Presentation on theme: "NUTRITION STANDARDS AND TOOLS Chapter 2. Learning Objectives Explain the function of the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes Describe and discuss the."— Presentation transcript:
NUTRITION STANDARDS AND TOOLS Chapter 2
Learning Objectives Explain the function of the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes Describe and discuss the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and identify challenges for chefs List the food groups found in MyPlate and recommended servings from each group
Learning Objectives Explain how MyPlate encourages variety, proportionality and moderation Read and analyze food labels, nutrient claims and health claims Discuss the attributes and limitations of various food rating systems
Cornerstones of Nutrition getting enough of each essential nutrient foods from each group daily appropriate portions different foods within groups
Dietary Reference Intakes Minimum recommended and maximum safe levels of many nutrients by age and gender. Aim to prevent chronic diseases and promote optimal health. Used to assess and plan diets for healthy individuals and groups. See appendix B
Daily Values Reference points for nutrient intake used on food labels Listed for people who eat 2,000 or 2500 calories See appendix C Maximum amounts total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium Minimum amounts total carbohydrates, dietary fiber
Dietary Guidelines for Americans Revised every 5 years Jointly issued by the Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Health and Human Services (HHS)USDAHHS Provide advice about how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases Evidenced-based research
Overview of Recommendations Reduce incidence and prevalence of overweight and obesity Reduce overall calorie intake Focus on consuming nutrient-dense foods and beverages Increase physical activity
2010 Dietary Guidelines - Summary Increase Intake Vegetables Cooked dry beans and peas Fruit Whole grains Nuts and seeds Seafood Fat-free and low-fat milk and milk products
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 Change the overall food environment Improve nutrition literacy and cooking skills Increase health, nutrition and physical education programs Encourage restaurants and the food industry to offer health-promoting foods Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Balancing calories to manage weight Prevent and/or reduce overweight and obesity through improved eating and physical activity behaviors.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Balancing calories to manage weight Control total calorie intake to manage body weight. For people who are overweight or obese, this will mean consuming fewer calories from food and beverages.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Balancing calories to manage weight Increase physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Balancing calories to manage weight Maintain appropriate calorie balance during each stage of life – childhood, adolescence, adulthood, pregnancy and breastfeeding, and older age.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Increase vegetable and fruit intake. Quantity Variety
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Eat a variety of vegetables, especially dark-green and red and orange vegetables and beans and peas.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains. Increase whole- grain intake by replacing refined grains with whole grains.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Increase intake of fat- free or low-fat milk and milk products, such as milk, yogurt, cheese, or fortified soy beverages.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Choose a variety of protein foods, which include seafood, lean meat and poultry, eggs, beans and peas, and unsalted nuts and seeds.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Increase the amount and variety of seafood consumed by choosing seafood in place of some meat and poultry.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Replace protein foods that are higher in solid fats with choices that are lower in solid fats and calories and/or are sources of oils.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Use oils to replace solid fats where possible. C onsume less than 10% of calories from saturated fats by replacing them with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce Consume less than 300 mg per day of dietary cholesterol
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Nutrients to Increase Choose foods that provide more potassium, dietary fiber, calcium, and Vitamin D, which are nutrients of concern in American diets. These foods include vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk and milk products.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce Reduce daily sodium intake to: less than 2,300 mg 1,500 mg for select individuals
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce Keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible by limiting foods that contain synthetic sources of trans fats, such as partially hydrogenated oils, and by limiting other solid fats.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce Reduce the intake of calories from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS).
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce Limit the consumption of foods that contain refined grains, especially refined grain foods that contain solid fats, added sugars, and sodium.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Foods and Food Components to Reduce If alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation – up to 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men – and only by adults of legal drinking age.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Building Healthy Eating Patterns Select and eating pattern that meets nutrient needs over time and at an appropriate calorie level.
DGA 2010 Key Recommendations Building Healthy Eating Patterns Follow food safety recommendations when preparing and eating foods to reduce risk of foodborne illnesses.
MyPlate Balancing Calories Enjoy your food, but eat less. Avoid oversized portions. Foods to Increase Make half your plate fruits and vegetables.
