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2 WILDLIFE ADMINISTRATION This is the organizational structure established for the management of wildlife resources in many states of Nigeria wildlife is administer as a unit of forestry division in the ministry of agriculture and natural resources. This takes care of the wildlife resources in the game reserves. However, the 7 National Park in the country are administered by the National Park Board of the Nigeria National Park services. This parks include:

3 WILDLIFE ADMINISTRATION Gashaka Gumti National Park, Serti, Taraba State Chad Basin National Park Maiduguri, Borno State Kamuku National Park Birnin Gwari Kaduna state Okomu national park Udo, Edo State Kainji Lake National Park New Bussa, Niger State Old Oyo National Park Oyo, Oyo state

4 PROBLEM OF WILDLIFE ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA There is a fundamental problem in the administration of wildlife under forestry division. Wildlife conservation matters are not given priority attention in allocation of foods and working equipment. These as often resulted in absences or non-repair of broken down vehicles in some reservation area. Its suggested that there is urgent need for the creation of autonomous wildlife division at both the Federal and State level just like the Forestry division in Ministry of Agriculture and National resources where wildlife programs will be given maximum and appropriate priority in their allocation of resources.

5 NATIONAL PARK ADMINISTRATION A good administration of a National Park/ Protected Area requires many specialist such as professional, scientist, technical, skill and unskilled workers to man the various section of the park. The conservation area administrator cannot effectively specialize in all the numerous function within its Department. He must therefore assign duties, receive responses, consider report of investigation make decisions and delegate responsibilities as much as possible. Park administration is a technical skill needing highly skilled personnel with maximum interest and devotion to duties. The following functions are usually performed in the National Park requires special knowledge and training where and when necessary these include:

6 NATIONAL PARK ADMINISTRATION Administrative function Legal matters involving prosecution and litigation Real estate and land economics Planning and research (various stages of planning and research into various areas of wildlife management). Engineering (construction and traffic control, creation of road, pathway for tourists.

7 NATIONAL PARK ADMINISTRATION Maintenance of grounds, building and equipment. Biological matter including Horticulture, floriculture, turf management, arboriculture, forestry,entomology and range management. Interpretation of Recreation resources Recreation leadership and promotion as well as public entertainment and enlightment. Policing, surveillance and ranger services.

8 NATIONAL PARK ADMINISTRATION Public relation (convincing the rural dwellers of the purpose of land acquired and Conservation education and awareness) Revenue generating operations, marketing services provided by the park posters and handbills. Liaison with other agencies: governmental and Non governmental agencies for funding promotion, implementation and assistance.

9 NATIONAL PARK ADMINISTRATION Budget control, accounting and clerical duties (Auditing, purchasing and accounting). Personnel and labour relations (appointment promotion and welfare of staffs). Hotel and catering services. Information technology and Communication services (creating park websites and updating information about the park). General services standard and performance appraisal.

10 POLICY MATTER RELATING TO PROTECTED AREA The basis for responsible legislation and administrative authority for Protected areas should lie in the National Policy on Resource Conservation and Development. Such policy may be writing into the National constitution, enshrined in legislation or declared in government programs and manifesto. National conservation policy should include statement of the nations commitment to the sustainable use of the nations living resources including the protection of representative ecosystem by means of a program of protected area management.

11 POLICY MATTER RELATING TO PROTECTED AREA The national conservation policy provides the frame work for the execution of policy, it identifies the country conservation need and objectives as well as area and resources of particular significance which are in need of protection. It described the program needed to achieve their conservation objective identity the institutions responsible and suggest or review the appropriate legislative and administrative frame work necessary for the implementation.

12 POLICY MATTER RELATING TO PROTECTED AREA Where National Conservation Policy and strategy does not exist other tools influencing government operation may provide important guidance on conservation policy. Economic development plan and National planning legislation frequently contain sections related to development and use of National resources such sections should incorporate conservation goals and consideration with land use planning and other resource development consideration.

13 THE NEED FOR PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION Various categories of protected areas call for different levels of protection and utilization. No matter what the type or purpose may be protected area can be effectively established and safe guard if only there are responsive legislative and administrative arrangement for their protection and management. The existence of adequate legal machinery is fundamental to long-term success of any protected area program. Such machinery provides the manager with essential support in meeting his or her responsibilities.

14 THE NEED FOR PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION Its to the mangers advantage to work closely with the legislative process so as to ensure that is legal base provide the necessary authority for action. The lack of legislation specifically responsive to the need of protected area is a weakness in the conservation effort of many countries.

15 THE NEED FOR PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION Revising legislation to adapt circumstances may be one means of generating support for viable national systems of protected area. It may also provide basis for public awareness program on the important of such protected areas for human wellbeing and local, national and international levels.

16 THE NEED FOR PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION The following points are important for conservation when reviewing the adequacy of National legislative frame work of protected areas. Legislation should authorized competent body to protect the area by force of law.

17 THE NEED FOR PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION Such an authorized body should be responsible only to the highest government authority and should not be subordinate to any government agencies which has conflicting policy or objectives. Legislation should be base on thorough understanding of international conservation agreement but should also be in harmony with the local tradition, institution and ecological condition.

