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E COSYSTEM S ERVICES (ESS) V ALUATION IN U RBAN R EGION : R EVIEW AND C ONCEPT M ODEL Liqin Zhang Department of Geography University of Ottawa 2013-11-23.

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Presentation on theme: "E COSYSTEM S ERVICES (ESS) V ALUATION IN U RBAN R EGION : R EVIEW AND C ONCEPT M ODEL Liqin Zhang Department of Geography University of Ottawa 2013-11-23."— Presentation transcript:

1 E COSYSTEM S ERVICES (ESS) V ALUATION IN U RBAN R EGION : R EVIEW AND C ONCEPT M ODEL Liqin Zhang Department of Geography University of Ottawa 2013-11-23 symposium -'From Urban to Rural: Multidisciplinary Perspectives of Sustainability in a Spatial World'

2 C ONTENTS Background Review of Urban ESS Studies Objectives Data & Method Cases Conclusions Limitations Research Questions and Concept Model

3 ESS and the Value Natural Services (Westman, 1977, Science) Ecosystem Services (Enrlich, 1981) Seldom research between 1981 and 1991 Booming research since 1991 Background Molnar J., et al., 2012; Westman, 1977; Enrlich P. and Enrlich A., 1981; Costanza, 1997 Global ESS Valuation -R. Costanza, 1997 MA- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2001-2005) - UN Ecosystem and Human - a Manual for Assessment Practitioners (2010) –UNEP&UNDP

4 W HAT IS E COSYSTEM S ERVICES MA, 2003, p57 Supporting Services Soil formation Nutrient cycling Primary production Provisioning Services Food Fresh water Fuel wood Fiber Biochemicals Genetic resources Regulating Services Climate regulation Disease regulation Water regulation Water purification Pollination Cultural Services Spiritual and religious Recreation and ecotourism Aesthetic Inspirational Educational Sense of place Cultural heritage Ecosystem services are the benefits human beings obtain from ecosystems, directly or indirectly. ( Costanza, 1997) K.M.A. Chan et al, 2012 Background

5 U RBAN ESS V ALUATION AND M APPING : M EANINGFUL, N ECESSARY OR NOT? YES and DEFINITELY YES Urban areas are the fastest changing areas with the most severe conflicts between ecosystem services and resources usage Decision making in real world exists anytime and anywhere Focus the time-depth value changes and spatial value differences between different types of landscapes Background

6 U RBAN R EGION Central urban area rural area Suburban /urban fringe Intra-Urban Urban Region Direct drives: inadequate/unequal access to safe water, sanitation, green space, clean fuel, land for housing Indirect drives: Demographic change, inequality; trade and development Direct drives: air pollution, groundwater degradation, river pollution, resource plundering, land use pressures Indirect drives: industrialization, motorization; trade and development

7 U RBAN R EGION ESS VALUATION F OCUS /D ATA /M ETHOD /C ASES /C ONCLUSIONS /L IMITATIONS Focus Urban expansion and urban-rural ecosystem services changes Basic data Land use/land cover data Digital elevation model Spatially explicit temperature dataset Method Unit values /Adjusted unit values Value functions Gret-Regamey A. et al, 2008 Scenarios Human dimensional scenario (e.g.Urban expansion, Infrastructure development) Climate scenario (e.g. Temperature change)

8 U RBAN R EGION ESS: C ASES Author, Year CityDataObjective Wu K., et al, 2013 Hangzhou Metropolitan Area, China Land use/land coverRegional ecosystem services Lin T., et al, 2012 Xiamen, China Land use changes metrics; Land use intensive index Island city ecosystem services Liu Y. et al, 2012 Taiyuan, China Land use change dataValuation of ecosystem services change Estoque R., et al, 2013 Baguio, Philippines Land use change dataEcosystem services change

9 U RBAN R EGION ESS: C ONCLUSIONS Urban expansion & infrastructure developments degrade value of ecosystem services. Expansion of urban forests and green spaces enhance ecosystem services. Both of inner urban and urban fringe are important for urban ESS, but urban fringe is more important for urban planning with higher marginal cost of ESS, due to the invasion of built-up areas into green. Gret-Regamey A. et al, 2008

