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EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Knowledge Intensive Service firms, sectors….systems Ian Miles Professor of Technological Innovation.

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Presentation on theme: "EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Knowledge Intensive Service firms, sectors….systems Ian Miles Professor of Technological Innovation."— Presentation transcript:

1 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Knowledge Intensive Service firms, sectors….systems Ian Miles Professor of Technological Innovation & Social Change Centre for Service Research & MIoIR Manchester Business School

2 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Towards understanding KISS

3 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Definitions Service: doing things rather than making things – creating (largely) intangible products. Things that are of value (an economic or para- economic relationship [informal economies] is implied) Service Firm: firms whose main business is directly producing services Service Sector: NACE sections G to O: G.Hotels and Restaurants (HORECA) H.Transport, Storage I.Financial Intermediation (FI... J.Real estate, Renting (…RE), Business Activities K.Wholesale & Retail Trade; Repair of Motor Vehicles, Motorcycles and Personal & Household Goods L.Public Administration and Defence; Compulsory Social Security M. Education N. Health and Social Work O. Other Community, Social and Personal Service Activities A service system is a configuration of people, technologies, and other resources that interact with other service systems to create mutual value. (SSMENet). Often firms and intra-firm activities involved.

4 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Firms and Sectors Society (concept of eco-services, informal economy and self-services) Formal Economy (in-house services, plus services delivered to others - sometimes sold - by non-service firms) Services Sectors (main activity concept of eco-services) Knowledge-Intensive Services Business-Related Services Business Services Knowledge-Intensive Business Services

5 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Firms and Sectors Society Formal Economy Services Sectors Knowledge-Intensive Services Business-Related Services Business Services Knowledge-Intensive Business Services

6 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Some KISS? Society Formal Economy Services Sectors Knowledge-Intensive Services Business-Related Services Business Services Knowledge-Intensive Business Services May include as members of system: consumers, manufacturers,.KIS/KIBS, other services. What level of granularity? What role of coproduction?

7 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research What do we mean by Knowledge-Intensive? Variations across sectors, firms, occupations, (possibly activities and processes): Workforce educational credentials implying embodied knowledge of different depths Work activities reported experience implying on-the-job knowledge of different depths Organisation knowledge management systems, knowledge- directed business processes Use of Information Technology

8 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Where is the knowledge? Seth Fisher cartoon To what extent: Are agents possessed of considerable knowledge? Are agents performing roles that require little knowledge to follow evolving knowledge- based instructions? Are agents performing routine and monotonous roles?

9 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Intensive, Extensive… Knowledge-based economy discussions – growing role of (some forms of)* knowledge production and use: Knowledge-based A,B,C,D Knowledge-driven A, B (?) Knowledge-intensive B, D (?) Are these the right parameters? E.g. other classifications based on standardisation vs specialisation, etc. * Mainly S&T knowledge, codified knowledge Workforce knowledge: Highly concentrated Workforce knowledge: Relatively distributed High reliance on codified or embodied tech. knowledge High reliance on codified or embodied soc. knowledge Low reliance on codified or embodied knowledge A B C D E

10 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Sectoral Analysis A quick look at basic data on technology use, Then exploring workforce qualificational and other data

11 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research UK data 2004 Sectoral data – Input-output tables: what do sectors purchase? Processing large volumes of Information Making or Working with Things Requiring physical presence of People

12 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Sectoral Workforce skills (educational levels) Agriculture Manufacturing HORECA Trade Transport Pub. Admin. Other Sers. FIRE Education Business Sers._ Health & Soc. Sers. HIGH SKILL LOW SKILL MEDIUM SKILL Data on EU workforce, 2000 Knowledge-intensive services Low-skill services Medium-skill services

13 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Graduates in Workforce: Focus on Knowledge- Intensive (private) services - KIBS UK, CIS3 data technology- based KIBS "professional KIBS"

14 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Work Experience across Sectors European Working Conditions Survey

15 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Knowledge Development and Use

16 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Knowledge-Intensive Business Service Sectors KIBS: within Business Service sectors: Most of NACE This misses Education, Social services, several Creative industries, Finance, Telecomms… NACE Classn Business Services Most important activities 71.1, , Leasing & rentingRenting of transport, construction equipment, office machinery Computer Hardware consultancy Software consultancy Data processing Database activities 73.1, 73.2 R&D Research and experimental development on natural sciences and engineering …on social sciences and humanities 74.2, 74.3 Technical Architectural activities Engineering activities Technical testing and analysis , Professional Legal activities Accounting & tax consultancy Management consulting 74.13, 74.4 Marketing Market research Advertising 74.5 Labour recruitmentLabour recruitment and provision of personnel 74.6, 74.7 OperationalSecurity activities Industrial cleaning OtherSecretarial and translation activities Packing activities Fairs & exhibitions NOT:

