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Taking Action on Materials: Global Examples of By-Product Synergy

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1 Taking Action on Materials: Global Examples of By-Product Synergy
Professor Marian Chertow, Yale University Presentation - US Business Council for Sustainable Development July 17, 2013

2 Outline for Today Introduction and Vocabulary for Industrial Ecosystems/Symbiosis/By-Product Synergy Examples China – Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA) India – Nanjangud Industrial Area, Mysore Korea – Korean Industrial Complex Corporation (KICOX) Scale – more public infra India – more private KICOX - facilitator

3 Industrial ecology is concerned with managing the physical resources of our modern technological society In this sense IE is foundational – how do we know even how to measure production and consumption without understanding our material and energy flows? Without knowing how much is available? Without 3

4 “In an industrial ecosystem, the consumption of energy and materials is optimized, waste generation is minimized, and the effluents from one process serve as the raw material for another” Start with a vision… R.A. Frosch, and N. Gallopoulos, Strategies for Manufacturing, Scientific American, 260 (3), 144, 1989 The first great article of industrial ecology…

5 The Industrial Ecosystem of Kalundborg, Denmark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         The Industrial Ecosystem of Kalundborg, Denmark Statoil Refinery A-S Bioteknisk Jordrens Liquid Fertilizer Sulfur Sludge Steam Municipality of Kalundborg District heating Water Cooling water Boiler water Steam Gas Energy E2 Power Station Lake Tissø Water Scrubber Sludge Wall-board Plant That exact same year, this industrial ecosystem, described in theory by F&G, was found in Kalundborg Denmark. Sludge (treated) Steam Fish farming Water Heat Pharmaceutical Fly ash Cement; roads Sludge (treated) Farms Recovered nickel and vanadium Yeast slurry

6 Sample Benefits of Industrial Symbiosis/ By-Product Synergy to Kalundborg Participants
Water savings Oil refinery – 1.2 million cubic meters Power station – total consumption reduced by 60% System: Ground water 2 million cubic meters/year (530 million gallons) Surface water 1 million cubic meters/year (265 million gallons) Input chemicals/products 170,000 tons of gypsum 97,000 cubic meters of solid biomass (NovoGro 30) 280,000 cubic meters of liquid biomass (NovoGro) Wastes avoided through interchanges 50,000-70,000 tons of fly ash from power station 2800 tons of sulfur as hydrogen sulfide in flue gas from oil refinery 240,000 tons CO2 reduction annually Frl Randers – K”burg researcher at Roskilde Ground water ……………… 2.0 mill. m3/year Surface water ……………… 1,0 mill. m3/year (265 million gallons) FROM SYMBIOSIS.DK : Yearly CO2 emission reduced by tons. 3 million m3 of water saved through recycling and reuse. tons of straw converted to 5,4 million litres of ethanol. tons of yeast replaces 70% of soy protein in traditional feed mix for more than pigs update – now used for gasification in Pyroneer plant Recycling of tons of gypsum from desulphurization of flue gas (SO2) replaces import of natural gypsum (CaSO4). More than 95% of the water input at the power plant is part of the symbiotic network, whereas 98% of the water input for the refinery is symbiotic in character, as is approximately 20% for the Novo facility.

7 Industrial Symbiosis Industrial symbiosis engages traditionally separate industries in a collective approach to competitive advantage involving physical exchange of materials, energy, water, and/or by products The keys to industrial symbiosis are collaboration and the synergistic possibilities offered by geographic proximity. M. Chertow 2000 Annual Review of Energy and Environment (Also Wikepedia)

8 Jurong Island, Singapore
EU, Vienna, Austria Since I announced the symposia in 2003, a great deal of uptake around the world. The ZeroWIN-project will examine and develop new and innovative approaches and effective strategies for the prevention of waste in industries based on industrial symbiosis. Industrial Symbiosis is concerned with regional collab oration of companies from traditionally separated sectors which exchange by-products, energy, water and materials in such way, that the waste from one industry becomes raw material for another. Goal: To find new and innovative approaches and effective strategies for the prevention of waste in industries based on industrial symbiosis The development of innovative technologies, waste-prevention methodologies, strategies and system tools (e.g. eco-design, local industrial clusters, and resource exchange) exportable into other European and worldwide contexts shall represent the main focus of this action. The goal is to develop a structured and innovative production model for resource-use optimisation and waste prevention, also taking residues as secondary raw materials, and test it in real cases of sustainable industrial networks. Results should translate the vision of a sustainable development into elements of a sustainable entrepreneurship, focusing at enhancing business opportunities according to a "towards zero waste" approach. Expected Results: a decrease of at least 30% of greenhouse gases emissions, at least 70% of overall re-use and recycling of waste, a reduction of at least 75% of fresh water utilisation. Monfort Boy’s Town, Suva, Fiji UK

