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Park and Hannafin article Multimedia Design Principles and Implications.

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1 Park and Hannafin article Multimedia Design Principles and Implications

2 Principle 1 Related prior knowledge is the single most powerful influence in mediating subsequent learning (the more the new information can be fit into existing knowledge structures, the more easily it can be encoded and retrieved).

3 Implication of Principle 1 Layer information to accommodate multiple levels of complexity and accommodate differences in related prior knowledge.

4 Example Information related to prior knowledge

5 Principle 2 New knowledge becomes increasingly meaningful when integrated with existing knowledge (meaning is developed by the learner, not placed into the learner).

6 Implication of Principle 2 Embed structural aids to facilitate selection, organization, and integration; embed activities that prompt learners to generate their own unique meaning.

7 Example Think about a time when you behaved in a way that is completely unlike the way you usually behave. –How did you feel at the time? How do you feel now thinking about it? –How does that piece of behavior fit into the way you see yourself? (Exercise to help students understand the concept of cognitive dissonance by applying the concept to the students own life)

8 Principle 3 Learning is influenced by the supplied organization of concepts to be learned.

9 Implication of Principle 3 Organize lesson segments into internally consistent idea units.

10 Example Webquests supply an inherent organization of concepts to be learned

11 Principle 4 Knowledge to be learned needs to be organized in ways that reflect differences in learner familiarity with lesson content, the nature of the learning task, and assumptions about the structure of knowledge.

12 Principle 4 Implication Linkages between and among nodes need to reflect the diverse ways in which the system will be used. Interactive learning systems must reflect and accommodate differences among learners by providing flexible methods for organizing lesson content.

13 Principle 4 Example Hypermedia –Organized, random access glossary –Content organized in hierarchical links that allow multiple associations which afford learners the ability to create their own lesson structure based upon ongoing individual learning requirements.

14 Principle 5 Knowledge utility improves as processing and understanding deepen.

15 Principle 5 Implication Provide opportunities to reflect critically on learning and to elaborate knowledge Encourage learners to articulate strategies prior to, during, and subsequent to interacting with the environment.

16 Principle 5 Example Elaboration (deepened understanding) occurs –Physically observe someone else using various ingredients in preparing a dish –Mentally image the above episode when reading a recipe card

17 Principle 6 Knowledge is best integrated when unfamiliar concepts can be related to familiar concepts.

18 Principle 6 Implication Use familiar metaphors both in conveying lesson content and designing the system interface. Prior knowledge is integral to learning new concepts and skills.

19 Principle 6 Example Visual metaphors (e.g. computer desktop) and procedural metaphors (e.g. roadmaps) in screen design lessens the processing demands associated with using the system.

20 Principle 7: Learning improves as the number of complementary stimuli used to represent learning content increases Dual Coding Hypothesis states that Knowledge is represented in semantic(meaning), imaginal(pictures), or dual formats –Paivio, 1971. Memory is more efficient when it can cross reference semantics with visual data. It is said that learning tends to be strongest when visuals supply redundant information contained within textual information. On the other hand, overloading a cognitive resource can hinder effective learning.

21 Implications: Present information using multiple, complementary symbols, formats and perspectives Using images with textural information to increase learning Symbols that need prior knowledge should be used with caution as they can use a great amount of cognitive resources for processing. This can hinder effective learning. Prior knowledge should also be considered when using symbols. With advances in technology and media it can be easy to complicate a task rather than simplify it. Multimedia is of most importance in this situation since it has the ability to combine many forms of data into one environment.

22 Examples -Tutorials -Help rollovers in media

23 Principle 8: Learning improves as the amount of invested mental effort increases The individuals perception of the medium in terms of difficulty affects his/her amount of invested mental effort. TV is perceived as a passive form of information when compared to printed media. Less mental effort is used when viewing video due to this perception of ease.

24 Implications: Embed activities that increase the perceived demand characteristics of both the media and learning activities Highlighting - visual stimuli used with textural information Generative activities – experiments, hypothesis, etc… These activities allow individuals to use their prior knowledge and induce unique schema (Pichert & Anderson).