10 I NTRA -U RBAN ESS VALUATION F OCUS /D ATA /M ETHOD /C ASES /C ONCLUSIONS /L IMITATIONS Focus Inner urban differentiation and the relation to urban ESS Data Land use /land cover (landscape) Residents interview for scenery value Market price and Proxy of market price Method Unit values /Value functions Hedonic method (cultural services)

11 I NTRA -U RBAN ESS: C ASES Author, YearCityDataObjective Strobach M., Haase D., 2013 Leipzig, Germany Urban treesCarbon storage Netusil N.R., et al, 2010 Portland, Oregon Tree canopy Effect on property value Kong F., et al, 2007 Jinan, China Landscape metrics Valuation of amenity of urban green space Ecosystem services value of urban forests and green spaces- the natural-cum-cultural resources - is the most important contents for urban ecosystem service studies. (Jim C.Y. and Chen W.Y., 2009)

12 I NTRA -U RBAN ESS: C ASES Author, YearCityDataObjective Larondelle N. et al, 2013 European cities Spatial data along urban-rural gradient Different impact between core cities and their regions Depietir Y., et al., 2013 Cologne urban area, Germany Spatial landscape data and stakeholders interview Assess the social vulnerability to heat waves in Cologne With respect to the core cities, Comparing with their regions, the core cities with high degree impermeable land do not mean fewer ecosystem services, especially for areas containing a large number of mature trees. (Larondelle N. and Haase D., 2013) Though vulnerability is higher in central districts, attention needs to be paid to the periphery where the most susceptible groups reside. (Depietri Y., et al., 2013)

13 U RBAN ESS: C ASES Author, YearCityDataObjective McPhearson T., et al., 2013 New York, USA Socio-ecological data, urban landscape data Develop an socio- ecological ESS assessment method Vejre H., et al., 2010 CopenhagenLandscape in urban fringe Assess cultural ESS based on landscape Urban ESS valuation should consider socio-ecological conditions and their spatial patterns across the urban landscape. ( McPhearson T., et al., 2013) The intangible services may dominate the tangible in Copenhagen (related urban region). (Vejre H., et al., 2010) Non-material (intangible) ecosystem services, are linked to human perception, so the valuation must be linked to physical landscape and process. (Vejre H., et al., 2010)

14 U RBAN ESS: C ASES Author, YearCityDataObjective Jim C.Y., et al, 2009 Hongkong, China Landscape data and view variables Value of scenic views Sander H., et al, 2012 Dakota, Minnesota, USA Aesthetic quality variables related with landscapes Cultural ecosystem services Plieninger T., et al, 2013 Eastern Germany Interview data based on local landscape Cultural ecosystem services and disservices Different types of ESS should be capitalized based on different perceptions (1) between different populations (2). Cultural services follow specific patterns in terms of the aesthetic environment, intensity, richness and diversity of their provision (3). (Ma S., Swinton S.,2011; Sagie H., et al, 2013; Plieninger T., et al., 2013; Sander H., Haight R., 2012)

15 L IMITATIONS OF U RBAN ESS-1 Central urban area Rural area ESS Gradient Interaction Suburban /Urban fringe

16 Regulating Cultural Provisioning Integration Urban Landscape Change Urban ESS Change Focus Lack L IMITATIONS OF U RBAN ESS-2

17 Q UESTION PROPOSED How do direct and indirect factors drive or interact with the change of urban ecosystem services? Focusing on the quantitative model for study areas How to integrate ESS valuation into urban planning? Spatial analysis tool and mapping will be applied for study; Interaction between ESS and urban physical landscape changes will be considered.

18 Landscape &Human Perception C ONCEPT MODEL Direct drives Indirect drives Ecosystem Services Urban Landscape Human Benefits Demographic change, inequality… Security, Basic material for a good life, Health, Good social relations


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