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1Department of Economics, Management and Industrial Engineering Organization, Program and Structure: An Analysis of Chinese Innovation Policy FrameworkPh.D School on National Systems of Innovation and Economic Development, May 25- June 3, 2004, Lisbon, PortugalCan HuangDepartment of Economics, Management and Industrial EngineeringUniversity of AveiroAveiro, Portugal
2Some Words Before Presentation The paper to be presented is descriptive.My recent quantitative analysis work is added after the presentation of this paper.The motivation and purpose of writing this paper
3Background (1)Transition and development of Chinese economy and society in the past 25 yearsComplicated and diverse change of Chinese innovation policy in the past 25 years
4Background (2) Latest Changes in China till early of 2004 China’s entry to the WTO (2001)Reverse inflow of overseas Chinese (From , 7.5% Doctor Degree of S&T in US is confered to Chinese-born Scientists)Foreign companies have started to establish local R&D centers (More than 100 MNCs)Domestic firms are already sourcing know-how directly in US, Europe and Japan, or have created their own powerhouse of innovation, aiming at compete in the global market (HuaWei and Zhongxing in Telecomnunication, TCL and Haier in Consumer Eletronics, thousands of SMEs, etc.)China’s S&T institutions and universities experienced large scale shake-up and received unprecedented investment from the governemnt. (Gradual transition since 1985; radical one began in 1999)Amend the Constitution to protect the private property right ( March, 2004)
5Background (3) GDP: 6th largest economy in the world International Trade: 4th biggest trader in the worldHighway Kilometers: 2nd in the worldGERD/GDP in 2002: 1.2%R&D Expenditure : 3th largest spender in the world (measured by PPP) (Source: OECD)The number of “Science Citation Index” Papers: 5th in the world(Source: Chinese Government)Patent (US? Or “Triadic” Patent Families) of Nanotechnology: 3rd in the world (Source: Chinese Government)
6QuestionsWhich government bodies have become responsible for innovation policy at the national level?Which organizations can be considered important participants in the process of policy making?To what extent has China developed an innovation policy?In which area of the innovation policy does China do well, and where does it lag behind compared with international practices?
7Steps to Approach the Questions First - Identifies the stakeholders; compares them with different government systems in selected OECD countries.Second - Examine China's innovation policy in five categories: reform in the public S&T institutions, financial policy, business innovation support structure, human resource policy and legislative actions.Third - Several weak components of the Chinese innovation policy framework are identified; two of them are selected for further analyzis: education and human resource policy, and protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR).Fourth – Provides some priorities and possible actions for future innovation policy developments in China.
8The Governance Models of Innovation Policy Matter in China (1) A coordination mechanism in China’s State Council --- State Steering Committee of S&T and Education, founded in 1998.Mission: decides national strategy for S&T and education, important projects and programs in the S&T and education fields, and coordinates the innovation policy in the ministry and local levels.Ministry of Science and Technology ( MOST) --- Center of the design and implementation of innovation policy.Other important stakeholders: Ministry of Education, Chinese Academy of Science, etc..
9Figure 1 Chinese Innovation Policy Institutions Ministry of EducationMinistry of PersonnelPatent and Other IPR IssuesChinese Academy of ScienceMinistry of Science and Technology (MOST)Ministry of CommerceMinistry of FinanceInnovation Fund for Small Technology Based FirmFunding the Basic Research Programs such as 973 Program; Funding the High-Tech R&D Programs such as 863 ProgramState Intellectual Property OfficeProductivity Promotion CenterConducting Research and Promoting InnovationSupport SMEs InnovationR&D Program, Science Park, Human Resource Development related to UniversityTax Relief Policy to Export of High-Tech Products; FDI Preference Policy to High-Tech Industry SectorsState Council – State Steering Committee of S&T and EducationFunding the Technology Transfer Programs such as Spark ProgramOther Government MinistriesPromoting Science Parks and incubators through the programs such as Torch ProgramAttracting Overseas Chinese Scholars, Managing post-doctor program, etc.State Administration for Industry and CommerceCompetition RulesNational Natural Science Foundation of ChinaFunding Basic ResearchNational Development and Reform CommissionDesign and Implement national comprehensive development strategy in the form of 5-year development plan, having great influence in China’s innovation policyMinistry of Information IndustryDesign and Implement the development strategy of ICT sectors in China
10The Governance Models of Innovation Policy Matter in some Selected OECD Countries Three categories of institutional frameworksSimilar practices of Chinese co-ordination structures at ministerial level in the EU countries,In Finland - the Science & Technology Council, chaired by the prime minister, is composed of seven Ministers and ten representative organizations.CategoryExampleNo separation between the government departments that design policy and those that implement measuresUK (This category is very similar to China’s governance system.)Policy is framed by ministries but delivered by semi-autonomous agenciesIrelandInnovation policy framework is more complex with interaction of federal and local governmentsAustria, Belgium, Germany, Spain
11The Policy Actions Implemented in China for Promoting Innovation (1) Some scholars endeavored to create a theoretical scheme to compare the different national innovation system in the diversified social and economic context (Nelson, 1993; Liu and White, 2000; Shyu et al., 2001; Chang and Shih, 2003)The collected literature does not elicit many scattered policies in China to gives us a comprehensive answer, especially for the question in which area the policy has been catching up and in which it is still weak.