MyPlate Switch to fat-free or low- fat (1%) milk. Foods to Reduce Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread and frozen meals and choose foods with lower numbers. Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
……Based on Calories
What Counts As A Serving?. 1 slice of bread 1 cup of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal 1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal 1 cup of raw or cooked vegetables 1 cup of vegetable juice 2 cups of raw leafy greens 1 cup of fruit 1 cup of 100% fruit juice 1/2 cup of dried fruit 1 cup of milk, yogurt, or soy milk 1 ounce of meat, poultry, or fish 1 egg 1 tablespoon of peanut butter 1/4 cup of cooked dry beans 1/2 ounce of nuts or seeds 2 ounces of processed cheese 1.5 ounces of natural cheese GRAINS 1 ounce VEGETABLES 1 cup FRUITS 1 cup DAIRY 1 cup PROTEIN FOODS 1 ounce Fruits Grains Vegetables Protein Diary 1 cup dairy alternative
Fruit – 1 to 2 cups What is in the fruit group? What counts as 1 cup? Health benefits Nutrients in fruit
Vegetable – 1 to 3 cups What counts as 1 cup? Health benefits Nutrients in vegetables
Weekly Vegetable Intake Recommendations Dark Green 1 ½ - 2 cups Red and Orange 5 ½ - 6 cups Beans and Peas 1 ½ - 2 cups Starchy 4-6 cups Others 4-5 cups
Grain – 3-8 ounce-equivalent What is in the grain group? Whole grains Refined grains
Grain – 3-8 ounce-equivalent What counts as 1ounce equivalent? Health benefits Nutrients in grain
Protein – 2 -6 ½ ounce-equivalents What is in the protein food group? What counts as 1ounce equivalent? Health benefits Nutrients in protein group
Milk – 2-3 cups What is in the milk group? What counts as 1cup equivalent? Health benefits Nutrients in milk
How To Apply MyPlate Personal diet analysis Recipe Modification Starting point of healthy eating
Nutrition Facts Serving size Given in familiar units and grams Labeling law sets standard serving sizes to allow comparison Portion size The amount served or eaten Usually larger than serving size
Exempt from Labeling Very small packages Small businesses (sales below $50,000) Ready-to-eat food for take-out Bulk foods not sold directly to consumer Plain tea, coffee, spices, herbs Foods with no nutrients
Interpreting Labels Serving sizes = 13 pieces, 39 grams 3.5 servings per box Calories 170 x 3.5 = 595 calories per box
Interpreting Labels Saturated fats 3.5 grams x 3.5 =12.25 grams DV saturated fat 18% x 3.5 = 63% Label claims 35% less fat
Nutrient Content Claims Content claims are legal definitions not just descriptions Also apply to menus
Nutrient Content Claims
FreeLowReduced /Less Calories Less than 540 calories or less 120 calories or less per 100 gm(main dishes) 25% fewer Total FatLess than.5 grams3 gms or less 3 gms or less per 100 gms (main dishes) 25% less Saturated FatLess than.5 grams1 gm or less and 15% or less of calories from sat fat 25% less CholesterolLess than 2 mg20 mg or less25% less SodiumLess than 5 mg140 mg or less25% less SugarLess than.5 gramsNot defined25% less
Other Nutrient Content Claims ClaimRequirement High, rich, excellent sourceContains 20% or more DV Good source10-19% of DV More, fortified, enriched, added, extra, plus 10% or more of the of the DV; used for vitamins, minerals, protein, fiber, potassium LeanMeat, poultry, fish products – less than 10 g fat, 4.5 or less sat fat, less than 95 mg of cholesterol per serving Extra leanMeat, poultry, fish products – less than 5 g fat, 2 or less sat fat, less than 95 mg of cholesterol per serving Claims using term antioxidant RDI must be established for the nutrients. Nutrient must have existing scientific evidence of antioxidant activity Level of each nutrient must be sufficient to meet the definition for "high," "good source," or "more"
Approved Health Claims Calcium and osteoporosis Sodium and hypertension Dietary fat and cancer
Approved Health Claims Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease Fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancer Fruits, vegetables and grain products that contain fiber, particularly soluble fiber, and risk of coronary heart disease
Approved Health Claims Fruits and vegetables and cancer Folate and neural tube defects Dietary noncarcinogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries Soluble fiber from certain foods and risk of coronary heart disease Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease Plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease
Health Claims based on Authoritative Statements Whole-grain foods and risk of heart disease and certain cancers Potassium and the risk of high blood pressure and stroke Fluoridated water and reduced risk of dental carries Low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fat, and reduced risk of heart disease
Ingredient list Ingredient that weighs the most is first Example: Juice ingredient label 100% juice Ingredients: apple juice, natural flavors, ascorbic acid Ingredients: water, high fructose corn syrup, apple juice, ascorbic acid
Ingredient List Interesting ingredients….. healthy or nutrient dense foods listed first Determine MyPlate servings
Organic Produced with … No sewer-sludge/synthetic fertilizers No pesticides No growth hormones No antibiotics No irradiation Limits on genetic modification Generally higher in phytochemicals Not necessarily higher in nutrients
Highest In Pesticides…. Peaches Apples Sweet bell peppers Celery Nectarines Strawberries Cherries Lettuce Imported Grapes Pears Spinach Potatoes
Organic Labeling Raw, fresh and processed products that contain organic agricultural ingredients 100% organic must contain only organically produced ingredients and processing aids (excluding water and salt)
Organic Labeling USDA National Organic Program Organic - at least 95% organically produced ingredients (excluding water and salt) Made with organic ingredients - must contain at least 70% organic ingredients
Natural Labeling USDA has defined natural for meat and poultry only: Contains no artificial ingredients or added color Minimally processed (the raw product not fundamentally altered) may be labeled natural Label must explain the use of the term natural – for example, no added colorings or artificial ingredients or minimally processed
Natural No legal definition for other foods Generally, no added colors, synthetic flavors or ingredients Cleaner ingredient list Canola oil, orange juice, etc, organic soy sauce, rice wine vinegar, evaporated cane juice, garlic, ginger … beet extract for color