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Natural Resources, Protected Areas, and Conservation The Foundation of Ecotourism.

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Presentation on theme: "Natural Resources, Protected Areas, and Conservation The Foundation of Ecotourism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Natural Resources, Protected Areas, and Conservation The Foundation of Ecotourism

2 The Exploitation of the Natural World Resources are not static, but expand and contract in response to human action The pursuit of touristic needs occurs along a broad physical site development continuum, - substantially altered to pristine environments Difference perceptions of what is developed and what is not developed in relation to tourist settings

3 Outdoor Recreation & Nature Based Tourism Diverse Natural Resources Geographic Location Climate and Weather Topography and Landforms Surface Materials Water Vegetation Fauna

4 Natural Resources Act as catalysts for facilitating and drawing people to a tourist region or as a constraint to visitation Humans have become the exploiter of natural resources Humans have a fear of the unknown

5 Human Attitudes towards Development through History The Creation of livable places, and usable spaces The regarding of the wilderness areas as waste and desolation Human activity gives significance to the world Conquest of Wilderness as a sign of human Achievement

6 The Roots of Conservation Harmony between humankind and nature Conservation relates to the efficient use of resources Ideally to be attained through a standpoint of spirituality

7 Harmony Harmony can only be achieved between human influences and the natural world through commitment of moral and social responsibility to future generations

8 Efficient Use Conservationism became a vehicle to manipulate the new frontier at the turn of the 20 th Century Battle of how resources should be utilized- if at all Need to acknowledge resources are finite

9 Spirituality Romanticism embodied deeper spiritual awareness that a simpler life was attainable without materialism –Untouched spaces had greater significance –These spaces had a purity that human contact degrades –Wilderness is a place of deep spiritual significance –Conquest of Nature is a fall from grace

10 The transcendentalist movement provided for a radical change in American society Emergence of Green Movement in the 1960s as a response to the increased use of technology in society

11 Parks and Protected Areas Have a mystique to travelers interested in some of the best represented natural regions Parks set up to protect the environment, wilderness, and wildlife, while providing a place for people to explore recreational opportunities Debate surrounding Parks and Park Management –Ex- Banff National Park, Alberta Canada

12 Parks Serve a variety of purposes, but have many pressures –Overuse of Park Resources –Overpopulation –Political Interests –Habitat Fragmentation e.g. Yosemite National Park

13 National Parks Zoning: Zone 1: Special Preservation Zone 2: Wilderness Zone 3: Natural Environment Zone 4: Outdoor Recreation Zone 5: Park Resources

14 Critics of Zoning Zoning is resource based and does not outline levels of recreational opportunities that can occur in such regions (Rollins, 1993) 2% of Canadas landmass is protected within the National Park system Taken 110 years to establish 38 National Parks - too slow

15 Bruntland Report 12% of all countries territories should be set aside as National Parks and protected areas Level that would ensure a degree of protection for all the worlds physiographic regions

16 Canadian Green Plan Developed in response to the Bruntland Report Goals: –To establish at least 5 new Parks by 1996 –To negotiate agreements by the Year 2000 for the remaining 13 national parks

17 Parks Have evolved globally to be managed accordingly to the ecological and human conditions of the environments they inhabit Parks in Great Britain have a different sense than those in N.A. Conservation is based on a steady state of human intervention designed to maintain a given habitat at a particular stage in perpetuity

18 The Evolving Role of Parks Preservation Protection Management Integrated Management Scientific and Management Complexity Management Concern Penetration by Extra-park influences 1850 190019502000 1872 1 st National Park Yellowstone 1885 1 st National Park (Canada) Banff 1911/1916 1 st Park Services (Can/US) 1976 1 st Biosphere Reserve

19 Categories of Conservation Management 1- Strict Nature Reserve 2- National Park 3- National Monument / National Landmark 4- Nature Conservation Reserve / Managed Nature Reserve / Wildlife Sanctuary 5- Protected Landscape or Seascape

20 6- Resource Reserve 7- Natural Biotic Area / Anthropological Reserve 8- Multiple Use Management Areas 9- Biosphere Reserve 10- World Heritage Site 11- Wetlands of International Importance

21 Protected Areas: The International Scene Use these categories to plan, establish and manage protected areas globally Biosphere reserves with 3 distinct zones –Core –Buffer –Transition

22 Ecosystem Management and Protected Areas Development of ecosystem management philosophy The Integrated management of natural landscapes, ecological processes, wildlife species and human activities, both within and adjacent to protected areas (Canadian Environmental Advisory Council) Never separate human and biospherical elements within an ecosystem

23 Human Ecology and Ecosystem Management Human Ecologists and Biologists should find common ground through: –Presenting a historical understanding of an area in terms of nature and humans, and their interaction –Doing a history systematically in terms of the culture which defines humans –Presenting the history spatially in terms of similarities and differences over space –Linking human studies to concepts or ideas that are the concern of other professionals –Presenting historical understanding in terms that are meaningful and attractive to a wide range of citizens, by drawing people to the human nature interface - the dynamics of ecosystem management

24 Approaches to Human Ecology Domination - Rule by monarch Stewardship - Humans are earth caretakers Participation -Humans in symbiosis with other species Abdication - All rights to prosper are relinquished. Humans are caught in a predator-prey relationship Peterson (1996)

25 Conclusion Issues relating to place and role of the human in the environment have been explored through conservation and preservation Employ new strategies to enable people to strike a balance between humans and the earth

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