12Figure 2 Chinese Innovation Policy Framework Human Resources Policy• Education Development Policy for Basic Education• “211 Project” for Higher Education• Ministry of Education’s Human Resource ProgramsLegislative Actions• IPR and Competition Legislation• S&T Legislation• Education LegislationFinancial Policy• Current S&T Programs (Grants, Loans, Interest Subsidiary, etc.)• Tax Preference Policy and FDI• Venture Capital and Stock MarketBusiness Innovation Support Structure• Science Park and Incubators• China High-Tech Fair• Productivity Promotion CentersReform in the Public S&T InstitutionsFigure 2 Chinese Innovation Policy Framework
13Reform in the Public S&T Institutions (1) Gu (1995) discussed intensively the policy reform for the S&T System in China by dividing the evolution of the reform policy into several phases.Recently, Suttmeier and Cao (1999), Liu and White (2001), Liu and Jiang (2001) and Cao (2002) extended the empirical observation of policy initiative after 1995.However, the analysis on the newest round reform since 1999, called “the transformation of the R&D institutes”, is seldom seen in the published literature.
14Table 1: Chinese Reform Policy for Public S&T Institutions: 1978-2004 PeriodPolicy Actions TargetPolicy ActionsReformation of Planning Practice( )Recover and develop the R&D system and integrate it into the planned economic practices.• Rehabilitation and improvement of R&D institutions after the damage during Culture Revolution ( ).• Integration of R&D activities into the 6th National Five-Year Plan ( ).Performing the S&T activities in the “Market”( )Establish the horizontal and regular connection between S&T sector and enterprises.• Replace the former S&T funding method that is mainly through planned appropriation by the program projects competition mechanism.• Diminish the government grants to force the R&D institution to establish cooperation with industry.• Create a “Technology Market” to legitimize paid transactions for technology and set up the agencies to support the transactions.• Promote the autonomy of R&D institutions and mobility of the S&T Personnel.• Attempt merging the R&D institutions into enterprises.• Support the spin-off enterprises.Bridging S&T activities closely to “ Socialist Market Economy”( )Run non-basic research R&D institutions as run enterprises.• Endow the R&D institutions the comprehensive economic autonomy as the same hold by normal enterprises.• Encourage spin-off activities through promoting science park and incubators.• Continue the merging strategy.Large Scale Transformation of R&D institutions(1999 till now)Transform nearly all of the government owned R&D institutions.• Transform the R&D institutions into enterprises, non-profit organizations, intermediary organizations or merged them into universities.
15Table 2: Transformation of Public R&D Institutions in China After 1999 Transformation YearNumber of Transformed R&D InstitutionsOwners of the Transformed R&D InstitutionsStatus After TransformationPreliminary ResultMOST Survey in 2002 May on 290 Transformed R&D Institutions1999242Ex-State Economy and Trade CommissionEnterprises• Revenue in 2001: 1.5 times of in 1999; Profit in 2001: 2.6 times of in 1999; Tax in 2001: 1.9 times of in 1999.• R&D expenditure annual increase rate in 2001: 16.2%; in 2000: 6.84%.• Patent application annual increase rate in 2001: 9.6%.• Employee average salary in 2001: 142.6% of that in 1999.• 92.6% of them set up enterprises accounting system; 88.65% entered the local unemployment insurance; over 10 of them went public in the stock market.200013411 Ministries: Ministry of Construction, etc.660Local Governments2001984 Ministries and Agencies: Ministry of Land and Resources, etc.89 institutions: Non-profit Organizations61 institutions: EnterprisesOthers: Merged into universities, transformed into intermediary organizationsN/A20021079 Ministries and Agencies: Ministry of Agriculture, etc.2004435 Ministries and Agencies: Ministry of Health etc.
