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Integrating Brownfields and Eco-Industrial Development

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1 Integrating Brownfields and Eco-Industrial Development
Presented by Dion Jackson, Project Manager The National Center for Eco-Industrial Development Hello! My name is Dion Jackson. I’m the Project Manager for the National Center for Eco-Industrial Development as well as for the USC Center for Economic Development.

2 Outline The National Center for Eco-Industrial Development
What is Eco-Industrial Development? Industrial Ecology Eco-Industrial Parks Environmentally Benign Engineering Integrating Brownfields and Eco-Industrial Development I’ll start by telling you a little about the National Center for Eco-Industrial Development. Then I’ll discuss what Eco-Industrial Development is and finish with the results of our latest study: Eco-Industrial Strategies and Environmental Justice: An Agenda for Healthy Communities: Integrating Brownfields and Eco-Industrial Development . I’ll be addressing three areas of Eco-Industrial Development in today’s presentation: Industrial Ecology, out of which it grew:, Eco-industrial parks; and Environmentally benign engineering.

3 The National Center for Eco-Industrial Development
Grew out of the partnership between Leonard Mitchell and Ed Cohen-Rosenthal University of Southern California Cornell University to develop tools to expand the development of eco-industrial parks through-out the United States Funded by the Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce; and the Environmental Protection Agency We represent the National Center for Eco-Industrial Development which grew out of the partnership between Ed Cohen-Rosenthal and Leonard Mitchell. Ed ran the Work and Environment Initiative at Cornell University and promoted Eco-Industrial Park development. He and Leonard Mitchell teamed up to develop tools to expand the development of eco-industrial parks through-out the US. We received funding from the Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce; and the Environmental Protection Agency. This presentation today is a result of the study we conducted jointly to integrate Brownfields remediation redevelopment with eco-industrial development and strategies.

4 What is Eco-Industrial Development?
The creation of job opportunities through industrial expansion, especially in economically distressed communities, by applying principles of industrial ecology, establishing eco-industrial parks, and expanding use of environmentally benign manufacturing processes and techniques. Eco-Industrial Development is almost exactly identical as our mission statement: You are likely still wondering what this all means, so I’ll now define Industrial Ecology Eco-Industrial Park And environmentally benign manufacturing

5 Industrial Ecology "One of the most important concepts of industrial ecology is that, like the biological system, it rejects the concept of waste." - Industrial Ecology (Graedel and Allenby, Prentice Hall, 1994) Industrial Ecology is a rapidly growing field that systematically examines local, regional, and global uses and flows of materials and energy in products, processes, industrial sectors and economies. It focuses on the potential role of industry in reducing environmental burdens throughout the product life cycle from the extraction of raw materials, to the production of goods, to the use of those goods and to the management of the resulting wastes. Dictionaries define waste as useless or worthless material. In nature, however, nothing is eternally discarded; in various ways, all materials are reused, generally with great efficiency. Nature has adopted this approach because acquiring these materials from their reservoirs is costly in terms of energy and resources, and thus something to be avoided whenever possible. In our industrial world, discarding materials wrestled from the Earth System at great cost is also generally unwise. Hence, materials and products that are obsolete should be termed residues rather than wastes, and it should be recognized that wastes are merely residues that our economy has not yet learned to use efficiently."

6 Eco-Industrial Park An industrial park that is designed to increase the economic return at the same time it decreases it’s ecological impact. Models in use: By-Product Synergy Resource Recovery Park Green Technology Park Application of Eco-Industrial Strategies “Resource Circulating Economy” Resource Recovery Park: Green Technology Park: Applications of Eco-Industrial Technologies Resource Circulating Economy – Kitakyushu Japan – dismantling durable goods, appliances to inform the manufacture to increase the recyclability

