2 Learning ObjectivesExplain the function of the recommended Dietary Reference IntakesDescribe and discuss the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and identify challenges for chefsList the food groups found in MyPlate and recommended servings from each group
3 Learning ObjectivesExplain how MyPlate encourages variety, proportionality and moderationRead and analyze food labels, nutrient claims and health claimsDiscuss the attributes and limitations of various food rating systems
4 Cornerstones of Nutrition Adequacygetting enough of each essential nutrientfoods from each group dailyappropriate portionsdifferent foods within groupsBalanceModerationVariety
5 Dietary Reference Intakes Minimum recommended and maximum safe levels of many nutrients by age and gender.Aim to prevent chronic diseases and promote optimal health.Used to assess and plan diets for healthy individuals and groups.See appendix B
6 Daily Values Reference points for nutrient intake used on food labels Listed for people who eat 2,000 or caloriesSee appendix CMaximum amountstotal fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodiumMinimum amountstotal carbohydrates, dietary fiber
7 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Revised every 5 yearsJointly issued by the Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Health and Human Services (HHS)Provide advice about how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseasesEvidenced-based research
8 Overview of Recommendations Reduce incidence and prevalence of overweight and obesityReduce overall calorie intakeFocus on consuming nutrient-dense foods and beveragesIncrease physical activity
9 2010 Dietary Guidelines - Summary Increase Intake VegetablesCooked dry beans and peasFruitWhole grainsNuts and seedsSeafoodFat-free and low-fat milk and milk products
11 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 Change the overall food environment Improve nutrition literacy and cooking skillsIncrease health, nutrition and physical education programsEncourage restaurants and the food industry to offer health-promoting foodsReport of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee
12 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Balancing calories to manage weight Prevent and/or reduce overweight and obesity through improved eating and physical activity behaviors.
13 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Balancing calories to manage weight Control total calorie intake to manage body weight. For people who are overweight or obese, this will mean consuming fewer calories from food and beverages.
14 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Balancing calories to manage weight Increase physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors.
15 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Balancing calories to manage weight Maintain appropriate calorie balance during each stage of life – childhood, adolescence, adulthood, pregnancy and breastfeeding, and older age.
16 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Increase vegetable and fruit intake.QuantityVariety
17 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Eat a variety of vegetables, especially dark-green and red and orange vegetables and beans and peas.
18 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains. Increase whole- grain intake by replacing refined grains with whole grains.
19 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Increase intake of fat- free or low-fat milk and milk products, such as milk, yogurt, cheese, or fortified soy beverages.
20 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Choose a variety of protein foods, which include seafood, lean meat and poultry, eggs, beans and peas, and unsalted nuts and seeds.
21 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Increase the amount and variety of seafood consumed by choosing seafood in place of some meat and poultry.
22 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Replace protein foods that are higher in solid fats with choices that are lower in solid fats and calories and/or are sources of oils.
23 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Use oils to replace solid fats where possible.Consume less than 10% of calories from saturated fats by replacing them with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats
24 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce Consume less than 300 mg per day of dietary cholesterol
25 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Choose foods that provide more potassium, dietary fiber, calcium, and Vitamin D, which are nutrients of concern in American diets.These foods include vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk and milk products.
26 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce Reduce daily sodium intake to:less than 2,300 mg1,500 mg for select individuals
27 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce Keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible by limiting foods that contain synthetic sources of trans fats, such as partially hydrogenated oils, and by limiting other solid fats.
28 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce Reduce the intake of calories from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS).
29 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce Limit the consumption of foods that contain refined grains, especially refined grain foods that contain solid fats, added sugars, and sodium.
30 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce If alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation – up to 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men – and only by adults of legal drinking age.
31 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Building Healthy Eating Patterns Select and eating pattern that meets nutrient needs over time and at an appropriate calorie level.
32 DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Building Healthy Eating Patterns Follow food safety recommendations when preparing and eating foods to reduce risk of foodborne illnesses.
33 MyPlate Balancing Calories Enjoy your food, but eat less. Avoid oversized portions.Foods to IncreaseMake half your plate fruits and vegetables.