16Financial Policy (1)• Current Current S&T Programs (Grants, Loans, Interest Subsidiary, etc.)• Tax Preference Policy and FDI• Venture Capital and Stock Market
17Table3: China’s current S&T programs Initiating YearObjectiveProgram CharacteristicsKey Technology R&D Program(Gong Guan Ji Hua)1983Concentrate resources on key and common technologies that direly needed by industrial upgrading and social sustainable development.The program target set in 10th five-year plan from 2001 to 2005 is:1) By 2005 the general agriculture technology is increased to the level that lags behind international advanced level 5 years; 2)The technology and equipment level in several key industry sectors like ICT and manufacturing sector matches the level of developed countries in the mid of 1990s;3) Develop the technology related to environment protection and sustainable development; 4) Support the enterprises to be the major technological innovators.State Key Laboratories Program(Guo Jia Zhong Dian Shi Yan Shi Ji Hua)1984Support selected laboratories at public or private facilities.This program is intended to promote the research and advanced training in the 159 laboratories (2002 data) belonging to universities and R&D institutions and establish a string of national engineering research centers.Spark Program(Huo Ju ji Hua)1986Support technology transfer to rural area to promote the rural area development.In 1990s the government appropriation for this program hardly surpassed 5%. The bank loan and enterprises own capital occupied the majority investment of the projects. In fact, the projects sponsored by this program attain the government credit for the bank loan application. In 2000, 16.8% of total investment of this program came from bank loans.National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)(Guo Jia Zi Ran Ke Xue Ji Jin)Support basic research through directly funding the projects.From its establishment of 1986 to 2000, the NSFC has funded over 52,000 research projects of various categories by investing a total sum of RMB 6.6 billion. More than 60,000 scientists are supported by NSFC to conduct basic research. In 2004, the NSFC received over 40,000 funding applications.High Technology R&D Program (863 Program)(863 Ji Hua)Enhance China's international competitiveness and improve China's overall capability of R&D in high technology.The Program is concentrating on mid to long-term development in both civilian and military areas. This Program is co-managed by MOST and the Commission of S&T and Industry for National Defense. The Program covers 20 subject topics selected from eight priority areas: Biotechnology, Information, Automation, Energy, Advanced Materials, Marine, and Space and Laser. Recent years 863 program continuously increased the funding for R&D projects undertaken by enterprise.National New Product Program(Guo Jia Zhong Dian Xin Chan Pin Ji Hua)1988Compile the annual list of new and high technology product and fund those products selectively through the grants and interest subsidiary.In 2002, 71.86% of the program’s funding is by the means of grants and 28.14% is through interest subsidiary.
18Table3: China’s current S&T programs (Cont. ) National New Product Program(Guo Jia Zhong Dian Xin Chan Pin Ji Hua)1988Compile the annual list of new and high technology product and fund those products selectively through the grants and interest subsidiary.In 2002, 71.86% of the program’s funding is by the means of grants and 28.14% is through interest subsidiary.Torch Program(Huo Ju Ji Hua)Support high technology industry sector development through setting up science park and incubator, funding projects, and human resource training etc.By the end of 2003, through Torch Program the governments have established the structure such as science park, incubator, software park, university science park etc. Inside these science parks and incubators, 28,504 high technology enterprises had been founded and created 3.49 million jobs. The program had funded 10,261 projects.Key Basic Science R&D Program (973 Program)(973 Ji Hua)1997Support basic science research.The 973 Program’s specific tasks are to support the implementation of key basic research in important scientific areas related to agriculture, energy resources, information, resources & environment, and population & health; to provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for innovation; to foster human resource; and to establish a number of high level scientific research units.The Innovation Fund for Small Technology Based Firms (IFSTBF)(Ke Ji Xing Zhong Xiao Qi Ye Chuang Xin Ji Jin)1999Support the establishment of Newly Technology Based Firms.The financial support includes interest subsidiary, grants and capital investment. The fund connects to Key Technology R&D Program, 863 program and Torch Program to facilitate the technology transfer from the R&D projects funded by them.
19Financial Policy (3)The biggest three funding programs led by MOST in 2004:• 863 Program• Key Technology R&D Program• 973 ProgramHolding 72% of the funding managed by MOST for R&D in the country. (National Natural Science Foundation of China is independent from MOST and reports directly to State Council.)