9 Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area: TEDA as a Salt Pan in 1984

10 Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA) - 2006

11 Summary of all symbiotic exchanges identified in TEDA
Resource exchanged I-I exchange (%) I-E exchange (%) Subtotal (%) Average distance (km) Energy 5 (6%) 2 (3%) 7 (9%) 2.9 Water 12 (15%) 0 (0%) 3.5 Material 16 (20%) 46 (56%) 62 (76%) 28.2 Subtotal 33 (41%) 48 (59%) 81 (100%)

12 Nanjangud Industrial Area, Karnataka
20km India Two researchers – one from Yale and one from ROI 45 facilities – 900,000 tons of potential discards

13 Profile of industrial enterprises in NIA
A sugar refinery and a coffee/beverage producer account for ~60% production volume Printed circuit boards, paper, textiles, automotive parts, distillery Micro-enterprises: granite cutters, oil producer, food processors Surrounded by a large agricultural community

14 Industrial food web in Nanjangud Industrial Area
Mysore, India 14

15 Final disposition of all materials generated by NIA facilities in Mysore, India
End with 99.5%

16 EIP master plan for South Korea Korea Industrial Complex Corporation
2015 ~ 2019 5 EIP pilot projects (US$ 17 million) 2010 ~ 2014 2005 ~ 2009 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Diffuse EIP concept to 8 industrial parks (US$ 68 million) 2 to 3 new EIP (US$ 6.8 million)


18 Electrical, Electronics
Overview of Ulsan National Industrial Parks Ulsan Mipo industrial complex Category Ulsan Mipo Onsan Total Food 8 - Textile 5 Wood / Papers 14 3 17 Petrochemicals 135 63 198 Non ferrous 29 9 38 Steel 132 66 Machinery 13 21 34 Electrical, Electronics 84 7 91 Transport Equipments 223 70 293 Others 27 Services 93 122 763 275 1,038 Onsan industrial complex Source : KICOX (As on Apr. 2011)

19 Overall Objectives for Ulsan National Industrial Parks
Pollution reduction Cascading Zero-Emission via Resource recycle Environmental Cost Reduction and Enhanced competitiveness New business Industrial Harmony with Community Eco-Polis Ulsan Sustainable Society Social Ulsan Mipo-Onsan EIP Transition Project Objectives Environmental Quality Improvement Enhancement of Industry Competitiveness Zero Emission via Resource Circulation

20 Implementation: Top-down IS network
Carbon dioxide and steam network (2010) CO2 Supply Air emission CO2 generation CO2 generation CO2 reuse BOILER Cogeneration Plant & BOLIER PROCESS PROCESS STEAM Supply STEAM supply Outside steam Outside sale Economic benefit : 6.6 million US$/yr (Steam selling and B-C replacement) Environmental benefit: Reduction of 63,643 tons CO2/yr, ton /yr air pollutants

21 http://www. clustercollaboration. eu/documents/270945/0/KICOX_ENGLISH

22 Thank you and Next!

23 Peter Laybourn, Chief Executive, International Synergies Limited , May 27, 2013

24 Chinese EIP standard Added industrial value per capita, and rate of growth of value Eco-efficiencies (per added industrial value) Energy consumption Freshwater consumption Wastewater generation Solid waste generation COD emissions Reuse ratios Industrial water Middle water Solid waste Shared services/utilities Treatment percentage of wastewater Availability of common waste collection, wastewater treatment systems Management systems Environmental management system Availability of information management system Public relations Release of public environmental report Public satisfaction with environmental quality Source: Geng et al, 2009 24

25 Kalundborg as an Adaptive System
Changes in footprint: Refinery doubles in size with North Sea oil claims Changes in flows: Power station switches fuel to meet regulations for CO2 reductions Changes in organization: Pharmaceutical operation splits into two companies to separate biotech operations; an international company buys out the Danish gypsum board company

26 Kalundborg Symbiosis Institute spread over ~ 7 km
Good Planning? RSG 90 - Remediation of tons oil and metal year. The Symbiosis Activities Kalundborg Symbiosis Institute

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