7 Particle Board Factory Cogeneration Facility
By-Product Exchange Scrap Wood Sawdust Furniture Factory Particle Board Factory Recycled Paper Manufacturer WastePaper Municipal Recovery Facility Aquaculture Biomass By-Product Exchange: By-product synergy, or exchange, may be defined as the synergy among diverse industries, agriculture and communities resulting in the profitable conversion of by-products or 'wastes' to useable resources. By-products or 'wastes' from one sector may be used directly, or reprocessed into resources for use in another sector. By-product synergy collaborations may be formed within individual industries, industrial categories, or sectors as illustrated in our model Urban Eco-Industrial Park. Municipal waste is delivered to the Municipal Recovery Facility for sorting. Clean paper is sorted for the Recycled Paper Mill, all other Biomass such as yard trimmings, agricultural cellulose-based waste, and low-grade paper is sorted for the Ethanol Factory. The Furniture factory supplies scrap wood to the plywood factory and sawdust from both operations to the recycled paper manufacturer. Steam generated by the Cogeneration power plant is supplied to the aquaculture or “fish farm” and to the Ethanol plant and the electrical energy runs everyone’s operations. Steam Steam Cogeneration Facility Ethanol Production

8 By-Product Exchange Ethanol By-Products: Lignin Gypsum Yeast
Ethanol Plant Potential Exchange Partners: Wallboard Manufacturer Animal Feed Manufacturer This image represents one such facility that uses agricultural residues or wood wastes combined with sulfuric acid, and steam from a cogeneration facility to produce ethanol for fuel. The by-products of that process are Lignin, Gypsum, and Yeast. Lignin has many uses. In this example it is used as a binding agent. As it is plant-based it can be used as a binder in animal food for which the yeast is an input. It can also be used to bind the materials used to make wallboard, such as the gypsum produced in the ethanol process. Major Inputs: Agricultural residues or Wood wastes Sulfuric Acid Steam from a Cogeneration Facility

9 Industrial Symbiosis: Kalundborg, Denmark
The oldest example of industrial symbiosis is in Kalundborg, Denmark and involves five industrial enterprises and the municipality. It has developed over the past 30 years to maximize resource use efficiency and minimize environmental impacts. The six partners trade various by-products. By-product exchanges have been established for steam and heat, water, refinery gas, gypsum, biomass, liquid fertilizer, fly ash and sludge. Over a five year period, a $60 million investment in eco-industrial network project infrastructure has generated $120 million in cost savings.

10 Eco-Industrial Park An industrial park developed through the application of eco-industrial strategies such as: Waste Heat Recovery Cogeneration By-Product Exchange Green Building Development Creation of New Eco-Industrial Industries and Businesses And most importantly, the creation of new eco-industrial industries and businesses such as those based on conversion of renewable biomass to products that are primarily derived from fossil fuels today such as ethanol, butanol, and isopropanol.

11 Integrating Brownfields and Eco-Industrial Development
The eco-industrial approach employs not only innovative methods to reduce and reuse “waste byproducts”, but also technology-based solutions for reducing water and air emissions. Eco-industrial strategies occur along a continuum of approaches and designs. It can include adoption of more effective (environmentally and economically) remediation techniques and the subsequent redevelopment of a site to support material and energy exchanges. Or it can go further, integrating and adapting remediation activities and technologies into new industrial relationships. Based on an assessment of current literature, this is an issue that would benefit from additional research and study. However, a number of hypothetical scenarios have been envisioned for linking brownfield remediation and redevelopment:

12 Strategies to Integrate Remediation
Remediation Recovery Network Eco-Industrial Feedstock Integrated System of Remediation and Eco-Industrial Development

13 Case Studies: Linking Remediation to Brownfields
1) Stabilization of contamination and site redevelopment 2) Adaptation of biofilter remediation technology to perform industrial pollution control 3) Eco-Industrial based redevelopment

14 Site Remediation Selection of a site depends on physical and chemical properties of contaminants at the site. Particularly, at this site, contaminated soil will be first treated by bioremediation to remove organics and then by solidification to reduce the leachability of metal contamination.