20Table 4: The Funding for Current Chinese S&T Program (1996-2004) (Unit: Billion RMB) Key Technology R&D Program1.0641.5454N/A1.51.18%National Key Laboratories Program1.5421.7372.2121.72%Spark Program28.80435.75434.00838.4348.21353.83%National Science Foundation of China0.6460.7770.8891.0841.2841.5981.9682.2461.43%863 Program20.450.650.670.80.9Over 2Over 45.51.00%National New Product Program0.1350.140.13860.16%973 ProgramNot Start0.62540.70%1996199719981999200020012002200320043Ratio of Funding in 2000 to Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD)5The Innovation Fund for Small Technology Based Firms0.8160.6950.5NA0.78%
21Financial Policy (3)The biggest three funding programs led by MOST in 2004:• 863 Program• Key Technology R&D Program• 973 ProgramHolding 72% of the funding managed by MOST for R&D in the country. (National Natural Science Foundation of China is independent from MOST and reports directly to State Council.)
22Financial Policy (4)Chinese central government continuously implements tax advantage and deduction policies targeted towards foreign investors, but shifts the focus of preference fiscal policy from low-tech and labor-intensive industry to high-tech manufacture and service sectors.In July 2003 MOST and the Ministry of Commerce developed a list of high-tech products that China’s government is going to attract FDI to produce in China.Currently in China, there does not exist a specific law to regulate venture capital development.At the local level the Shenzhen, Chongqing, Shenyang municipal governments have enacted some local regulations to protect and promote venture capital development in their administrative areas.
23Financial Policy (5)Additionally, the Chinese stock market is acting in support of high technology companies listed on the market.By August 1999, the listed high technology companies accounted for 17.8% of all companies listed.Their average earnings per share and return on equity compared with the average of the ordinary listed companies are 64% and 45.5% higher respectively (Zhou, 1999).The debate of the feasibility of creation of “Chinese NASDAQ” has not concluded yet and recently it seemed that the favorable decision for the establishment of Chinese SME board has been made (Securities Times, 2004)
24Business Innovation Support Structure (1) By 2002 at the national level aloneover 400 business incubators53 high-technology development zonesThey have been developed through governmental support, mainly through Torch Program.They contributed much to build China as “World Factory”
25Table 5: Chinese Science Park and Incubator Development (Unit: Billion RMB) Total Revenue of the 53 National High-Technology Zones18.7323.0956.3694.26152.9230.03338.78483.96677.48920.93Output Value of the Enterprises inside 53 National High-technology Zones17.1218.6844.7385.27140.28214.23310.92433.36594.36794.2Output Value at Current Prices of High Technology Sector across China1,2409.8490.9597.2711.1821.71041.11226.3Output Value at Current Prices of Manufacture Sector across China1,248705130.15998.55966.86395.47510.88442.1Ratio of Output Value of the Enterprises inside 53 National High-technology Zones to Output Value at Current Prices of High Technology Sector across China34.23%43.64%52.06%60.94%72.33%76.28%82.50%Ratio of Output Value of the Enterprises inside 53 National High-technology Zones to Output Value at Current Prices of Manufacture Sector across China2.88%4.18%5.18%7.26%9.29%10.57%11.98%Number of Incubator4361739010077110131280436Number of Tenants5001,0131,5001,3901,8542,4762,6704,1385,2937,69312,82123,37319911992199419951996199719981999200020012002Number of Graduated Tenants1903646488251,3161,9342,7703,9946,927
26Business Innovation Support Structure (3) As an intermediary event, China Hi-Tech Fair (CHTF) now receives strong support from the central government to play a role of linking Chinese and overseas high-tech industry sectors.Productivity Promotion Centers (PCCs) in China are deemed for a group of intermediary and consulting organizations, established since 1992 throughout the country to support innovation in the business sector.
27Strengthening Human Resources Measures Figure 3 Ministry of Education’s Human Resource ProgramsSource: Ministry of Education, 2002Cheung Kong Scholar Program(Chang Jiang Xue Zhe Jiang Li Ji Hua)University Young Scholar Award(Gao Xiao Qing Nian Jiao Shi Jiang)New Century Talents Training Program(Kua Shi Ji You Xiu Ren Cai Pei Yang Ji Hua)Promising Young Scholar Funding Program(You Xiu Qing Nian Jiao Shi Zi Zhu Ji Hua)University Key Scholar Funding Program(Gao Deng Xue Xiao Gu Gan Jiao Shi Zi Zhu Ji Hua)Overseas Returnee Scientific Research Fund(Liu Xue Hui Guo Ren Yuan Ke Yan Qi Dong Zi Jin)First LevelSecond LevelThird Level
28Legislative Actions In the competition and IPR protection field In the S&T and innovation fieldIn the education field
29The Analysis of China’s Innovation Policy in the OECD context (1) The EU launched a project in 1999 entitled “ Trend Chart on Innovation in Europe”. We try to utilize innovation policy classification in Trend Chart database, which contains the EU countries’ diversified practices in innovation policy, to present the difference between Chinese and EU countries’ policy development..And we also cite the data from “OECD Science Technology Industry Scoreboard 2003” to form a quantitative illustration of the China and OECD innovation performance discrepancy.
