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Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Parks and Nature Preserves.

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Presentation on theme: "Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Parks and Nature Preserves."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Parks and Nature Preserves

2 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Outline Parks and Nature Preserves History Problems Size and Design Wilderness Areas Wildlife Refuges Wetlands Values Destruction

3 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. PARKS AND NATURE PRESERVES Origins and History Sacred groves were set aside for religious purposes, and grounds preserved for royalty. Natural landscaping popular in England in 1700s; created illusion of nature. Aristocrats excluded peasants harvesting within hunting estates

4 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Central Park New Yorks Central Park 1844 Provide healthful open space. - Designed by Frederick Law Olmstead. father of landscape architecture. Became original commissioner of Yosemite in California.

5 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Yellowstone First US area set aside to protect wild nature. - Designated the first National Park in the world in1872. National Park Service founded in Eliminated evidence of human use.

6 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

7 U.S. National Parks US national park system has grown to 376 parks, monuments, historic sites and recreation areas. 300 million visitors annually. - State and local parks have 1/16th the area of national parks, yet 2x visitors.

8 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Park Problems Islands of nature surrounded and threatened by destructive land uses and growing human populations. Number of visitors increased by 1/3rd in past decade, park budgets decreased by 25% Estimated $6-8 billion for overdue repairs and restoration alone.

9 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Park Problems Air Pollution Acid Rain Photochemical Smog Mining and Oil Interests Incompatible uses.

10 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Wildlife Historically, parks killed bad animals (wolves) in favor of good animals (elk). Unbalanced ecosystems, created false illusion of nature. Todays policy of natural regulation. Bison populations - Hunted off park property - Brucellosis and domestic cattle

11 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Buffalo killing at Yellowstone `

12 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Buffalo killing at Yellowstone

13 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. New Directions Several parks removed facilities that conflict with natural values. Proposals to close a number of parks to tourists to protect ecosystems. Airsheds, watersheds, and animal territories and migration routes often extend far beyond official boundaries. - Biogeographical area must be managed as a unit.

14 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. New Parks and Monuments Solution to to create new parks. Grand Staircase-Escalante - Desert canyonlands in southern Utah. Sits atop potentially trillions of dollars worth on natural resources.

15 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. World Parks, Preserves and Refuges 4% of landmass North and Central America have the largest fraction (10% of their land area - 33% of total protected area). Former Soviet Union only has 3% of total. Currently about 300 world biosphere reserves in 75 countries.

16 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Sustainable Human use and benefit

17 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Size and Design of Nature Preserves Ideally, a reserve should be large enough - To support viable populations of endangered species, - To keep ecosystems intact - To isolate critical core areas from external forces.

18 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

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20 Size and Design of Nature Preserves For some species, several small isolated refuges can support viable populations. But cannot support species requiring large amounts of space. - Corridors of natural habitat to allow movement of species from one area to another can help maintain genetic exchange in fragmented areas.

21 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed.

22 Conservation and Economic Development Ecotourism can be more beneficial to over the long- term than extractive industries. - Wildlife watching, outdoor recreation can be source of income. - But ecotourism can extend impacts into new untouched areas.

23 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Indigenous Communities and Reserves Areas chosen for nature preservation are often traditional lands of indigenous people. Often hurt traditional economies by restricting access or cultural practices.

24 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Maasai herders and Tanzania national parks

25 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. WILDERNESS AREAS A belief in wilderness is deeply embedded in our culture Wilderness Act defined wilderness: An area of undeveloped land affected primarily by the forces of nature, where man is a visitor who does not remain…

26 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Wilderness Areas Most of areas meeting these standards are in the Western US and Alaska. Pure interpretation of area with no history of development, only 1/4th of roadless areas qualify. - Prolonged battle has been waged over de-facto wilderness areas.

27 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Wilderness Areas Arguments for preservation: Refuge for endangered wildlife. Solitude and primitive recreation. Baseline for ecological research. Area left in natural state. For many people in developing countries, the idea of pristine wilderness is neither important or interesting.

28 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. WILDLIFE REFUGES 51 national wildlife refuges in US, Now 511 refuges in every major biome in NA. Refuge Management Originally intended to be sanctuaries in which wildlife would be protected from hunting or other disturbances Hunting allowed in refuges.

29 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Wildlife Refuges Over the years, a number of other uses have been allowed to operate within wildlife refuge boundaries. Oil and Gas Drilling Cattle Grazing Motor-boating Refuges also face threats from external sources - expanding human populations, water pollution

30 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. WETLANDS Wetland - Shallow water body or an area where the ground is wet long enough to support plants specialized to grow under saturated soil conditions. Wetland Values - Highly productive habitat for wildlife. - Occupy 5% of US land, but at least 1/3rd of endangered species use wetlands.

31 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Wetland Values Storage of flood waters. Natural water purification systems. Coastal Wetlands Used by nearly two-thirds of all marine fish and shellfish. Stabilize shorelines and help reduce flood damage. Recreational Opportunities.

32 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Wetland Destruction Throughout much of history, wetlands have been considered disagreeable and useless s to 1990s-- governments encouraged wetland drainage. 2/3rds of original wetlands destroyed.

33 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Wetlands Destruction

34 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Wetland Destruction Clean Water Act (1972) protected wetlands by requiring discharge permits. Farm Bill (1985) blocked agricultural subsidies to farmers who drain or damage wetlands. These laws are not necessarily effectively enforced.

35 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Wetlands and Flood Control Floodplains - Low lands along riverbanks, lakes, and coastlines subjected to periodic inundation. Valuable due to rich soil, level topography, convenient water supply, access to shipping, and recreational potential. - River control systems have protected communities, but tend to channelize rivers, speeding flow of water and exacerbating flooding downstream.

36 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7 th Ed. Summary Parks and Nature Preserves History Problems Size and Design Wilderness Areas Wildlife Refuges Wetlands Values Destruction


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