were overcome The city became known as the city too busy to hate Click to return to Table of Contents.
Section 4: A Period of Protests and Challenges ESSENTIAL QUESTION –What problems faced Americans during the 1970s?
Section 4: A Period of Protests and Challenges What words do I need to know? –Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority –womens rights movement –affirmative action program –National Organization for Women –National Womens Political Caucus –Equal Rights Amendment –Title IX –Vietnam War –Watergate
Georgia in the 1970s Ted Turner: TBS television network expanded from one station to a national networkTBS MARTA: Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority – began rapid rail service in AtlantaMARTA James Earl Carter: 1970 – elected governor of Georgia; served as President of the United StatesJames Earl Carter –As president, negotiated peace between Israel and Egypt –Problems as president: high energy costs, high interest rates, high inflation, 52 American hostages held in Iran Georgia cities began to lose population to the suburbs Cities have worked to attract residents
The Womens Rights Movement Womens Rights Movement: women gained confidence that they could do the same jobs as men and should have the same rights Women often could not get credit at banks NOW: National Organization for Women – promoted womens rights issues ERA: Equal Rights Amendment – never became part of the Constitution 1972: Title IX – President Nixon signed law which prohibited discrimination in education (academics or athletics)
Vietnam Divides America North Vietnam: communist South Vietnam: democratic USA began support South Vietnam against the North 1968: Over 500,000 Americans involved in Vietnam War Vietnam War Protests against the war increased 1973: war ended with no clear victor – Vietnam is now united and communist
Watergate 1972: Group of men arrested for breaking into the Watergate building in Washington, DC to bug Democratic National Committee offices Evidence supported that President Nixon knew of the burglary and tried to cover it up Nixon resigned and Vice-President Gerald Ford became president
The Energy Crisis 1973: US supports Israel in its war with Egypt Arab nations stop selling oil to the US Price of gas went up and there were shortages Georgians began to drive less and purchase fuel-efficient cars Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: Alaskan Pipeline brought oil to the lower 48 states Click to return to Table of Contents.