30Table 6: Comparison of innovation policy objectives in China and the European Countries The EU Trend Chart Innovation Policy Classification SystemExamples of Policy Practices in ChinaPolicy CategoryPolicy PriorityFostering an Innovation CultureEducation and initial and further trainingRegulations on Degrees (1980), Compulsory Education Law (1986), Teachers Law (1993), Education Law (1995), Vocation al Education Law (1996) and Higher Education Law (1998) showed the government’s legislative efforts since 1980s. “211 Project” and series of award and training programs including Cheung Kong Scholars Program proved the recent policy actions. However, the education and training in China are still insufficiently invested. The further discussion is seen in the paper section 4.1.Mobility of students, research workers and teachersPolicy co-developed by Ministry of Education and Ministry of Personnel, supporting foreign experts working in China, attracting overseas Chinese students and scholars to return, and encouraging the placement of Ph.D graduate for post doctoral research in enterprises.Raising the awareness of the larger public and involving those concernedEnactment of Dissemination of Science and Technology Knowledge Law (2002). Tax preference policy to activities and institutions disseminating S&T knowledge. Grants for the project of increasing public awareness of S&T.Fostering innovative organizational and management practices in enterprisesNot Available.Public authorities and support to innovation policy-makersPromotion of clustering and co-operation for innovationMany of the strategies are developed by local governments. For example, the cooperation of the Shanghai municipal government and other neighboring provinces in the Yangtze river delta for strategy design and the similar one among Guangdong province, Hong kong, Macau and other neighboring provinces in south of China.Establishing a Framework conducive to InnovationCompetitionEnactment of Unfair Competition Law (1993), Protecting Consumer’s Rights and Interests Law (1993) and Regulations on Anti-dumping and Anti-subsidization (1997), Price Law (1998) justified the government’s legislative efforts. However, this young competition policy regime needs to be improved and strengthened (Lin, 2003).
31Table 6: Comparison of innovation policy objectives in China and the European Countries (Cont.) Establishing a Framework conducive to InnovationCompetitionEnactment of Unfair Competition Law (1993), Protecting Consumer’s Rights and Interests Law (1993) and Regulations on Anti-dumping and Anti-subsidization (1997), Price Law (1998) justified the government’s legislative efforts. However, this young competition policy regime needs to be improved and strengthened (Lin, 2003).Protection of intellectual and industrial propertyMOST issued several regulations on IPR protection and exploitation. State Intellectual Property Office launched the projects to strengthen the awareness in the innovation-intensified organizations and disseminate the result to the populace. However, the IPR policy in China is still needed to restructured and improved. The further discussion is seen in this paper section 4.2.Administrative simplificationRegulations of simplifying administration to encourage creation of Newly Technology Based Firms (hereafter NTBFs) and attract FDI.Amelioration of legal and regulatory environmentsLegislative actions taken in China cover the field of IPR, S&T and education, etc. The further discussion is seen in this paper section 3.5.Innovation financingFoundation of IFSTBF.TaxationTax preference policy for encouraging creation of NTBFs and attracting FDI. However, the current tax preference policy for encouraging innovation in the established enterprises did not achieve excellent performance (Wu, 2003).Gearing Research to InnovationStrategic vision of research and developmentOngoing development of an outline document “ Chinese National Science and Technology Development Plan”.Strengthening research carried out by companiesSome tax preference policy for enterprises in some industry sectors, like in integrated circuit manufacture sector. However, the effect of this group of fiscal policy is weak according to Wu (2003). 863 Program increasingly supported the R&D projects done in industry. In 2002, 30% of the projects financed by the program are implemented in the enterprises (863 Program, 2004)Start-up of technology- based companiesPolicies targeting science parks and incubators, attracting overseas Chinese to set up NTBFs in China.Intensified co-operation between research, universities and companiesCreated a new type of agency titled “Technology Transfer Center” in 2003.Strengthening the ability of companies, particularly SMEs, to absorb technologies and know-howNot Available.
