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In situ Ex situ In situ: Conservation of species in their natural habitat E.g. natural parks, nature reserves Ex situ: Conserving species in isolation of their natural habitat E.g. zoos, botanical gardens, seed banks © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
In situ conservation Setting up wild life reserves is not just a matter of building a fence around an area and letting it grow wild Without grazing animals heathlands which contain a number of rare species will revert to woodland © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Nature reserves and national parks First the area that is suitable for the creation of a reserve has to be identified and delimited This requires surveys to collect data on key species Property may have to be expropriated A legal framework may need to be set up to control human activities in the area and in its immediate surroundings Policing the area may also be necessary © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Les Ecrins National Park, France Park Buffer zone © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Nature reserves and national parks If part of the area has been degraded due to bad land use it may need restoring Alien species that have penetrated the area may need excluding or eliminating Constant management will be needed to maintain the habitat of the species being conserved This may mean arresting natural succession © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The advantages of in situ conservation The species will have all the resources that it is adapted too The species will continue to evolve in their environment The species have more space Bigger breeding populations can be kept It is cheaper to keep an organism in its natural habitat Wordpress.com © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
However there are problems It is difficult to control illegal exploitation (e.g. poaching) The environment may need restoring and alien species are difficult to control Sciencemuseum.org © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Ex situ conservation Captive breeding The Hawaiian goose was practically extinct in the wild 12 birds were taken into captivity A population of 9000 was released back into the wild The experiment failed because the original cause rats had not been eliminated. The rats eat the eggs and the nestlings of the geese © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS State Symbols USA
Pere Davids deer success or failure? Pere Davids deer was a native species of China In were taken into zoological collections Meanwhile it became extinct in the wild By 1981 there were 994 individuals scattered through zoological collections America Zoo © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Ex situ conservation Captive breeding of endangered species is a last resort These species have already reached the point where their populations would not recover in the wild It works well for species that are easily bred in captivity but more specialised animals are difficult to keep (aye aye) Isolated in captivity they do not evolve with their environment © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Zoos: The land of the living dead? They have a very small gene pool in which to mix their genes Inbreeding is a serious problem Zoos and parks try to solve this by exchanging specimens or by artificial insemination where it is possible In vitro fertilisation and fostering by a closely related species has even been tried (Indian Guar – large species of cattle - cloned) Even if it is possible to restore a population in captivity the natural habitat may have disappeared in the wild Species that rely on this much help are often considered to be the living dead © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Botanical gardens Botanical gardens show the same problems as captive breeding of animals Originally the role of botanical gardens was economic, pharmaceutical and aesthetic There range of species collected was limited The distribution of botanical gardens reflects the distribution of colonial powers Most are found in Europe and North America But plant diversity is greatest in the tropics © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Seed banks Seeds can be maintained for decades or even centuries if the conditions are controlled <5% humidity and –20°C Not all species are suited to this treatment Seeds need to be regularly germinated to renew stock or the seeds will eventually loose their viability Seed banks are at risk from power failure, natural disasters and war Duplicate stocks can be maintained Seeds kept in seed banks do not evolve with changes in the environment © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The doomsday vault - Spitzbergen Bergen Nat Acc of Arts BBC
International agencies CITES (The Convention in International Trade in Endangered Species) Set up in 1988 to control and encourage the sustainable exploitation of species The CITES conferences determine the status of a species and whether or not its exploitation requires regulation Species are placed into different appendices depending on their status CITES © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
CITES Appendices Appendix 1: Total ban on exploitation Appendix 2: Limited exploitation subject to quotas Appendix 3: Species requiring protection in certain states only Species are reassessed every 2 years © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature formerly World Wildlife Fund) Set up in 1961 as a non- governmental organisation Raises funds for conservation Lobbies parliaments for conservation Runs education programmes Provides advice to government conservation agencies Raises awareness on conservation issues WWF © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
CONSERVATION STRATEGIES. In situ Ex situ In situ: Conservation of species in their natural habitat E.g. natural parks, nature reserves Ex situ:
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