18 THE NEED FOR PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION When protected area are first planned all inhabitant in and around the area should be well informed about the protected area how it would affect their livelihoods and life style. Protection of the natural environment which include the protection area occupy by the indigenous people may need to specifically recognized their traditional land right. Any legislation to establish, de-list or reduce the size of protected area should be averted by the highest authority in the country: de-listing should be permitted in the most extra ordinary circumstances.

19 KEY ASPECT OF PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION With respect to specific provision concerning protected area institutional authority Legislation show include the following items to the extent possible Designation of protected area authority or authorities

20 KEY ASPECT OF PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION Statement of function, jurisdiction, powers and duties our protected area manager. Method to appoint top management. Degree of authority to initiate and regulate. Activities envisaged. Personnel

21 KEY ASPECT OF PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION Power to raise and expend funds and government obligation to ensure adequate and continual funding. Accountability to the legislation and or judiciary Relation to other legislation. Ministerial discretion to over ride agency. Method of reporting. Liaison with external against agency decision.

22 ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Protected area management authorities are often composed of a number of specialized units according to the need of the protected area programs. This sub-unit may include all or most of the following The directorate supported by a directly supported by a central policy and planning unit. Monitoring and data compilation services. Research unit. Operational management including: field operation law enforcement and ecological management.

23 POLICY RELATING TO NATIONAL PARK ESTABLISHMENT National park is a piece of land set aside primarily for inspirational, educational, cultural and recreational purposes and not necessarily for economic or monetary gains. The piece of land set aside for use could be an improve land or Nature land

24 POLICY RELATING TO NATIONAL PARK ESTABLISHMENT Improve land is a land specially prepared for public use, court for games, playing ground, picnic horticultural exhibit e.t.c. While native land is an unimproved land which in itself could induce and promote recreation such as hunting, fishing, hiking and other recreational activities. This nature lands has characteristic feature which could induce recreation and promote recreation through nature appreciation, contemplation, geology, archeology etc

25 ACTIVITIES AND FACILITIES EXCLUDED FROM WITHIN THE NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARY In other to achieve the purpose for which parks are created the following facilities and activities should be controlled or excluded where possible from the national park: Hunting, killing or capture of the failing. Destruction or collection of the flora. Any grazing by domestic livestock.

26 ACTIVITIES AND FACILITIES EXCLUDED FROM WITHIN THE NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARY Exploitation of natural resources including Agricultural and lumbering. Any undertaken in connecting with mining or prospecting (digging for searching) is prohibited. However, should there be any overriding economic consideration justifying mineral exploration and exploitation its recommended that such the site should be cut off from the park. Excavation, draining of the ground or any work involving alteration of the configuration of the soil or character of the vegetation. Dam construction for the purpose of water supply, mitigation or hydro-electric power generation.

27 ACTIVITIES AND FACILITIES EXCLUDED FROM WITHIN THE NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARY Any activity likely to pollute water. Building of Roads, rail roads, aerodromes, power line, telephone lines or any engineering works. Low flying of aircraft except when on aerial survey or other experiment. Introduction of any exotic animals or plant Species. Carrying firearm, bows, arrows, traps, nets hook or any device capable of being use in hunting, fishing or capture of animal. Generally any activities likely to damage or destroy the flora or fauna or the landscape.

28 ACTIVITIES ENCOURAGED IN THE PARK Tourism and recreation such as swimming, boating, mountain climbing, game viewing and any other non-consumptive uses. Restricted are set aside mainly for Species and ecosystem protection and approved research purposes should be excluded from the activities listed above. The location and construction inside the National Park of roads, installation and buildings and other facilities required for effective park administration and management as well as to permit access and use of appropriate outdoor recreation for park visitor. Recreation for visitors should not only be limited but also undertaken in such a way as to disturb as little as possible of the fauna and flora Species. Hunting and fishing could be permitted under strict control by the designated park authorities especially when the carrying capacity of the habitat has been exceeded resulting in evidence of habitat determination and endangering the survival of other animal species.

29 FACILITIES OUTSIDE THE PARK The following activities should be as much as possible be located outside the park boundaries: Hotel, resort and associated facilities. Mass use of area for recreation and tourism. Organize artificial recreation ground e.g. for table tennis, golf and football. Residential building and other headquarter facilities and park personnel. Outdoor recreation facilities involving the use of skylift and jumps, motorized transport e.g. motor boat and other ones.

30 SPECIAL CONSIDERATION Cutting, burning or other removal of vegetation within a National Park should be permitted only when scientific investigation has shown it to be a essential management fool in the maintenance of biotic economy that will otherwise disappear. Law is required to ensure that land use practices around or surrounding the parks do not lead to silting, flooding or drying up of water causes within the park. The law should also ensure that other human activities do not cause any diversion or pollution of water causes and any other consequences slightly to be detrimental to the park since the effect of pollution could be felt beyond the area of its origin. Necessary measures should be taken to regulate and control bush fire in the neighborhood of the park.


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