15 Benefits in Redeveloping the Site
Health benefits from the removal of VOC’s from the soil and the chemical reduction of chromium. Cost savings by eliminating the need for any off-site transportation and landfill costs. Elimination of liability issues associated with off-site disposal. Cost benefits due to the stabilization of metal contaminants providing a low life cycle cost in other treatment scenarios.

16 Integrating Biofiltration for Remediation and Redevelopment
An attractive alternative because of its low costs, inherent simplicity, and lack of secondary wastes. An advantage of using biofilters is that the undesirable compound is broken down biologically and destroyed rather than being transferred to another media.

17 Site Remediation Biofilters- break down hazardous
contaminants into harmless products Extremely cost effective Under proper conditions, can convert virtually all relevant contaminants to harmless products. Most effectively used to treat nonhalogenated VOCs and fuel hydrocarbons.

18 Integration with Industrial Site Redevelopment
Biofilter can be used as a VOC control device for a single firm or as a shared technology that provides air pollution control services for a number of firms on the site. Refer to Box 8 Economic feasibility and regulatory permit requirements must be considered when evaluating biofiltration for commercial pollution control.

19 Eco-Industrial based Redevelopment- Integrating Technology and Design
Of the 450,000 brownfields sites in the US, roughly 200,000 sites contain abandoned underground storage tanks or are impacted by petroleum leaks. USTfields –address such situations New brownfields legislation includes 3 new areas: land contaminated by petroleum products, land contaminated by a controlled substance, and authorizes up to $200 million per year for brownfields assessment and cleanup.

20 Site Remediation- Petroleum Sites
Reclaiming petroleum-contaminated properties can return the land to productive use, create private or public investment in redevelopment and job-producing businesses, and renew valuable space within local communities.

21 Site Remediation- Avoiding Remediation Through Design
A more environmentally and economically effective strategy would be to to prevent the future need for remediation. Using less material in the production process, being more energy efficient, handling manufacturing processes more responsibly, and creating durable goods can reduce remediation costs while creating competitive advantage in the marketplace. EIP creates a community of manufacturing and service businesses located together in a common site.

22 Next Steps in Integrating Brownfield Remediation and Eco-Industrial Development
New opportunities to apply successfully link remediation and site design include urban sprawl, outmigration from center cities, and the degraded landscapes left behind by the transition from an urban industrial economy to a suburban service economy.

23 Presented by The National Center for Eco-Industrial Development

24 Brownfield Remediation and Eco-Industrial Development
EID provides a framework for potential brownfield reuse and redevelopment to bring about economic development for the local community. Development occurs through the recruiting of clean industries that place contaminated land back into more productive economic use. Eco-Industrial strategy is to attract clean businesses by drawing on urban advantages such as market and customer access, nearby labor pools, transportation access and feedstock supplies to feed an eco-industrial strategy.

25 The Mission of the National Center for Eco-industrial Development is to facilitate job creation and sustainable industrial expansion in distressed communities around the nation by applying principles of industrial ecology; establishing eco-industrial parks, and expanding use of environmentally benign manufacturing processes and techniques. The mission will be fulfilled by promoting in-the-ground development of eco-industrial parks to alleviate conditions of substantial and persistent unemployment and underemployment in economically distressed areas and regions. The objectives of the Center are: Explore principles of industrial ecology for application in distressed communities. Communicate the results of applied research projects to citizen groups and professionals active in the field of economic development and allied fields working in distressed areas and regions throughout the nation. Work in partnership with local, regional, state, and national public and private organizations to support the development of private sector resource recovery businesses and jobs in distressed communities. Train groups to implement eco-industrial developments and benign manufacturing principles, strategies, processes and techniques within specific social, economic, and environmental contexts. Assist local governments and community groups to understand how job-producing eco-industrial parks and benign manufacturing can improve the redevelopment potential of brownfields.

