Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Stefano Pagiola Environment Department World Bank 1818 H Str NW Washington DC 20433 USA The opinions expressed in this presentation.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Stefano Pagiola Environment Department World Bank 1818 H Str NW Washington DC 20433 USA The opinions expressed in this presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stefano Pagiola Environment Department World Bank 1818 H Str NW Washington DC USA The opinions expressed in this presentation are the authors own and do not necessarily represent those of the World Bank Group. The materials in this presentation may be freely reproduced with appropriate credit to the author and the World Bank. Introduction to payment for environmental services Stefano Pagiola Environment Department, World Bank USAID Policy Seminar: Pro-Poor Payments for Ecosystem Services Virginia Tech, Northern Virginia Center, October 4, 2007

2 Sasumua water treatment plant, Kenya

3

4 Whats the problem? Clearing silt from water intakes: $50,000/year Treating for contamination: $100,000/year

5 The problem Benefits to land users Costs to downstream populations Deforestation and use for pasture Conservation

6 Past responses have largely failed Direct government intervention Demonstration approaches Regulatory approaches Short-term subsidies (in cash or in kind) Low adoption rates Adoption followed by abandonment

7 The logic of payments for environmental services Benefits to land users Costs to downstream populations Deforestation and use for pasture Conservation Payment Conservation with payment for service Important! This logic is repeated every year » Need annual payments » Need sustained financing

8 Definition of PES A mechanism to improve the provision of indirect environmental services in which Those who provide environmental services get paid for doing so (provider gets) Those who benefit from environmental services pay for their provision (user pays) Payments are conditional Participation is voluntary Service providersService users Service Payment

9 What makes payments for environmental services attractive? Generates its own financing: Brings new financing not previously available for conservation Efficient: Focuses efforts where benefits of conservation highest and costs lowest Potentially very sustainable: Not based on whims of donors, NGOs, but self-interest of service users and providers For this to work, need to: Base payments to providers on payments by users Actually deliver services: getting the science right is critical Tailor mechanism to specific local conditions

10 Special case: Supply-side PES A mechanism to improve the provision of indirect environmental services in which Those who provide environmental services get paid for doing so (provider gets) The government (or another third party) pays for their provision Payments are conditional Participation is voluntary Service providers Service users Service Payment Government

11 Generates its own financing: Brings new financing not previously available for conservation Efficient: Focuses efforts where benefits of conservation highest and costs lowest Potentially very sustainable: Not based on whims of governments, donors, NGOs, but self-interest of service users and providers For this to work, need to: Base payments to providers on payments by users Actually deliver services: getting the science right is critical Tailor mechanism to specific local conditions What makes supply-side PES attractive? ?

12 Colombia Cauca Valley water user associations Costa Rica FONAFIFO/Pagos por Servicios Ambientales (PSA) Heredia: Environmentally adjusted water tariff Ecuador Quito: FONAG Cuenca: ETAPA Pimampiro El Salvador Tacuba, San Francisco de Menéndez, Yamabal Mexico Pago por Servicios Ambientales del Bosque (PSAB) Coatepec Venezuela CVG-Edelca payments for conservation of Río Caroní South Africa Working for Water Program: payments from Hermanus and George Examples of PES mechanisms Capital city Mid-size town Small rural town

13 Costa Rica: Payments by water users Hydropower producer Domestic water supply Bottler Irrigated agriculture Hotel 10 15/ (US$/ha/yr): Total 18,000ha ca US$500,000/year Energía Global Platanar S.A. CNFL/Río Aranjuez CNFL/Río Balsa CNFL/Río Laguna Cote Florida Ice & Farm y Heredia ESPH Azucarera El Viejo Hidroeléctrica Agua Zarcas Misc 0ha2,000 ha4,000 ha6,000 ha Renewed!

14 World Bank support to PES Completed projects: Costa Rica: Ecomarkets Project (US$33 million WB + US$8 million GEF) Projects under implementation: Colombia/Costa Rica/Nicaragua: Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management Project (US$4.5 million GEF) South Africa: Cape Action Plan for the Environment (US$9 million GEF) Mexico: Environmental Services Project (US$83 million WB + US$15 million GEF) Costa Rica: Mainstreaming Market-Based Instruments for Environmental Management Project (US$30 million WB + US$10 million GEF) Projects under preparation: Brazil: Forests for Life Project Colombia: Sustainable Livestock Management Project Ecuador: Management of Chimborazos Natural Resources Project Venezuela: Canaima National Park Project Kenya: Agricultural Productivity and Sustainable Land Management Project Worldwide: LULUCF carbon projects (US$30 million BioCarbon Fund) Capacity building: Courses in Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Kenya, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Senegal, South Africa, Venezuela Research: Case studies; Hydrological aspects; Poverty links; Valuation

