Presentation on theme: "Conflicts in rural areas and National Parks"— Presentation transcript:
1Conflicts in rural areas and National Parks Loch LomondCairngorms
2Aims For any named Upland Glaciated area or a National Park Describe the environmental/land use conflicts which may arise.Describe how these conflicts are solved by the National Park Authority
3Back ground – National Parks 1950s A decade of new National Parks for the nation The first ten National Parks are designated starting with the Peak District in By the end of the decade the Lake District, Snowdonia, Dartmoor, Pembrokeshire Coast, North York Moors, Yorkshire Dales, Exmoor, Northumberland and Brecon Beacons National Parks have been established.This 1995 National Park Authorities become independent bodies within local government.2005 New additions to the family The new millennium brings two Scottish National Parks – Cairngorms and Loch Lomond and the Trossachs, created by the National Parks (Scotland) Act In 2005, the New Forest finally joins the National Park ‘family’.
4The UK National Parks Order of National Parks designation Peak DistrictLake DistrictSnowdoniaDartmoorPembrokeshire CoastNorth York MoorsYorkshire DalesExmoorNorthumberlandBrecon BeaconsThe BroadsLoch Lomond & The TrossachsCairngormsThe New Forest
5Why is there a need for national parks? Increased affluence of the population.Greater leisure time.Improvements in personal mobility.Global communications.Increasing population – urban sprawl.Changing tourism.
6What do National Parks do? The National Parks (Scotland) Act 2000 sets out the four aims of National Parks in Scotland. These are:To conserve and enhance the natural and cultural heritageTo promote the sustainable use of the natural resources of the areaTo promote understanding and enjoyment (including enjoyment in the form of recreation) of the special qualities of the area by the public; andTo promote sustainable social and economic development of the communities of the area.
7The Cairngorms – Conservation!! 4 of Scotland’s highest mountains.One of Europe’s last wilderness areas.Unique arctic and alpine species.Ospreys and Golden Eagles.Home to 25% of UK’s threatened bird, animal and plant species.Various designations, SSSI, NSA’s.Finest collection of glacial landforms in UK.Rich Cultural Heritage.
8The Cairngorms – Under Pressure Large increases in visitor numbers all year round.Has resulted in conflicts between those wanting to expand tourism and those wanting to conserve the area.
9Winter Sports – The Cairngorm Funicular Railway THE CAIRNGORM FUNICULAR RAILWAY ForAgainst40% business’s rely on tourismVisual impactSkiers bring in £12 millionIntrusion on wilderness350 local jobsWalkers, Climbers, Cross country skiers.Less rural depopulationAll year round tourismDemand for better ski infrastructure V’s visual and environmental impact.SolutionFunicular Railway.Visitor management plan.
11Loch Lomond – Conservation? More than 70% of Scotland's population live less than an hour's travel time from Loch Lomond & The Trossachs.720 sq miles (1,865 sq km) of some of the finest scenery in Scotland.There are 20 Munros (mountains above 3,000ft) in the Park and the highest is Ben More at 1,174m.There are 22 larger lochs, with numerous smaller lochs and lochans.About 50 rivers and large burns.Ospreys and Golden Eagles.
13Tourist/Land use related Conflicts Local ResidentsEnvironmentalists/National Park AuthorityFarmersTourists
14Litter especially in Luss, on beaches and on the islands. Local ResidentsEnvironmentalists/National Park AuthorityFarmersTouristsLitter especially in Luss, on beaches and on the islands.Traffic Related issues (Luss) Inconsiderate parking. Noise and pollution. One way street in Luss.Rising House PricesSeasonal TourismTrespassing – LussAnti Social Behaviour – LussLitter – As more people gain access to the islands there is increasing pressure on fragile environments.Footpath erosion – West Over 15,000 walkers manage to walk the entire way every year and over 70,000 'day walkers' visit the route every day. Highland Way, Ben Lomond.Increasing access to fragile environments especially the islands. Dogs scare nesting birds on the islands Capercaillie, buzzards.Camp Fires. Lack of control or consideration.Wake/waves from engine powered water activities cause beach erosion,Trespassing irresponsibly.Gates openLeaving Litter.Scaring animals especially pregnant sheep.Active versus passive tourists.Mountain bikers versus walkers.
15Water based conflicts Jet Skiers Water Skiers Canoeists Kayakers FishermenFerry’sSpeed BoatsSwimmersCruise BoatsSea PlaneSailing Dinghy'sDivers
18Solutions Large car park at Luss NPA – Bye Laws Ranger service – empty bins twice daily in Luss.No bins provided on beaches.Education provided by Ranger Service.Interpretation boards/signage.Creation of Honey pots – Luss and Balloch.Loch Lomond Shores visitor centre.Affordable Housing.[[[-[Outdoor Access Code.
19A sewage issue in Luss Problem Solution Conflict Success? The car park facilitates over 400 carsLuss is one of the main toilet stops on the A82.I million visitors a year.The sewage system in Luss was built to provide for the 200 residents.SolutionDevelopment of a open sewage treatment plant on the outskirts of Luss.ConflictSmells in summerUnsightlyNoisy for local residents.Success?No raw sewage going into Loch Lomond.Improved sewage facilities in Luss to meet the demand.
20Footpath erosionAreas which attract a lot of people can suffer from the effects of repeated trampling by human feet. Mountain vegetation cannot withstand heavy pressure and dies back ultimately leaving bare ground with consequent problems fo soil erosion.On Ben Lomond with increased visitor pressure the path steadily became wider. As the vegetation cover was lost a lot of sediment was washed off the path to be deposited further down the slope causing further vegetation loss.
21Core Paths Positive Solutions Provides access to the landscape. What Are Core Paths?The essential paths that people need to get about their area and enjoy the outdoors. They can include waterways as well as paths and apply to everyone, including walkers, canoeists, horse-riders and cyclists. Most of the proposed core paths already exist and are already being used by the public.Positive SolutionsProvides access to the landscape.Provides well built paths which can be maintained.By sticking to paths there is less opportunity to trespass or put pressure on fragile environments.Interpretation boards can be set up along the paths to improve education.NP has greater control of where people are in the park.Offer opportunities to enjoy the Park’s special qualitiesAre promoted and offer potential economic benefits