32Table 7: Selected Science and Technology Indicators for China and some OECD and non-OECD Countries Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D GERD (million current PPP$)172,076.806,359.7014,190.402,129.70162,813.30578,749.4013,96,532.302,367.709,232.70252,938.50GERD as a percentage of GDP11.294.7184.108.40.2062.331.0723.090.674.272.82Total Researchers per Thousand Total Employment11.10N/A7.509.005.8026.5022.90210.203.8010.608.603Percentage of GERD financed by Industry157.60269.60232.90255.00256.2063.6043.00473.0030.8071.9068.30Percentage of GERD financed by Government133.40224.70254.80240.30234.5028.9050.80418.5064.8021.0026.90Business Enterprises Expenditure on R&D BERD (million current PPP$) 144,099.204,643.509,915.701,308.20105,121.20403,243.607,275.2071,119.10848.407,166.80188,122.80BERD as a percentage of GDP10.793.460.871.341.0621.480.4342.250.213.071.92Number of “Triadic” Patent Families Per Million Population50.05554.1670.49019.11835.89737.41712.10389.4000.23394.21652.712Number of Patents in the ICT Sector Applications to the EPO Per Million Population50.03161.7140.32022.17735.31330.7549.36060.8100.12988.79340.337ChinaIsraelRussian FederationSingaporeEU 15OECD TotalItalyJapanPolandSwedenUSNumber of Patents in the Biotechnology Sector Applications to the EPO Per Million Population50.00811.7390.0952.2945.3415.1531.0424.6910.0527.4569.634
33The Analysis of China’s Innovation Policy in the OECD context (5) The areas that Chinese Innovation Policy are deemed to be undeveloped:Education and initial and further training;Fostering innovative activities including promoting the research carried out in enterprises, particularly SMEs;Public authorities and support to innovation policy-makers;Protection of intellectual and industrial property;Innovation financing;Intensified co-operation between research, universities and companies.
34Education and Human Resources (1) China’s education reform since 1980s has been discussed comprehensively in the literature, from the point of view of public policy (Kwong, 1996; Mok and Wat, 1998; Yang, 1998), the finance (Tsang, 1996), and the legislation (Law, 2002). Some empirical studies (Liu, 2004) and even the official address of the Chinese leaders (Zhu, 2001) also provided evidence for the conclusion reached in the theoretical analyses.OECD and UNESCO’ s World Education Indicators (WEI) ProgramWEI Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malaysia, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tunisia, Uruguay, Zimbabwe.China not only lags much behind the OECD countries’ average level in many indicators but also stays in an unfavorable situation compared with WEI countries.
35Table 8: China’s Education Performance in World Education Indicators Program China’s PerformanceWEI AverageOECD AverageRatio of China’s performance to WEI AverageRatio of China’s performance to OECD AverageSchool Expectancy for a five-year-old Child (Year) (2000)10.313.016.879.2%61.3%Gross Entry Rates to Upper Secondary Education (2000)42%64%-65.6%Entry Rates to Tertiary Education (2000)14%40%60%35.0%23.3%Average Years of Schooling in the Population Aged (Years) (2000)5.967.6378.1%Public Expenditure on Educational as a Percentage of GDP (1999)220.127.116.11.8%40.4%Relative Proportion of Private Expenditure on Education Institutions (1999)44.2%28.3%12%156.2%368.3%
36Education and Human Resources (3) The Education Law stipulates that the governments of various levels have the legal obligation of enforcing that “ the increase of education expenditure of government at various levels shall be at a higher rate than the growth of normal financial revenue”.However, after its promulgation in 1995, the increase rate of total education appropriation of central and local governments in 1996 and 1997 were still lower than that of budgetary revenue. From 1999 to 2001 the central government itself failed to fulfill this legal obligation.Additionally, after the implementation of the reform strategy of education finance decentralization and diversification, local government’s appropriation dominates public expenditure in education, showed by the decreasingly low ratio of appropriation of central governments to local government.