25 Example -situational role-playing games... could even be extended to mass multi-player games -video-conferencing/collaboration -time-based exercises.... increases repetition and need to win

26 Principle 9: Learning improves as competition for similar cognitive resources decreases and declines as competition for the same resources increases Quantitative approach emphasizes amplitude and frequency. Qualitative approach emphasizes the nature of the processing. Cognitive overload results not only in increased pacing or density of over taxing of memory resources. Important data may go undetected if extraneous information is emphasized too much. The goal of multimedia in this case is to provide the appropriate amounts of complementary information at any given time. Complexity is managed by employing low-load familiar processing activities that allow the learner to effectively process tasks.

27 Implications: Structure presentations and interactions to complement cognitive processes and reduce the complexity of the processing task By automating complex tasks the individual can focus on learning new information. Presentations and interactions need to avoid overtaxing any given cognitive resource. When controlling automated resources we can effectively handle the cognitive process that allows for efficient learning.

28 Example -a physical response may be hampered if it competes with resources needed to process knowledge. -presenting aural narration along with textural information

29 Principle 10 Principle 10 – Transfer improves when knowledge is situated in authentic contexts. Implications – Anchor knowledge in realistic contexts and settings. Examples –When teaching students about finding percentages (ex. 5% of 20), you could have them solve problems that require them to find sales tax on a total purchase. –When teaching about the application of persuasive writing, have students determine an issue important to them and have them write a real persuasive letter to a real person for a real persuasive purpose.

30 Principle 11 Principle 11 – Knowledge flexibility increases as the number of perspectives on a given topic increases and the conditional nature of knowledge is understood. Implications – Provide methods that help learners acquire knowledge from multiple perspectives and cross- reference knowledge in multiple ways. Example –Design a Web Quest about any content with a coherent learning system. That is to say that multiple resources should be arranged in a logical/sequential format in one design overlay.

31 Principle 12 Principle 12 – Knowledge of details improves as instructional activities are more explicit, while understanding improves as the activities are more integrative. Implications – Differentiate orienting activities for forthcoming information based upon desired learning: provide organizing activities for information already received. Examples –In a lesson about photosynthesis and cellular respiration, objectives must be clearly outlined and displayed at the beginning of the lesson. A post-lesson question might be, Why can a small animal and a plant live together in an air-tight container (assuming there is ample food for the animal)? This causes the learners understanding of photosynthesis and respiration to increase as they attempt to integrate the two concepts to explain their answer.

32 Principle 13 Feedback increases learning important lesson content, and decreases incidental learning. Implication: Provide opportunities to respond and receive feedback but avoid excessive response focusing when incidental learning is expected. Example: Pilots-in-training. Feedback allowed them to complete the lesson but bypass the basic knowledge base completely in favor of learning the answers to embedded question.

33 Principle 14 Shifts in attention improve the learning of related concepts Implication: differentiate important information through cosmetic amplification, repetition, and recasting to direct learners attention. Example: highlighting by changing the color or font in the display and through graphic overview of a lesson, prompting with arrows, etc.

34 Principle 15 Learners become confused and disoriented when procedures are complex, insufficient, or inconsistent. Implication: Provide clearly defined procedures for navigating within the system and accessing on-line support. Example: the problems of being lost in hyperspace

35 Principle 16 Visual representations of lesson content and structure improve the learners awareness of both the conceptual relationships and procedural requirements of a learning system. Implication: Provide concept maps and other graphical aids to help learners understand, locate, and navigate within interactive learning systems. Example: concept maps and graphic organizers

36 Principle 17 Individuals vary widely in their need for guidance So…give tactical, instructional, and procedural advice ie Give students strategies and hints

37 Principle 18 Learning systems are most efficient when they adapt to relevant individual differences So…Interactive multimedia must adapt dynamically to both learner and content characteristics ie GED, translations, games

38 Principle 19 Metacognitive demands are greater for loosely structured learning environments than for highly structured ones So…provide prompts and self-check and monitoring activities ie PBL, Alien Rescue

39 Principle 20 Learning is facilitated when system features are functionally self-evident, logically organized, easily accessible, and readily deployed. So…make it user friendly ie Mayer examples – keep image and text on same page

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