15 2. Charging service users … and the economics 1. Understanding the science… From theory to practice 3. Paying service providers Payment Irrigation Land users Hydrological effects Farmers Hydropower production Domestic water supply Electricity users Water users association Hydropower producer Water company 4. Establishing the institutional framework

16 Key problems Getting the science right Getting the institutions right

17 Poverty and PES 1.PES is not intended as a poverty reduction mechanism 2.Hope that it will help the poor Spatial correlation between poor areas and areas that provide environmental services Payments to poor land users provide them with additional income 3.But maybe it wont Can the poor participate? 4.Fears that it may do some harm Exacerbate tenure problems Impact on non-participants

18 Factors that affect household participation in PES programs Eligible to participate Yes PES program characteristics Household characteristics Degree of targeting Location of plots In target part of the watershed? Yes In target watershed? Source: Pagiola et al., 2005

19 Factors that affect household participation in PES programs PES program characteristics Household characteristics PES practice profitable? (with payment) Fits in farming system? Yes Eligible to participate Payment offered Opportunity cost of land Transaction costs imposed on participants Characteristics of PES practice Current land use practices Size of holding Household strategy Want to participate Yes Source: Pagiola et al., 2005

20 Factors that affect household participation in PES programs PES program characteristics Household characteristics Yes Want to participate Security of tenure Time horizon of PES practices Assets, savings, other income, remittances Investment requirements of PES practices Experience Education Technical difficulty of PES practices Land title, other collateral Able to participate Yes Access to TA? No Yes Able to undertake PES practices? Yes Access to credit? No Yes Able to invest? Has secure tenure? Source: Pagiola et al., 2005

21 Can the poor participate in PES? Key questions 1.Are the poor potentially eligible to participate? a.Are potential service suppliers poor? b.How many of the poor are potential service suppliers? 2.Are eligible poor households able to participate?

22 Guatemala: Watersheds with significant potential for PES Source: Pagiola, Zhang, and Colom, 2007

23 Guatemala: Poverty rate in water supply areas Source: Pagiola, Zhang, and Colom, 2007 High poverty rate in water supply area Low poverty rate in water supply area

24 Guatemala: Poverty rate in water supply areas Source: Pagiola, Zhang, and Colom, 2007 Average poverty rate 44% (sd 21%)

25 Relationship between poverty rate and importance of water supply areas Source: Pagiola, Zhang, and Colom, 2007

26 Guatemala: Poverty density in water supply areas Source: Pagiola, Zhang, and Colom, 2007, based on Nelson and Chomitz, 2002 Many poor in water supply area Few poor in water supply area

27 Guatemala: Poverty density in water supply areas Source: Pagiola, Zhang, and Colom, 2007 Average poverty density 0.95/ha (sd 1.1)

28 Guatemala: Poverty density in water supply areas Total number of poor: 1.7 million Share of countrys poor*: 27% (* excluding Petén)

29 PES and poverty Potential for local impact varies Some areas with significant PES potential have high poverty rates, but not all Potential for national impact is significant but limited Max 27% of countrys poor may be able to participate

30 Can eligible poor households participate in a PES program? Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Management Project Matiguás-Río Blanco, Nicaragua Piloting use of PES to promote silvopastoral practices in degraded pastures, to improve biodiversity and carbon sequestration

31 A tough test: Most participants are poor... Income level of program participants, Matiguás-Río Blanco, Nicaragua Source: Pagiola, Rios, and Arcenas, 2007 Participating households: 20% poor 46% extremely poor (national poverty line)

32 A tough test: … and participation requires expensive investments Establishment costs of selected silvopastoral practices Matiguás-Río Blanco, Nicaragua Source: Gobbi, 2005

33 Were the poor able to participate? Yes! Land use change in Matiguás-Río Blanco, Nicaragua Source: Pagiola, Rios, and Arcenas, 2007

34 Were the poor able to participate? Yes! Source: Pagiola, Rios, and Arcenas, 2007

35 Can the poor participate in PES? Important: PES are not poverty reduction programs Trying to make them be poverty reduction programs can undermine them But can try to maximize positive impacts/minimize adverse impacts A small but significant portion of the poor are potential participants in PES When the poor are eligible to participate, their ability to participate may be greater than assumed Transaction costs a bigger obstacle than household characteristics Appropriate PES design can help Appropriate contract design Low transaction costs Support to participants

36 Guidelines for Pro-poor PES PES is not a poverty reduction mechanism Poverty cannot be used as a criterion for participation A pro-poor PES program is one that maximizes its potential positive impact and minimizes its potential negative impact. Keep transaction costs low Devise specific mechanisms to counter high transaction costs. Ensure that the social context is well understood Avoid implementing PES programs in areas of insecure land tenure Provide targeted assistance to overcome problems that impede the participation of poorer households Seek external funding for additional costs of pro-poor programs

37 For more information


Download ppt "Stefano Pagiola Environment Department World Bank 1818 H Str NW Washington DC 20433 USA The opinions expressed in this presentation."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google