37Table 9: China’s Budgetary Appropriation for Education in 1990s 19911992199319941995199619971998199920002001Data BreakdownGovernment Appropriation for Education Expenditure1(Thousand RMB)45,970,00053,870,00064,440,00088,400,000102,840,000121,190,00015,707,73019,966,66021,539,61021,854,19226,655,680Central Government120,064,900136,592,510160,036,363186,713,728231,581,939Local GovernmentGovernment Budgetary Revenue1 (Thousand RMB)314,948,000348,337,000434,895,000521,810,000624,220,000740,799,000422,692,000489,200,000584,921,000698,917,000858,274,000442,422,000498,395,000559,487,000640,606,000780,330,000Annual Increase Rate of Government Appropriation for Education Expenditure 15.9%17.2%19.6%37.2%16.3%17.8%12.0%27.1%7.9%1.5%22.0%13.8%16.7%24.0%Annual Increase Rate of Government Budgetary Revenue17.2%10.6%24.8%20.0%18.7%16.8%15.7%19.5%22.8%12.7%12.3%14.5%21.8%Ratio of Appropriation of Central Governments to Local GovernmentN/A13.1%14.6%13.5%11.7%11.5%
38Protection of Intellectual and Industrial Property (1) Since 1990s the issue of protection of IPR in China has been not only a national economic and juridical dilemma, but also a significant economic and political concern for a number of industry interest groups and governments in developed countries.The piracy problem in China has provoked much dispute between Chinese and its western counterparts, particularly between China and US (Oksenberg et al., 1996).According to Business Software Alliance (2003), China had still the second highest piracy rate with 92% in the world after Vietnam and caused losses of US$ 2.4 billion in 2002, representing 44% of the total dollar losses in the Asia/Pacific region and 18% of the total world dollar losses.
39Table 10: Estimated Trade Losses (US$ Millions) Due to Piracy and Piracy Rate in China: 1999-2003 Industry19992000200120022003LossPiracy RateMotion Pictures120.090%160.088%168.091%178.095%Records and Music70.093%47.0248.0286.0Business Software Applications1437.2765.194%1140.292%1637.3N/AEntertainment Software1382.599%455.096%568.2Books128.0130.040.0Total2137.7-1085.11932.51893.3
40Protection of Intellectual and Industrial Property (3) Oksenberg et al. (1996) examine the cultural and historical tradition of the denounced performance of IPR protection in China, that is, the Confucian tradition and the policy of the regimes in most of the time of the 20th century, particularly in the Mao Era ( ).However, recently Yang and Maskus (2003) demonstrated under the certain condition, the stronger IPR protection in the South would increase the rate of innovation and the extent of high-quality licensing from the North to the South. The condition specified in their work that the labor force input in innovation must be sufficiently small compared with that in production and the labor cost in the South must be sufficiently low, perfectly matches the case of China.Clarke (2001) pointed that stronger institutions and better protection of property rights encourage greater R&D expenditures in developing countries.
41ConclusionFuture Possible Priority for Chinese Innovation Policy Actions:It is clear that in China education must be set as the priority in central and local governments’ budget appropriation and outlays.Moreover, it is necessary to define a long-term strategy to strengthen the legal and administrative regimes for IPR issues, especially at the local level. A “Rigorous Policy for IPR Protection”.
42Recent Quantitative Work (1) Focus:The latest Performance of Chinese S&T InstitutionsThe Efficiency Change of Chinese S&T Institutions since the reform began in 1985Background:The innovation system in planned economy:Enterprises are not the center of innovation; research is seperatedly carried out in S&T institutions without the much interaction with the enterprises;extreme low mobility of R&D personnel, idea, fund etc; S&T institutions are run inefficiently.The innovation system in market economy:Firms are the center; R&D institutions interact strongly with the firms; high mobility of resources etc.; market mechanism ensure the efficiency of the S&T activities
43Table 1 S&T Institutions’ Weight in China’s Innovation System: 1987-2001 YearS&T InstitutionsRatio of value of S&T Institutions to the SumUniversitiesRatio of the value of Universities to the SumRatio of the value of Enterprises to the SumSumR&D Personnel (Thousand Person Year, Full Time Equivalent)19871385.8647.23%178.2921.82%252.7830.94%1991201.00N/A145.001995185.0031.41%144.0024.45%260.0044.14%1999168.0021.76%176.0022.80%428.0055.44%2001148.0016.88%171.0019.50%558.0063.63%R&D Expenditure (Billion RMB, Current Price)1987210.6860.70%0.703.98%6.2135.32%7.9052.21%1.379.05%5.8638.73%14.6644.34%4.2312.79%14.1742.86%26.0845.42%6.3511.06%24.9943.52%28.8534.63%10.2412.29%44.2353.08%
