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community medicine An Introduction

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1 community medicine An Introduction
By Dr Mahmood Ur Rahman Professor of Community Med

2 Community Medicine The field concerned with the study of health and disease in the defined community or group. Its goal is to identify the health problems and needs of people (community diagnosis) and to plan, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of health care system.

3 GOALS OF MODERN MEDICINE
Focus shift from treatment of sick Prevention of Diseases Promotion of health Quality of life improvement for individuals & groups

4 Five Star Doctor Leader Manager Care Provider Communicator
Decision Maker

5 Knowledge regarding Study of : Population to be served Demography Patterns of Health and disease Epidemiology Collection, compilation and analysis of data Biostatistics Behavioral factors and their effect on Health Behavioral sciences Control and prevention of diseases Preventive Medicine The food people eat Nutrition Environmental factors and their effects on Health Environmental Health Delivery of Health Care Health Administration and Planning

6 Examination pattern

7 Assessment System (Annual)
TERM TESTS: 02 PRE-ANNUAL EXAM ANNUAL EXAM Viva and spotting PBL (Problem Based Learning)

8 Annual Examination Marks of Written Paper : 135
Time Allowed = 3 Hrs (Including MCQs) Marks of Internal Assessment : 15 Max Marks : 150 Pass Marks : 75 Written paper will comprise of two parts (A & B) Q–1 (MCQ) (one best out of five items type from whole course, on separate sheet (Time 30 Min) : 30 Marks

9 Part – A SEQs/SAQs (15 Marks each)
Q–2 PBQ Whole course Q–3 Epidemiology (Gen & Spec) + Screening of Diseases Q–4 Statistics Q–5 Communicable / non communicable diseases

10 Part – B SEQs/SAQs (09 Marks each)
Q–6 MCH and family planning / demography Q–7 Nutrition / Entomology / Parasitology / Health Education/ Occupational Medicine/ Social / Behavioral Sciences Q–8 Water / Environmental Health Q–9 Accidents / Disasters / Smoking / / Substance abuse / School Health / Mental Health / Geriatrics / Housing/ Snake bite Q–10 HMIS / Medical Ethics / PHC / International Health / Concept of Health and disease / Planning and Management

11 Allocation of Marks Written Paper Max Marks: 135 Marks
Internal Assessment: Marks (Based on marks obtained in Theory Papers of Term Tests and Pre Annual exam) Sub Total: Marks

12 Oral & Practical Max Marks: 150 Viva: 100 Marks Spotting: 10 Marks Project: Day Book/Visit Book/Entomology/ Research 25 Marks Internal Assessment: PBL/ Viva Pre Annual: 15 Marks Sub Total: 150 Marks Grand Total: 300 Marks

13 Course contents

14 The complete course of Community Medicine is according to the laid down Syllabus issued by PMDC

15 Core Contents Concepts of Health and disease
Introduction to Public Health and Health Systems in Pakistan Epidemiology , Screening and Infectious Disease Control Non Communicable Diseases Biostatistics and HMIS Demography and Population Dynamics Food and nutrition Reproductive and Child Health

16 Core Contents…. School Health Services Environmental health
Occupational Health Parasitic Diseases – Prevention and control Zoonotic diseases Arthropods of Public Health Importance Mental Health Behavioral Sciences Health Education and Promotion Disaster Management Medical Ethics

17 Concept of Health and Disease
Dimensions and Spectrum of Health Determinants of Health Health Indicators Primary Healthcare Concept

18 Introduction to Public Health & Health systems in Pakistan
Background and concepts Development of Public Health in Pakistan Economics and Health Health Policy and Planning in Pakistan Health System in Pakistan

19 Epidemiology and Disease Control
Background and concepts, uses Basic measurements in epidemiology Epidemiological methods, association and causation investigation of epidemics, screening for disease Research and survey methodology Definitions: infection, contact, host, carriers

