Presentation on theme: "PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT www.transportlearning.net Parking pricing and management."— Presentation transcript:
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Parking pricing and management
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Parking policy Problems – negative impacts Typical policy development Policy conflicts What do local authorities control? Regulating and enforcing on-street parking Off-street parking Effect of parking on economic vitality Park and ride Gaining acceptance for parking policy Some conclusions
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Structure of seminar At the end of todays class you should have an understanding of: Some definitions Parking – positive and negative impacts Typical policy development, and policy conflicts What do local authorities control? Regulating and enforcing on-street parking Off-street parking – types, costs, control, uses Effect of parking on economic vitality Park and ride Gaining public acceptance for parking policy Lecture and tutorials to get you working with the material
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Some definitions On-street Public off-street Public off-street (can be in parking structures) Private non-residential (PNR) Pay and display parking meter
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Positive impacts of parking policy Has an impact on mode share Can support local economic development Major revenue earner Improves road safety Influences car ownership
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Negative impacts of parking Effect of on street parking (and parking search) on: n congestion, n road safety n environment n blocking bus lanes and stops; footways and crossings Off-street: n Construction costs and space used n Surface - 3k/space n Structure – 15-20k/space n Underground - 25k/space upwards n Peak car journeys induced – esp. by PNR
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Task For your town or city, what are the key problems and issues related to parking? Take 10 minutes working with your neighbour to think about this. Then we will discuss this, to look for commonalities – and differences.
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Typical development of a parking policy From COST 342 (especially relevant to on-street policy) Stage 1 – no problems, Stage 2 – as demand > supply, regulations introduced Stage 3 - demand further increases – time limits introduced to favour short stay shoppers, visitors Stage 4 – commuters pushed further out – conflict with residents – residents zones introduced Stage 5 – more and more differentiation of parking tariffs Stage 6 – park and ride. Stage 7 – inclusion of parking in mobility management
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT What do local authorities control? They control: Regulation of on-street parking (In a few countries) enforcement of on-street parking Parking standards for new development Public off-street car parks that they own and/or run Car parks for their own staff BUT they dont control: PNR and residential parking, once built Public off-street car parks that they dont own and/or run (In most countries) enforcement of on-street parking – including setting fines and collecting money
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT So… parking policies to manage demand
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Regulating/enforcing on-street parking Enforcement powers Differences across Europe Trend (?) from police to local authority Parking low priority for police and courts E.g. of UK decriminalised parking system Local authorities across Europe have powers Can take time to implement Consultation
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Off-street parking Who builds off-street public parking? Who pays for it? How much does it cost? Off-street parking for residents? e.g. Lyon Public off-street vs private off-street (PNR) Major industry – who controls it? Prices – should be < on-street? Higher per hour for longer stays
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Parking and economic vitality Does more parking lead to a better economy? Does less parking lead to a worse economy? What role does parking play in: Where shoppers choose to shop? Where companies choose to locate? Are certain traders more dependent on parking than others?
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Park and ride 1 Why build park and ride? % growth in P+R sites and 337% increase in P+R spaces in Europe (COST 342) Successful P+R needs: Frequent fast (cheap) public transport to centre Lack of parking in centre Easy road access to car park High quality secure facilities % of demand will come from trips previously made completely by PT Unofficial P+R?
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Park and ride 2 Effects of P+R on traffic (COST 342) Vienna – P+R takes 12% of city centre-bound traffic Chester – 20% Madrid – 20,000 users per day; Barcelona, 12,000; Hanover, 10,000. Strasbourg – P+R key element in success of tram line. 43% of motorised trips now made by public transport. Oxford, UK – 3-9% reduction in city-centre bound traffic.
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Parking standards for new development = amount of parking provided with new buildings Catering for demand or controlling demand? Relating parking provision to public transport accessibility Catering for specific users e.g. disabled, parents, cyclists Should there be central government guidance on parking standards? Response of developers to constraints on parking provision
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT PPG13 Parking standards (UK) These are maximum standards Food retail 1 space per 14m 2 Non food retail 1 space per 20m 2 Cinemas and conference facilities 1 space per 5 seats B1 including offices 1 space per 30m 2 = 1 space per 2-3 staff Higher and further education - 1 space per 2 staff + 1 space per 15 students Stadia 1 space per 15 seats Residential (PPG3) max 1.5 spaces/house
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Parking standards elsewhere Europe moving towards maximum standards…
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Parking and mobility management Mobility management – use of soft measures to get more out of transport system Parking – manages mobility Mobility management should include: Parking/park and ride information Parking management at large employers and at events Links between parking pricing/payment and public transport pricing/payment
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Implementing workplace parking management When parking charging or rationing implemented as part of site-based mobility management, need to take into account: Need for clear objectives and recognition of a problem Process of implementing charge Levels of charge, exemption from them Enforcement Employees contracts Administration Use of charge Overspill
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Gaining acceptance for parking policy Communication of changes and reasons for them Public know and understand the measures. Perceived benefit fees and other regulations related to size of problem. Alternative transport exists to a good standard. Revenue used fairly and transparently Parking regulations enforced consistently and fairly, Fines not excessive and related to seriousness of the offence
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Conclusions Parking - key determinant of mode choice Parking - key feature of urban transport policy Parking provision - should be controlled and related to accessibility by other modes? Link between parking and economic vitality – complex and unclear PNR can be addressed with political will Controlled zones can bring big local benefits Park and ride needs careful evaluation
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Task Read the summary of the conclusions from COST 342. Think – ready to discuss: Are these conclusions relevant to your town and city? Are there conclusions missing? How would you go about implementing the recommendations? What barriers would you face in implementing the recommendations?
PARKING PRICING AND MANAGEMENT Task Work individually. You are responsible for the parking policy of your own town or city. For your city/town, you have to develop an outline of a parking strategy. You have 45 minutes to do this. In it, you must consider: What are the most problematic issues? What policies will you choose to implement, and why? What will be the biggest barriers to implementing policy – and how might you try to overcome these? Are there any problems/issues that you wont be able to address effectively? What further information do you need to be able to make effective decisions?