Presentation on theme: "Concept of Health and disease"— Presentation transcript:
1Concept of Health and disease Presenter: Dr. AnilModerator: Dr. Chetna Maliye
2Framework Introduction Changing Concept of Health WHO definition of healthPositive HealthHealth ParadigmDeterminants of HealthConcept of Well-beingIndicators of HealthConcept of DiseaseCausation of diseaseHealth and IllnessNatural History of DiseaseReferences
3Introduction “Health “ in history Why we are concerned about ‘health’ Health - Changing conceptsBiomedicalEcologicalPsychologicalHolistic
4Changing concepts of Health Biomedical Concept- “absence of disease”human body = machine,disease = consequence of the break downDoctor’s task = repair of machine.Limitation- it has minimized the role of environmental, social, psychological & cultural determinants of health.
5Changing concepts of Health Ecological Concept-Health = is a dynamic equilibrium between man & his environment,Disease = maladjustment of the human organisms to the environment.The concept supports the need for clean air, safe water, ozonic layer in the atmosphere, etc. to protect us from exposure to unhealthy factors.
6Changing concepts of Health Psychosocial ConceptHealth is not only a biomedical phenomenon, but one which is in influenced by social psychological, cultural, economic and political factors of the people concerned.
7Changing concepts of Health Holistic Concept –biomedical + ecological + psychosocial concept.It has been defined as unified or multidimensional process involving the well being of the whole person in the context of his environment.Holistic concept implies that, all sectors of society have an effect on health
8What is ‘Health’ Oxford dictionary Webster Perkins State of being well in body or mindWebsterThe condition of being sound in body, mind or spirit especially freedom from physical disease or painPerkins“A state of relative equilibrium of body, form and function which result from its successful dynamic adjustment to forces tending to disturb it. It is not passive interplay between body substance and forces impinging upon it but an active response of body forces working towards readjustment.”
9WHO Definition of health Definition of health “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or Infirmity.”– Constitution of the World Health Organization,July 1946.
10Physical component…-The state of perfect functioning of body or state in which every cell & every organ is functioning at optimum capacity & in perfect harmony with the rest of the body.
11Mental component-Mental Health- Is a state of balance between individual and surrounding..Easy to say if its grossly abnormal but difficult in minor disturbances.Distinction between mental and physical health is artificial.
12Social componentSocial health is an aspect of health that includes social relationships as part of broader concept of health.It has two elements:Individual and societalThe less isolated, the greater the sense of control & empowerment, & the more socially integrated a person is, the less they suffer from a range of physical & mental disorders.
13Social component (Contd.) The Regional framework for health promotion in the Western Pacific Region stresses the role of social capital in health promotion.social capital - trust, social interaction & socialconnections
15Positive HealthPositive health describes a state beyond the mere absence of disease.Operationalised by a combination of excellent status on biological, subjective, and functional measuresPositive health predicts increased longevity (correcting for quality of life), decreased health costs, better mental health in aging, and better prognosis when illness strikes.
17Determinants of Health BiologicalBehavioralEnvironmentalSocio-economicHealth systemSocio-culturalAgeing of populationScience & technologyInformation & communicationGenderEquity & Social justiceHuman rights
18Concept of Well-being Objective components Subjective component Standard of livinglevel of livingSubjective componentQuality of life
19Standard of livingRefers to the usual scale of our expenditure, the goods we consume and the service we enjoy. It includes the level of education, employment status, food, dress, house, amusement and comforts of modern living.WHO: “Income & occupation, standard of housing, sanitation and nutrition, the level of provision of health, educational, recreational and other services.
20Level of living Used in US 9 Components Health, food consumption, education,occupation and working conditionHousing,Social securityClothingRecreation and leisureHuman right
21Quality of lifeThe condition of life resulting from the combination of the effects of the complete range of factors such as those determining health, happiness(including comfort in the physical environment and the satisfying occupation), education, social and intellectual attainments, freedom of action, justice and freedom of expression.A composite measure of physical, mental and social well-being as perceived by each individual or group of individuals.
23Physical Quality of Life Index IncludesInfant mortalityLife expectancy at age one andLiteracyScale 0 to 100 = worst to best‘Money is not everything’Does not measure economic growthMeasures social, economic and political policies
24Human Development Index (HDI) Combines indicators representing 3 dimensionsLongevity – Life expectancy at birthKnowledge – adult literacy rate & mean year of schooling.Income – real GDP Per Capita in Purchasing Power Parity(PPP) in US dollarsIndex = (Actual value) – (Minimum Value)(Maximum value) – (Minimum Value)Dimension
25Human Poverty Index Introduced in 1997 Measures deprivation in basic dimensions (Longevity, Knowledge, Income)For developing countries(HPI-1)-A long & healthy life – vulnerability to death at a relatively early age.Knowledge – adult literacy rateStandard of living – average of- %age of population not using an improved water source & %age of children under weight-for-age.Probability at birth not surviving to age 40
27Concept of Disease“A condition in which body function is impaired, departure from a state of health, an alteration of the human body interrupting the performance of the vital functions.” - Webster.Oxford English Dictionary – the condition of body or some part of organ of body in which its functions are disrupted or deranged.Ecologically – ‘a maladjustment of human organism to the environment’Simplest definition – ‘opposite to Health’.
30Historical Theories for causation of disease “Supernatural causes”& KarmaTheory of humors (humor means fluid)The miasmatic theory of diseaseTheory of contagionGerm theoryEpidemiological TriadMulti-factorial causationWeb of causation………Supernatural to multi-factorial causes…EnvironmentAgentHost
32Web of causation Change in life style Stress Abundance of food Smoking Emotional Aging & D Disturbance other factorObesity Lack of physical activity HypertensionHyperlidemia Increase catacholamine Changes in walls of arteriesthrombotic activityCoronory atherosclerosisCoronary occlusionMyocardial Infarction
33Natural History of Disease Period of prepathogenesisPeriod of pathogenesis
34Spectrum of disease Disease in many Forms.. Acute Chronic/insidious Carrier
36Some terms..Disease- biological concept. Means physiological/psychological dysfunctionIllness –socio-pathological concept. Means - subjective feeling of not being well.Sickness – Biological concept of social dysfunction.
37ReferencesWHO. Tech. Report Series 137. WHOWHO.Constitution Of World Health OrganizationWHO. Role of Health sector in Food and Nutrition. Tech. Report Series 137. GenevaIGNOU. Concepts in Nursing. Available online at:WHO. Ageing and Health. A health promotion approach for developing countries. WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific United Nations Avenue.Manila, Philippines;Ghai OP, Gupta P. Essential Preventive Medicine. Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd. India;1999:23,Park K. Park’s textbook of preventive and social medicine. 20th edition, Banarsidas Bhanot publishers, Jabalpur, India