26 Eco-Industrial Parks " By collectively managing environmental and energy issues, Eco-industrial park members can enhance their environmental and economic performance and, as a result, achieve a combined benefit that is greater than the benefits each company would realize from optimizing only it's individual performance." ECO-EFFICIENCY TASK FORCE REPORT, U.S. PRESIDENT'S COUNCIL ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, 1996 Eco-industrial parks provide state of the art – more efficient infrastructure for distressed communities to attract businesses (with a focus on manufacturing), and create family-supporting – well-paying jobs in resource recovery and related manufacturing. Traditional industries are now developing and applying benign manufacturing technologies, processes and techniques to regain and maintain their competitiveness in world markets. They are realizing that their future depends on reducing harmful environmental impacts of their operations and products. One method of reducing harmful environmental impacts is to adopt eco-industrial strategies for waste exchange. Companies who have waste they cannot eliminate link with companies who will use that waste to create other manufactured goods. For example, commercial food waste can be used to manufacture animal feed, and usable lumber from obsolete pallets can be remilled to manufacture furniture, shelving and flooring.

27 Eco-Industrial Park An industrial park developed through the application of eco-industrial strategies such as: Waste Heat Recovery An Eco-Industrial Park combines economic and ecological benefits through the application of eco-industrial strategies such as Waste Heat Recovery: All industrial processes that burn large amounts of fuel tend to reject a large amount of low grade heat through their exhaust systems. Waste heat recovery involves the capture and use of this low grade 'waste' heat that cannot be effectively used by the generating industrial facility or power plant. When this heat is captured, it can often be used for other industrial processes such as heating water for aquaculture or for heating and cooling buildings.

28 Cogeneration Natural Gas>>>>>Turbine >>>>>Electricity PLUS Capture of heat for industrial processes or for district heating or to generate more electricity Another strategy is cogeneration, also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Cogeneration: Is the simultaneous production of electricity, heating and cooling in a single process and with an overall efficiency normally exceeding 70%; Saves energy, cuts costs, reduces waste and improves the environment; Is a reliable and proven means of generating electricity, heating and cooling; Represents a clear solution to the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy future; Accounts for around 7% of total global power production, and more than 40% in some European countries. Both the USA and the EU have targets to double the share of cogeneration by 2010; Is local power - producing energy where it is needed.

29 Eco-Industrial Park An industrial park developed through the application of eco-industrial strategies such as: Waste Heat Recovery Cogeneration By-Product Exchange Green Building Development Green Building Development: Green Building Development refers to the design of buildings to use less energy while retaining or exceeding the access to modern technology and comfort. Building One of the Cape Charles Sustainable Technology Park, Virginia showcases advanced design features such as photovoltaic panels which produce 50 kilowatts of solar power, indoor air quality monitoring, energy efficiency/high insulation values, skylights for natural daylighting, porous pavers to reduce stormwater runoff and adjustable common areas for meetings.

30 Example of Eco-Industrial Development
Riverside Eco-Park in Burlington, Vermont Jobs Generated: 422 Costs Saved: $1,925,000 per year Municipal Solid Waste Avoided: 32 tons per year Waste Energy Recaptured: 111,600 BTUs per year

31 Economic Benefits for Companies
Cost Savings & Enhanced Competitiveness Revenue Generation Improved Opportunities for Investment Access to New Technology Improved Human Resources Cost Savings & Enhanced Competitiveness: Companies participating in an eco-industrial network can benefit from a wide range of potential cost savings. Increased efficiency typically involves new by-product exchanges and joint infrastructure projects with neighboring facilities. Revenue Generation: Companies are sometimes unaware that their by-products have market value and can be sold rather than disposed of. Improved Opportunities for New Investment: The development of a flexible strategic plan for an eco-industrial network that includes baseline information on material and energy flows among existing firms can have a number of economic advantages for potential new investors. For example, several chemical companies are working to develop underutilized land holdings to attract new facilities that can utilize their products or by-products. Access to New Technology: Greater cooperation between firms provides a 'supplier' pathway for the diffusion of new technology across sectors and also helps stimulate new technological developments. Improved Human Resources: Industry collaboration in Sarnia, Ontario has resulted in a cooperative education program at Lambton College. There are 14 companies involved in the program, which have helped to set curriculum for a 3 year co-op program and a 40-week course. The results are better trained people, opportunities to use co-op students and lower training costs. These factors result in higher productivity among workers, a better supply of well trained labor and improved worker safety, all of which are strategic advantages.

