Presentation on theme: "IES Conference Hague-5-2004 Environmental Peace Parks: Prospects for South Asia Dr. Saleem H. Ali University of Vermont, Rubenstein School of Environment."— Presentation transcript:
IES Conference Hague Environmental Peace Parks: Prospects for South Asia Dr. Saleem H. Ali University of Vermont, Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources & Brown University, Watson Institute for International Studies
IES Conference Hague Environmental Peace-making Game Theory: Using dilemmas of common aversion rather than dilemmas of common interest as the frame of reference (Ali, Saleem H. Environmental Planning and Cooperative Behavior. Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 23, No. 2, December 2003) –Moving from focus on quantity to quality, from distributive to integrative bargaining –Example: beyond the water wars hypothesis Some questions to consider: –Are environmental issues a major cause of the conflict? –If not, what level of trust is a necessary prerequisite to the use of environmental issues in conflict resolution? –Would environmental cooperation lead to larger cooperative outcomes -- moving from low politics to high politics?
IES Conference Hague Kinds of Green Peace-building Sister Cities Program -- post-World War II phenomenon crystallized by Eisenhower in 1956 Debt-for-Nature Swaps: North-South tensions Peace Parks: 166 transboundary conservation zones comprising 666 individual conservation parks (Sandwith et al, 2001) –However, most are between friendly countries –Criticism (Halles analysis of Limpopo case)
IES Conference Hague Some notable peace parks WATERTON / GLACIER International Peace Parks (Canada / USA) LA AMISTAD International Peace Park (Costa Rica / Panama), led to establishment of a biological corridor LOS KATFOS / DARIEN National Parks (Colombia / Panama) CORDILLERA DEL CONDOR (Ecuador /Peru ), 1998: part of peace treaty MALOTI / DRAKENSBURG Transfrontier Conservation Area (Lesotho / South Africa) MONT PERDU World Heritage Site (France / Spain ) 1997
IES Conference Hague Some future possibilities in Asia The Altai Mountain (Russia, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan) The Northern Annamite Range (Lao PDR/ Vietnam) The Qomolangma /Sagarmatha Region (China / Nepal) The Karakoram Range (Pakistan / India) Kanchanjunga Conservation Area (China / India / Nepal) The Khunjerab / Taxcorgan Parks (Pakistan / China) Pamir Wakhan (Pakistan/ Tajikistan /Kyrghystan / Afghanistan)
IES Conference Hague Indigenous Interest Conservation and research: – Sanctuary Asia, Snow Leopard Trusts – Peshawar Univ-NGS and NSF collaboration Eco-tourism and mountaineering -- IIPT - Pakistan and India chapters –Himalayan mountain clubs –Adventure expeditions –Memorializing the region -- an exit strategy?
IES Conference Hague International Interest German governments interest and research development Italian governments interest vis-a-vis K2 (though strategically separate from Siachen) IUCN - Transfrontier Protected Areas Effort –Southern African focus:Peace Parks Foundation –Asian mountain initiative
IES Conference Hague Glacial impact on regional water resources Hindu Kush Himalaya Glaciers Fast glacier recession and wasting through most of the region 500 million people partly depend on glacial meltwater Coastal region change? –Glacier/ice sheets are melting: effects on sea level. Changes in land cover and land use? –Changing glacier cover changes water availability, hence land use in areas downstream
IES Conference Hague Overcoming S. Asian Challenges Transforming the militarys role Sovereignty and territoriality The Chinese question Visitor rights (Visa categories) -- Sharm-al Shaikh and HK-Macau examples Management plans