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For a better tomorrow for all Japan International Cooperation Agency Presented by T. Yasunaga & Supported by PBI Project US National Science Foundation.

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Presentation on theme: "For a better tomorrow for all Japan International Cooperation Agency Presented by T. Yasunaga & Supported by PBI Project US National Science Foundation."— Presentation transcript:

1 For a better tomorrow for all Japan International Cooperation Agency Presented by T. Yasunaga & Supported by PBI Project US National Science Foundation Ram Keshari Duwal Endangered in Nepal Biodiversity of the Orthotylinae and Phylinae in Nepal

2 Main aim of this presentation Continuing Survey in Nepal, as JICA Senior Volunteer (ODA) Program, from Apr to Mar Continuing Survey in Nepal, as JICA Senior Volunteer (ODA) Program, from Apr to Mar Species Diversity of the Miridae in Nepal, with Emphasis on Orthotyline and Phyline Faunal Research Linked with Planetary Biodiversity Inventory (PBI) Project Species Diversity of the Miridae in Nepal, with Emphasis on Orthotyline and Phyline Faunal Research Linked with Planetary Biodiversity Inventory (PBI) Project Characteristics of Nepali Faunal Composition Characteristics of Nepali Faunal Composition New Findings of Unique Taxa New Findings of Unique Taxa Current Natural Condition of Nepal Current Natural Condition of Nepal Further Research Plan and Issues Further Research Plan and Issues

3 Cold temperate to boreal Temperate to subtropics Subtropics or tropics Zoogeographical maps for Nepal

4 Investigation Sites in Nepal Temperate warm temperate zones: Kathmandu Valley (A) [1,400-2,000 m] Warm temperate subtropics: Pokhara Valley (B) [600-1,200 m] Temperate boreal: Sagarmatha (C); Langtang (D); Mustang (E) [1,600-5,000 m] Subtropics tropics: Chitwan (F) [ m] (Top 10 summits of the world) 1. Everest (Sagarmatha): 8,848 m2. K2: 8,611 m 3. Kanchenjunga: 8,586 m4. Lhotse: 8,516 m 5. Makalu: 8,463 m6. Cho-Oyu: 8,201 m 7. Dhaulagiri: 8,167 m8. Manaslu: 8,163 m 9. Nanga Parbat: 8,125 m 10. Annapurna: 8,091 m

5 Nepali Natural Environ I: Subboreal & Alpine zones Yak, most common mammal in Himal alpine zone, very harmful to mirids! Tibet-like mountain step, Mustang Himal (3,600m) Typical Himalayan glacier and glacier lake, Langtang Natl Park (3,900m) Subboreal conifer/deciduous forests in Sagarmatha Natl Park (3,500-4,000m)

6 Nepali Natural Environ II: Temperate & Warm Temperate zones Deciduous forests, with Quercus, Alnus, Acer, sometimes with Pinus or evergreen broadleaves Langtang Himal (2,600m) Kathmandu Valley (1,600m) Evergreen broadleaf forests, with Castanopsis, Mallotus, some tropical herbages, Pokhara ( m) Castanopsis inflorescences, with Annapurna Himal view Begnas Lake

7 Nepali Natural Environ III: Subtropics & Tropics Savanna-like vegetation of Chitwan Natl Park (<120m), with view of Manaslu Range Subtropical vegetation near Trisuli ( m) Tropical forests found along Indian border; daily maximum temperature often over 40 centigrade in summer

8 Characteristics of Nepali fauna Altitude gap effecting isolation and distribution Derived from various origins Palearctic + Old World (sub)tropical species Species from different origins often co-inhabiting (particularly in mid-hill area, 500-1,500 m alt.) Three faunal zones recognizable, basically differentiated by climate & altitude Natural condition now modified rapidly Alpine fauna (especially, herb-inhabitants) nearly being exterminated by limitless pasturage of Yak ; also, temperate forests seriously endangered

9 Example I: Vertical distribution pattern of Bryocoris spp. along Langtang Himal trekking route B. sp. b: 1,600-2,400 m B. sp. c: 1,700 m > B. sp. a: 2,200- 3,000 m

10 Example II: Occurrence of two Mecomma spp. in Langtang National Park

11 Mirid species found in Nepal from Apr to Jun N: Total number of species found A: Previously recorded from NEP B: Described but unrecorded species C: Undescribed or undetermined * Record of 3/8 species apparently based on misidentification GeneraNABC ______________________________________________ Isometopinae Psallopinae - Cylapinae Orthotylinae Phylinae Bryocorinae Deraeocorinae Mirinae 66 8*1840 _______________________________________________ Total

12 Orthotylines found in Nepal from Apr to Jun GeneraNABC ______________________________________________________ Coridromius 22 Cyrtorhinus 1 1 Mecomma 2 2 Pseudoloxops [sensu lato] 3 3 Zanchius [sensu lato] Genus (tribe) undetermined 1 1 ______________________________________________________ Total N: Total number of species found A: Previously recorded from NEP B: Described but unrecorded species C: Undescribed or undetermined Cyrtorhinus lividipennis

13 Phylines found in Nepal from Apr to Jun GeneraNAB ______________________________________ Hallodapus2 2 Gen. I (Leucophoropterini) 1 1 Bilirania1 1 Druthmarus1 1 Pilophorus3 12 Sthenaridea1 1 Atractotomoidea2 2 Campylomma5 23 Decomia2 2 Europiella2 2 Lasiolabops2 11 Moissonia3 12 Opuna3 2 Rubrocuneocoris 1 1 Sejanus4 22 Tytthus1 1 Gen. II2 2 Gen. III2 2 Gen. IV (nr Psallus) 1 1 Gen. V (nr Pityopsallus) 1 1 Gen. VI4 4 Gen. VII (nr Plagiognathus) 1 1 _______________________________________ Total N: Total number of species found A: Described but not previously recorded from Nepal B: Undescribed or undetermined * No reliable record currently available from Nepal Decomia near okutoshii

14 Members of this group found to be most diverse, ranging from tropical forests to subboreal Betula (4,000m) Most species likely to be undescribed; identity of only one species (Z. annulatus) determined Associated principally with homopteran leafhoppers Like Pseudoloxops-Aretus complex, required a critical re-evaluation for generic as well as tribal revel classification Species diversity found in Zanchius [s. lato] in Nepal

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16 Unique Phylines Newly Discovered - Species of an undetermined genus - Only a female currently available… Sp. 1: Castanopsis inhabitant (1,400-1,800 m) Sp. 2: Quercus inhabitant (2,300-3,000 m) Sp. 4: Quercus inhabitant (1,800m) Sp. 3: Rosaceous broadleaf inhabitant (2,300-2,600 m)

17 Further Work Plan in Nepal Continuing effort to clarify whole fauna as basic approach for further conservation of endangered environment (for Nepalese Nature)Continuing effort to clarify whole fauna as basic approach for further conservation of endangered environment (for Nepalese Nature) Properly educating and fostering young Nepalese researchers (heteropterists)Properly educating and fostering young Nepalese researchers (heteropterists) Research on pest and predaceous species in agro- ecosystem to limit the excess use of pesticides (for Nepalese human life)Research on pest and predaceous species in agro- ecosystem to limit the excess use of pesticides (for Nepalese human life) Many other things … in quite limited period …Many other things … in quite limited period … Nilgiri Himal


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