17 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Relative Scale of various BS in the UK, VALUE ADDED bn euros Rapid growth, across industrial world

18 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Sectors Occupations ISCO Occupations matching KIBS activities: 1: legislators, senior officials and managers; 2: professionals (in 1 Physical, mathematical and engineering science; Life science and health; Teaching; and Others); 3: technicians and associate professionals (as in group 2), [4: clericals]

19 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research ISCO Occupations and educational attainments, - shares of EU25 workforce, 2006

20 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Three KISA Occupations CEDEFOP data, ISCO categories, EU

21 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Location of highly qualified workers

22 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Source: Marja Toivonen More detailed KISA occupations – in KIBS and elsewhere

23 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Training in formal education Other training From data in Employment in Europe 2008; Normalised scores; averages for each cluster of occupations Fourteen clusters of jobs

24 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Beyond basic qualifications Scope for more sophisticated understanding/,measurement of knowledge and skills E.g. O*Net classification and description of occupations, and characterisation in terms of levels of capability in various competence areas. (Davide Consoli currently studying) Again, Scope for looking at knowledge as expressed in activities…

25 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Features of Work across Different Occupational Groups, Europe 2005 KIS work

26 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Features of Work across 4 Occupational Groups Europe 2005 – deviations from overall average for employees Own ideas New Things Complex Monotonous Unforeseen problems Use Internet Use computers Nonemployees KIS work

27 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Training in formal education Other training From data in Employment in Europe 2008; Normalised scores; averages for each cluster of occupations Shoe cleaners.. !! Manufacturing labourers. Building finishers and related trades workers Agricultural and other mobile plant operators Directors and chief executives Health associate professionals Fashion and other models !! Animal producers & related workers Cashiers, tellers & related clerks Business services agents & trade brokers Crop & animal producers Administrative associate professionals Artistic, entertainment & sports associate professionals Architects, engineers & related professionals Bold > 10%; small font <.1% First job title in each occupational cluster

28 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Key Clusters 2, 3 and 4 (16.8%) Health associate professionals (except nursing) Health professionals (except nursing) Legal professionals Life science professionals Nursing and midwifery associate professionals Nursing and midwifery professionals Physicists, chemists and related professionals Preprimary education teaching associate professionals Primary and preprimary education teaching professionals Religious professionals Secondary education teaching professionals Special education teaching professionals Architects, engineers and related professionals Business professionals College, university and higher education teaching professionals Computing professionals Social science and related professionals Special education teaching associate professionals Writers and creative or performing artists Artistic, entertainment and sports associate professionals Client information clerks Other teaching professionals Personal care and related workers Social work associate professionals % of E4.6% of E 5.5% of E

29 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research Key Clusters 5, 7 – and 8 Administrative associate professionals Archivists, librarians and related information professionals Library, mail and related clerks Life science technicians and related associate professional Material recording and transport clerks Numerical clerks Optical and electronic equipment operators Other office clerks Physical and engineering science technicians Precision workers in metal and related materials Protective services workers Secretaries and keyboard operating clerks Ship and aircraft controllers and technicians Business services agents and trade brokers Computer associate professionals Finance and sales associate professionals Other teaching associate professionals Religious associate professionals Travel attendants and related workers 5 7 Cashiers, tellers and related clerks Housekeeping and restaurant services workers Other personal services workers Shop, stall and market salespersons and demonstrators Cashiers, tellers and related clerks 8 5.3% of E 17.6% of E 16.5% of E

30 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research So K-I firms, sectors, occupations can be assessed in various ways But how can this be used to identify and classify, to understand and explore different KISS? At micro-level: KISS involved with a KIBS or KIBS-like service. Interesting question: what sort of knowledge requirements for the client? At macro-level – scope for definitions related to presence of particular shares of KISA workers relative to: overall employment? final cost of service? technology investment? Research agendas at different levels for different service types

31 EWOSS - Eindhoven 09/11/09 MIIR Centre for Service Research End of Presentation


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