Abstract Basic multilevel car parking system with two floors. Multi floor. 4 sensors on each floor. Along with these 8 sensors,separate sensors for each floor. When we press a start switch then lift is to be on and immediate sense the space in the parking slots If the space is available then lift start and stop on particular floor, which is displayed in the LCD. If no space is available. If all the space are vacant.
Power Supply In this project we use 5 volt regulated power supply. For this purpose we use one step down transformer with full wave rectifier circuit. In the rectifier circuit we use two diode as a full wave rectifier. One 1000mfd capacitor as a filter capacitor to convert pulsating dc into smooth dc. Output of the rectifier is not regulated, so for regulated power supply we use ic 7805 as a regulator. Output of the 7805 regulator is connected to the one led with resistance in series. Led work as a power indication circuit. Here step down transformer is a center tap transformer. We use center tap transformer in full wave rectifier circuit.
Sensor In this project we use reed switch as a sensor. Reed switch is a special magnetic proximity sensor. When this reed sensor is activate by the external magnetic field then reed sensor is activate automatically. In the reed sensor there is two wires inside the glass casing. When external magnetic field is effect the sensor then these plated join together and become short automatically. We use this sensor in our project to sense the position of the car and position of the lift on floor. When lift move then its searching the reed sensor for stoppage. We paste one magnet with the lift, when lift move up-wards then magnet search the sensor. As the sensor is sensed by the magnet then lift stop there automatically. So whenever we want to stop the lift or check the position of the vehicle then every time we search the magnetic sensor. When any car park on the desired position then sensor activate and provide a signal to the controller. Controller check the change of voltage on this pin and save this data for auto sensing logic.
Microcontroller Interface In this project we use 8051 controller to interface all the inputs and output. In the input device we use 10 sensor, one start switch, and in output we use one lcd as a display and one motor to move up- ward and down word. The brain inside the controller is to control all these inputs and output and perform perfectally. 8051 is basically a INTEL IC but now in these days is available with many company. We use ATMEL 89s51 series with advance feature than 8051. ATMEL 89s51 is a 40 pin controller with 128 bytes of ram and 4 k byte of rom inside. Pin no 40 of the controller is connected to the positive 5 volt power supply. We provide a 5 volt regulated power supply on this pin. Pin no 9 is reset pin and this pin is connected to the one capacitor and resistor network to provide a auto reset option, when controller is wake up. For manually reset we connect one push to on switch in parallel with the capacitor to provide a manual reset option. Pin no 20 is connected to the ground pin. Pin no 18 and 19 is connected to the external crystal to provide a constant oscillation to the circuit. Two capacitors are grounded from the crystal pins to provide a stabilization. All the reed sensors are connected to the port p1 and port p3. first floor parking sensors are connected to the p1.0,p1.1,p1.2,p1.3, These four sensor related to the first floor sensor. Second floor sensors is p1.4,p1.5,p1.6,p1.7
First floor stoppage sensor is p3.2 and second floor stoppage sensor is p3.3. Start switch of this project is p3.0. On this start switch either we connect a start switch or we connect a infra red sensor. In the case of infra red sensor when car is enter in the parking position then lift sense automatically and start. Motor of the lift is connected to the p2.0 and p2.1. Output of these pins is connected to the opto coupler circuit. Here we use pc 817 opto coupler to provide a electrical isolation between motor control circuit and micro controller. Output from the controller is connected to the cathode of infra red led through 470 ohm resistor. When controller is on then infra red led is on due to negative output from the controller. When infra red led inside the coupler is on then this light drive the internal phototransistor of the coupler. Output from the coupler is now connected to the H bridge circuit. In the H bridge circuit we use four transistor circuit with one dc motor. In the H bridge we use four transistor circuit. In this four transistor circuit two transistors are NPN and two transistors are PNP. With the help of these four transistor we control the direction of the motor. Not only control the direction of motor but at the same time these transistor share the load of the motor directly.
Port p0 of the controller is connected to the LCD directly. Here we use port p0 with the data pins of the ASCII code. LCD display only the ascii code. In the programming we convert the digital code in to ascii code by adding 30h in any binary number. So to provide a data in the lcd we send these code by the 8 data lines. These data lines from the controller is from the p0.0 to p0.7 P2.5, p2.6,p2.7 is connected to the control pins of the lcd. On this control pin we select the command register, data register, enable pin. We use the command the data register pins to send the data and command separately.
Programming First of all we write our software in the 8051 ide assembler. Here we use 8051 assembler because we wrote our software in the assembly code. We assemble these code in assembler and assembler after asseble the software convert into hex code. Now this hex code is transfer into the blank ic with the help of the serial programmer. In the serial programmer we insert the blank ic on the ZIP socket ( blank ic socket) and select the particular ic in the assembler. 8051 Ide layout Atmel 8051 Programmer software
Advantages of Multi-story car parking system Automatic multi-storey car parks provide lower building cost per parking slot, as they typically require less building volume and less ground area than a conventional facility with the same capacity. However, the cost of the mechanical equipment within the building that is needed to transport cars internally needs to be added to the lower building cost to determine the total costs. Other costs are usually lower too, for example there is no need for an energy intensive ventilating system, since cars are not driven inside and human cashiers or security personnel may not be needed. A multi-storey car parks offer greatest possible flexibility for the realization of optimum parking solution. A fast parking process in which the driver does not have to maneuver his car or drive backwards, guarantees highest comfort and security. A single lift serves 6 to 12 parking spaces per level taking up a minimum of space. Time-saving vertical and horizontal movements take place simultaneously ensuring fast parking and retrieval times.
Limitations of a multi-storey car parking system: The subjective analysis has shown that the greatest effects of a Multi-Storey Car Park on Surrounding Residential Blocks are the air and noise pollution caused by the motor vehicles. Parking lots also tend to be subject to contamination with concentrated spots of pollutants such as motor oil. contaminationmotor oil Also, they often cover large contiguous areas with impermeable paving surface. This means that virtually all of the rain (minus evaporation) that falls becomes runoff. The parking lot must be built to effectively channel and collect runoff. Traditionally, the runoff has been shunted directly into storm sewers, streams, or even sanitary sewers. However, larger municipalities now require retention basins to catch runoff to reduce the stress on sewer systems.impermeablerainstorm sewersstreamssanitary sewers Many areas today also require minimum landscaping in parking lots. This usually principally means the planting of trees to provide shade. Customers have long preferred shaded parking spaces in the summer, but parking lot providers have long been antagonistic to planting trees because of the extra cost of cleaning the parking lotlandscapingtrees
References: A Brief History of Parking: The Life and After-life of Paving the Planet A Brief History of Parking: The Life and After-life of Paving the Planet Preservation Online: Story of the Week Archives: Car Culture Preservation Chicago Chicago Business News, Analysis & Articles | Developer planning 2nd apartment tower downtown | Crain's Chicago Business News, Analysis & Articles | Developer planning 2nd apartment tower downtown | Crain's BBC NEWS | Scotland | Glasgow, Lanarkshire and West | Consultation over historic garage BBC NEWS | Scotland | Glasgow, Lanarkshire and West | Consultation over historic garage Daniele Luttazzi Lepidezze postribolari (2007, Feltrinelli, p.275) (Italian) Daniele LuttazziFeltrinelli Mary Beth Klatt "Car culture"Car culture