32 Community Economic Benefits
Improved Business Attraction, Expansion, & Retention Local Import Substitution Brownfield Redevelopment Reduced Infrastructure Development Costs Improved Quality of Life Improved Business Attraction, Expansion & Retention: A healthy economy is one of the foundations of a healthy community. Eco-industrial development is an innovative strategy for business attraction, retention and expansion. Businesses that form profitable linkages with neighboring firms are less likely to relocate than those that do not. Expansion is fostered due to new opportunities and competitive gains resulting from material, energy, infrastructure and human resource projects. Communities or regions with sufficient material and energy flows can use this information to identify and attract new investment, particularly when the flows represent important inputs for prospective industrial facilities. This is called co-location. Local Import Substitution: Understanding the flow of energy and materials in the local economy provides new opportunities to exploit new or existing markets with locally or regionally produced products or services. Brownfield Redevelopment: Improvements in the image of a brownfield site through eco-industrial network development can help local governments keep existing tenants, encourage the expansion of their facility and promote new development on derelict, but serviced lands. Reduced Infrastructure Development Costs: Eco-industrial networks can result in a more efficient use of municipally provided services such as water and wastewater treatment, transportation and landfill capacity. Programs that also extend the life of municipal infrastructure are often more cost effective than major new capital investments. Economically viable opportunities may exist for publicly-owned facilities to participate in eco-industrial network developments through public-private partnerships and through joint ventures between industry and educational institutions. Improved Quality of Life: Today more than ever, a high quality of life is key to attracting and keeping a skilled workforce. Reductions in air and water emissions and improved disaster response and monitoring can lead to direct and marketable improvements in the quality of life for residents. In these ways, eco-industrial networks have helped to improve community-industry relations. A stronger more competitive and efficient local or regional economy generates more employment opportunities and tax revenues.

33 Environmental Benefits
Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduced Air Emissions & Improved Community Health Promotion of Pollution Prevention & the 4 R’s (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recover) Improved Resource Conservation Promotion of Green Technology Increased Environmental Awareness Regeneration of Green Space Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions: This is primarily achieved through the expanded use of cogeneration and district energy systems and the capture and reuse of typically wasted low grade energy sources for heating and cooling and in various industrial applications. Reduced Air Emissions & Improved Community Health: Increased efficiencies available through cogeneration and other shared energy systems can contribute significantly to a reduction in air emissions such as sulphur dioxides, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, particulates and a variety of air-borne toxins. Promotion of Pollution Prevention & the 4 R's (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recover): Eco-industrial network development can build on the successes of pollution prevention efforts, the recycling industry and local and regional waste exchanges by promoting these linkages among existing firms, and during the early stages of facility development or expansion. Improved Resource Conservation: When firms combine their production processes by exchanging energy and materials with another facility, they are often able to improve efficiency by reducing their production of 'wastes‘ and per unit consumption of resources more so than if they simply acted alone. Promotion of Green Technology Development: Some eco-industrial networks under development in the U.S. explicitly involve the promotion and demonstration of renewable energy, notably biomass and solar and the sharing of information about new 'green' technologies. Increased Environmental Awareness: A key component in the successful development of eco-industrial networks is the participation of local community and business leaders in workshops on the sustainable development of the local economy. Regeneration of Green Space: Eco-industrial network development often involves the preservation and regeneration of natural habitat through better planning of industrial parks, building and lot level design and management changes.

34 Methodology: Environmental And Public Health Threats
Identified common Southern California industries Identified chemicals typically found at brownfields sites formerly occupied by those industries Summarized human health hazards for identified chemicals based on long-term exposures to low levels of contaminants. Illustrative example: Chromium. Enters air, water, and soil, causing cancer, damage to liver, kidneys, circulatory and nerve tissues.

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