2 Heritage Systems (Pre-1985) Seattle Montréal Miami Vancouver Los Angeles Ft Worth Dallas San Diego New Systems (Since 1985) Syracuse Nashville Albuquerque Sacramento San Jose San Francisco Chicago Newark Philadelphia Boston New York City Baltimore Washington DC Toronto North American Commuter Rail Systems
3 A Form of Rapid TransitA Form of Rapid Transit –Moves people at speeds greater than automobile traffic in a corridor Typically 35 to 45 mph commercial speedsTypically 35 to 45 mph commercial speeds Focus on Longer-Distance, Regional Travel MarketsFocus on Longer-Distance, Regional Travel Markets 20- to 50-mile line lengths20- to 50-mile line lengths Stops typically spaced every one to four milesStops typically spaced every one to four miles Heavy reliance on park-ride accessHeavy reliance on park-ride access Joint Use of Existing Railroad InfrastructureJoint Use of Existing Railroad Infrastructure –Emphasis on fewer, longer trains –FRA vs. FTA regulatory environment What is Commuter Rail?
4 Transit Productive Capacity From: Vukan R. Vuchic Urban Public Transportation: Systems & Technology What is Commuter Rail?
5 Station Spacing: 20 to 30 miles System Extent: 50 to 300 miles+ Maximum Speed: 110 mph Average Speed (with stops): 55 mph Light Rail Station Spacing: ½ to 1 mile System Extent: 15 to 20 miles Maximum Speed: 65 mph Average Speed (with stops): 25 mph Commuter Rail Station Spacing: 2 to 4 miles System Extent: 20 to 75 miles Maximum Speed: 79 mph Average Speed (with stops): 45 mph Intercity Rail What is Commuter Rail?
6 Most cost-effective transit mode in areas of lower residential densitiesMost cost-effective transit mode in areas of lower residential densities Focus on Regional Travel Markets Source:Delaware Transit Corporation Five-Year Business Management Plan (2001)
7 Heavy reliance on park-ride accessHeavy reliance on park-ride access Focus on Regional Travel Markets
8 Moderate influence on transit supportive land usesModerate influence on transit supportive land uses RapidRail LightRail CommuterRail BusDemandManagement HIGH Strong need for supportivepolicies HIGH Zone of influence narrower than rapid rail MODERATE Influence proportional to service LOW Supportive but not inducive INFLUENCEINFLUENCE HI LO Focus on Regional Travel Markets
9 Joint Use of Railroad Infrastructure Sharing railroad facilities can: Reduce start-up and on-going O&M costsReduce start-up and on-going O&M costs Restrict service frequencies and growthRestrict service frequencies and growth –Often results in fewer, longer trains
10 Joint Use of Railroad Infrastructure Shared facilities with railroads results in FRA regulation: Prescriptive safety, operating & rolling stock requirementsPrescriptive safety, operating & rolling stock requirements –Results in larger, heavier rolling stock than other modes –Leads to less frequent, longer train service strategy
11 Multiple Rolling Choices Locomotive-Hauled or Self-Propelled (MU) CoachesLocomotive-Hauled or Self-Propelled (MU) Coaches Electric or DieselElectric or Diesel –Diesel actually Diesel-Electric FRA Compliant or NotFRA Compliant or Not Commuter Rail Rolling Stock
12 Locomotive with Superliner Coaches (Intercity Amtrak Train) Locomotive with Superliner Coaches (Intercity Amtrak Train) Commuter Rail Rolling Stock
13 Locomotive with Single Level Push-Pull Coaches Commuter Rail Rolling Stock
14 Locomotive with Bi-Level Push-Pull Coaches Commuter Rail Rolling Stock
15 Locomotive with Tri-Level Push-Pull Coaches Locomotive with Tri-Level Push-Pull Coaches Commuter Rail Rolling Stock
16 Diesel-Electric or Electric Locomotives Commuter Rail Rolling Stock
17 Self-Propelled Electric Coaches (EMU) Commuter Rail Rolling Stock
18 Self-Propelled Diesel Coaches (DMU) Commuter Rail Rolling Stock
20 Non-Compliant DMUs Allowable, but…Allowable, but… Involved FRA ProcessInvolved FRA Process Constrained ServiceConstrained Service Option for Light Branch Lines South Jersey, Ottawa Austin, San DiegoSouth Jersey, Ottawa Austin, San Diego
21 It depends… Whats the best choice? Commuter Rail
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