44Table 1 S&T Institutions’ Weight in China’s Innovation System: 1987-2001 (Cont.) YearS&T InstitutionsRatio of value of S&T Institutions to the SumUniversitiesRatio of the value of Universities to the SumRatio of the value of Enterprises to the SumSumPatent of Invention Application (Items)1987329.35%21.65%49.00%1991831.0033.15%718.0028.64%958.0038.21%1995865.0034.26%574.0022.73%43.01%199923.99%988.0016.77%59.24%200118.13%17.97%63.90%
45Patent vs GERD: OECD (1999 Data ) and Selected Non-OECD Countries (2000 Data)
46Patent vs Researcher (FTE): Selected OECD and non-OECD Countries (1998 Data)
47Some hypothetic reasons for these two graphics (1) 1st: China is not doing frontier research to let Chinese patent in US, Europe and Japan.(Possible Contradictory Evidence: Publication Data (I failed to find, somebody could help me?))2nd: China is doing some frontier reseach ( It is reported that only 15% scientific research projects in China approach the leading level in the world) , but in the area where the company does not patent; or due to lack of incentives to patent; or due to limited consciousness of Chinese Scientists; or due to exclusive right of patenting belonging to MNCs.(Possible Contradictory Evidence: Survey Data; Qualitative Interview)3rd: The low quality Chinese statistics data for GERD and Researcher (FTE), i.e.,the denominator is larger than the true value(Possible Contradictory Evidence: Qualitative Interview)
48Some hypothetic reasons for these two graphics (2) If the first three hypotheses are not disproved (Personal intuition: the publication data might show a different picture),4th: Till 2000, the patent data shows that the reform begining in 1985 has not fundamentally improved the R&D performance in Chinese S&T institutions in the international context.
49Some hypothetic reasons for these two graphics (3) If this hypothetic reason is true, several possible reasons explaining the low performance in Chinese S&T sector:1st: Condition Insufficiency Hypothesis. Poor scientific facilities and research condition in China. Only a small number of scientist, mainly in Beijing and Shanghai can utilize the advanced equipments. A majority of Chinese scientist are still poorly paid.2nd:Resource Mis-Allocation Hypothesis. Low efficient evaluation system (project evaluation; fund allocation; scientist performance evaluation and cronyism; corruption and plagiarism etc.) (Nature, 2002, 2003, 2004)3rd:Confucian Culture and Politics Hypothsis. Hierarchy in society; fear of challenging the superior; lack of academic freedom etc. (Nature, 2004)
50One Simple Regression Test Structural Stability of Regresion Model: Y i = a1 + a2 DYi + ß1X I +ß2(DY i* X I )+ųIf regard 1994 as a turning point, (DYi = 0| i <1994; DYi = 1| i>=1994)Note: Do not consider the “distributed-lag” effect of patent simply because country patent data of China are highly correlated in various continious year ( ) (Pearson Correlation of Patent Application t and lagged Patent Application t-1 is 0.923, I.e. significant at 0.01 level).All Variables are in Logarithm.Y I : Patent ApplicationModel 1: X I : R&D Expenditure (The data before 1990 is not available. Regress the data of S&T Activities Budget on the data of R&D Expenditure after 1990 to estimate the data before (Adj. R2=0.964))Model 2: X I : R&D Researchers (Full Time Equivalent) (The data before 1990 is not available. Regress the data of Scientist and Engineers on the data of R&D Researchers after 1990 to estimate the data before (Adj. R2= 0.739))
51Regression Result Model 1 1993 Model 2 1994 1995 a1 5.055 *** 13.043 5.054***12.1715.177 ***12.004a2-2.994.207**.244***(High Collinearity, Excluded)ß1.303 ***-.465-.363.287 ***-.347ß2.303.020.439 **.014.605 ***.032 **Adj. R2.823.37.855.319.874.35** Significant at the 5% level.*** Significant at the 1% level.
52Regression Explaination and Future Work The R&D Expenditure efficiency has significant improved since 1994.Regarding 1995 as a turning point, the model fits better the data, which means one year after the government implemented the reform policy comprehensively and fundamentally, the efficiency jumped. More strictly speaking, the Chinese S&T institutions achieved more research outcome which could be patented or are inclined to patent more since 1995.The Researchers data failed to test the efficiency change, probably because the change of the staff number from 1985 to 2002 is irrelevant to the scientific activities, or because my before-1990 data estimation method does not work.Future Work:Test Publication Data (Again, I can not find the data. I guess they do not exist!)
53General ConclusionThe reform and transition taking place in Chinese S&T Institutions since significantly improved the efficiency or productivity of the scientific activities, if we measure the output through patent application in China.However, China is still far behind the world leading level in terms of scientific performance, if we measure the output through patent application of “Triadic Patent Families”.