20 Dynamics of infectious disease transmission Control of infection
Epidemiology, control and prevention of infectious diseases of public health importance Diseases transmitted through inhalation Diseases transmitted through faeco-oral route Diseases of animals conveyed to man Diseases due to direct contact

21 Epidemiology, Control and Prevention of Non-infectious Diseases of Public Health Importance
Hypertension Coronary heart disease Cancers Injuries Diabetes Mellitus Obesity Acute Rheumatic fever Ischaemic heart diseases

22 Biostatistics Concepts and uses Data and its types
Rate, ratio and proportion Crude, specific and standardized rates Collection and registration of vital events in Pakistan Sources of health related statistics Measures of central tendency (Mean, Mode, Median)

23 Demography and Population Dynamics
Concept, Principles, Demographic processes Census, definition, types, methodology Determinants of fertility, mortality Population pyramid and its interpretation Demographic transition, demographic trap Demographic & social implications of high population growth Social mobilization Urbanization

24 Food and Nutrition Concepts of Nutrition
Malnutrition at all stages of life Dietary requirements Food hygiene, pasteurization, fortification, adulteration and preservation Food poisoning Assessment of nutritional status of Community

25 Reproductive and Child health
Safe motherhood & its components Maternal mortality, causes and prevention Infant care, growth & development, breast feeding, common causes of morbidity and mortality, their prevention and control IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) Adolescent health Reproductive tract infections, managing STDs

26 Health of School age Children
Role of teachers and role of doctors in maintenance of health Procedures for determining the health status of school children Common health problems of school children

27 Environmental Health Air Composition, pollution, purification, diseases caused by air impurities & their prevention Water, Sources, daily requirement, causes of pollution, its prevention, purification, quality standards, diseases due to polluted water Waste Disposal, Hazards and Safety Measures Radiation sources, types, causes, hazards, prevention Healthful housing, urban & rural slums, Refugee camps and hostels Noise, causes, acceptance level, hazards and control

28 Occupational Health Concepts of occupational Health and Medicine
Ergonomics and its Importance Occupational Hazards Principles of prevention and Control Organization of Occupational Health Services Health insurance and Social Security Schemes

29 Arthropods and Their Public Health Importance
Common arthropod borne diseases Control of arthropod of medical importance Insecticides and their public health importance

30 Prevention and control of parasitic diseases of public health importance
Snake bites, personal protection and management

31 Mental Health Concept, common mental health problems, causes and prevention Juvenile delinquency

32 Behavioural Sciences and Life Style
Concept, attitudes, health and illness behaviour Drug abuse, addiction and smoking Child abuse and child labour Role of physical exercise in health and disease

33 Information, Education and Communication (IEC)
Concept, aims & objectives Approaches used in public health Contents, principles & stages of health education Communication methods, barriers, and skills in health education Planning, organizing and evaluating a health education programme Social marketing

34 Disaster Definition, classification
Natural Disasters like Earthquakes, Floods Epidemic of communicable diseases Man made disasters Accidents, thermonuclear warfare, causes and prevention Magnitude and effects of Disaster and Public Health consequences Disaster preparedness and management

35 Medical Ethics Background concepts and components
National recommended guidelines Code of Medical Ethics

36 Practical and Community Based Training
Students should have practical experience in: Questionnaire development Data collection Compilation Presentation Analysis Report writing

37 Field Visits Visit to BHU and RHC Visit to an NGO
Visit to a primary school to assess the nutritional status of school children Visit to MCH/Reproductive Health Centre to observe the organization, function of the centre, Antenatal care, FP services & Immunization Visit to a hospital to see the hospital waste disposal Visit to an industry Visit to a physical/mental/social rehabilitation centre

38 Skills Development Lab
Water purification at domestic level Contraceptives Vaccination including the cold chain Oral Rehydration solution

39 Recommended Reading Park’s Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine by K Park Public Health and Community Medicine by Ilyas and Ansari Lecture Notes

40


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