34 MyPlate Switch to fat-free or low- fat (1%) milk. Foods to Reduce Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread and frozen meals and choose foods with lower numbers.Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
36 What Counts As A Serving? DiaryFruitsGrainsVegetablesProteinGRAINS1 ounceVEGETABLES1 cupFRUITS1 cupDAIRY1 cupPROTEIN FOODS1 ounce1 slice of bread1 cup of raw orcooked vegetables1 cup of fruit1 cup of milk, yogurt,or soy milk1 ounce of meat,poultry, or fish1 cup of ready-to-eatbreakfast cereal1 cup of 100% fruit juice1 cup of vegetablejuice1.5 ounces of naturalcheese1 egg1/2 cup of dried fruit1/2 cup cookedrice, pasta, orcereal1 tablespoon of peanutbutter2 cups of rawleafy greens2 ounces of processedcheese1/4 cup of cooked drybeans1 cup dairy alternative1/2 ounce of nuts orseeds.36
37 Fruit – 1 to 2 cups What is in the fruit group? What counts as 1 cup? Health benefitsNutrients in fruit
38 Vegetable – 1 to 3 cups What counts as 1 cup? Health benefits Nutrients in vegetables
39 Weekly Vegetable Intake Recommendations Dark Green1 ½ - 2 cupsRed and Orange5 ½ - 6 cupsBeans and Peas1 ½- 2 cupsStarchy4-6 cupsOthers4-5 cups
40 Grain – 3-8 ounce-equivalent What is in the grain group?Whole grainsRefined grains
41 Grain – 3-8 ounce-equivalent What counts as 1ounce equivalent?Health benefitsNutrients in grain
42 Protein – 2 -6 ½ ounce-equivalents What is in the protein food group?What counts as 1ounce equivalent?Health benefitsNutrients in protein group
43 Milk – 2-3 cups What is in the milk group? What counts as 1cup equivalent?Health benefitsNutrients in milk
44 How To Apply MyPlate Personal diet analysis Recipe Modification Starting point of healthy eating
46 Nutrition Facts Serving size Portion size Given in familiar units and gramsLabeling law sets standard serving sizes to allow comparisonPortion sizeThe amount served or eatenUsually larger than serving size
48 Exempt from Labeling Very small packages Small businesses (sales below $50,000)Ready-to-eat food for take-outBulk foods not sold directly to consumerPlain tea, coffee, spices, herbsFoods with no nutrients
49 Interpreting Labels Calories Serving sizes = 13 pieces, 39 grams 3.5 servings per boxCalories170 x 3.5 = 595 calories per box
50 Interpreting Labels Saturated fats DV saturated fat 3.5 grams x 3.5 =12.25 gramsDV saturated fat18% x 3.5 = 63%Label claims 35% less fat
51 Nutrient Content Claims Content claims are legal definitions not just descriptionsAlso apply to menus
53 Nutrient Content Claims FreeLowReduced /LessCaloriesLess than 540 calories or less120 calories or less per 100 gm(main dishes)25% fewerTotal FatLess than .5 grams3 gms or less3 gms or less per 100 gms (main dishes)25% lessSaturated Fat1 gm or less and 15% or less of calories from sat fatCholesterolLess than 2 mg20 mg or lessSodiumLess than 5 mg140 mg or lessSugarNot defined
54 Other Nutrient Content Claims RequirementHigh, rich, excellent sourceContains 20% or more DVGood source10-19% of DVMore, fortified, enriched, added, extra, plus10% or more of the of the DV; used for vitamins, minerals, protein, fiber, potassiumLeanMeat, poultry, fish products – less than 10 g fat, 4.5 or less sat fat, less than 95 mg of cholesterol per servingExtra leanMeat, poultry, fish products – less than 5 g fat, 2 or less sat fat, less than 95 mg of cholesterol per servingClaims using term “antioxidant”RDI must be established for the nutrients.Nutrient must have existing scientific evidence of antioxidant activityLevel of each nutrient must be sufficient to meet the definition for "high," "good source," or "more"
55 Approved Health Claims Calcium and osteoporosisSodium and hypertensionDietary fat and cancer
56 Approved Health Claims Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart diseaseFiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancerFruits, vegetables and grain products that contain fiber, particularly soluble fiber, and risk of coronary heart disease
57 Approved Health Claims Fruits and vegetables and cancerFolate and neural tube defectsDietary noncarcinogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental cariesSoluble fiber from certain foods and risk of coronary heart diseaseSoy protein and risk of coronary heart diseasePlant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease
58 Health Claims based on Authoritative Statements Whole-grain foods and risk of heart disease and certain cancersPotassium and the risk of high blood pressure and strokeFluoridated water and reduced risk of dental carriesLow in saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fat, and reduced risk of heart disease
59 Ingredient list Ingredient that weighs the most is first Example: Juice ingredient label100% juiceIngredients: apple juice, natural flavors, ascorbic acidIngredients: water, high fructose corn syrup, apple juice, ascorbic acid
60 Ingredient List Interesting ingredients….. “healthy” or “nutrient dense” foods listed firstDetermine MyPlate servings
61 Organic Produced with… Generally higher in phytochemicals No sewer-sludge/synthetic fertilizersNo pesticidesNo growth hormonesNo antibioticsNo irradiationLimits on genetic modificationGenerally higher in phytochemicalsNot necessarily higher in nutrients
62 Highest In Pesticides…. PeachesApplesSweet bell peppersCeleryNectarinesStrawberriesCherriesLettuceImported GrapesPearsSpinachPotatoes
63 Organic LabelingRaw, fresh and processed products that contain organic agricultural ingredients100% organic must contain only organically produced ingredients and processing aids (excluding water and salt)
64 Organic Labeling USDA National Organic Program Organic - at least 95% organically produced ingredients (excluding water and salt)Made with organic ingredients - must contain at least 70% organic ingredients
65 Natural Labeling USDA has defined natural for meat and poultry only: Contains no artificial ingredients or added colorMinimally processed (the raw product not fundamentally altered) may be labeled naturalLabel must explain the use of the term natural – for example, “no added colorings or artificial ingredients” or “minimally processed”
66 Natural No legal definition for other foods Generally, no added colors, synthetic flavors or ingredientsCleaner ingredient listCanola oil, orange juice, etc, organic soy sauce, rice wine vinegar, evaporated cane juice, garlic, ginger…beet extract for color