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Database Services at Fermilab

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Presentation on theme: "Database Services at Fermilab"— Presentation transcript:

1 Database Services at Fermilab
Julie Trumbo Fermilab, Batavia, IL USA CSS-DSG

2 Topics Services structure (development, integration, production)
Scale of the service Storage size in deployment Hardware and Oracle  technologies used

3 Services Structure The Fermi database group has a standard 3 tier infrastructure for developing and deploying production databases and applications. This infrastructure provides 3 database instances, development, integration and production. This infrastructure is applicable to any application schema, mission critical or not. It is designed to insure development, testing, feedback, signoff, and an protected production environment. Each of these instances contain 1 or more applications.

4 Services Structure Db can be categorized in as following depending upon the usage : PRODUCTION – A production database will be used for fully working database applications and will house only "real" data. INTEGRATION – An integration database will be used for testing pre-production database applications. Occasionally, the integration instance may be refreshed with production data. DEVELOPMENT – A development database will be used for database and application development, testing of database features.

5 Services Structure Development, Integration & Production Environments
A development environment will exist for each application. This environment will house the application's tablespaces and the owner of the application. The application owner will own the official version of the development tables. The owner of the application will not be tied to an individual person. The development environment will contain logons for non dba individuals. These logons will be used for development and testing at the lowest levels, before applications are user-ready. An integration environment will exist and be used to test the cutting scripts and application code before declaring production. The integration database tables will be created using the Oracle Designer ddl (as part of script testing). Thus, it must minimally be large enough to enable creation of the initial extents needed by the tables.

6 Services Structure Development, Integration & Production Environments
The integration and production databases will contain logons for the application logons and dbas only. Individual users without application-specific roles will not have access. The roles for an application will be added by a dba working with the person acting as the application owner for specifications. The dba will set up the same roles in integration and production after the roles in development have been tested and validated. Grants to all roles will be established through Designer ddl, not through the dba. The development, integration, and production databases will have the application tablespaces named identically. This will provide for import and export of data between the databases. Replication of a production application implies replication of the integration application as well.

7 Services Structure Schema Evolution
There are 3 stages to a database schema evolution.  They take place  first in the development database, then in integration and finally in production. Changes to the schema, and testing of this schema from applications are initially made in the development database.   Once these changes have been made, a frozen production release cannot be expected to work against the development or integration databases. At some point, the build managers will declare a code freeze, tagging libraries, etc. Code frozen from the development area will initially be pointed to the integration area for user testing. Users may then request additional modifications to be done in development and moved to integration code area for additional user testing. When users are totally satisfied with the integration environment, the production environment can be established based on the integration environment. The following 6 bullets describe a reiterative process by which a cut to integration and then production can be established.

8 Services Structure Schema Evolution
A user may request an export of the application's database objects prior to testing of the cutting scripts in integration and prodcution, during which time the application's tablespaces will be in read-only mode to insure data consistency. This export,with consistent=y, will allow quick, easy restoration of the database objects if necessary. If no export is requested, the restoral will be done from the most recent backup. Pre-notification of integration and production database schema changes must be communicated to user groups as appropriate. A 'cutting script' will be used to modify schemas and make all necessary changes to integration and then production database environments.  This script will act as record of all changes for later review and be stored in a code library or other repository. If errors occur, the application's database will be restored and the script will be edited and re-run  until the script runs successfully. The error free cutting script will be checked into the code library. This process will minimize down time against the production database and insure a clean, error free run.

9 Services Structure Schema Evolution
The initial integration data quite possibly will be an export of the development database. When a large enough sample of production data exists, integration will be refreshed with some subset of production data, if space allows. All production database schema modifications will be done through the use of scripts. There should be no circumstance where structure is modified that cannot be traced back to a person and a script. A current version of the database's ddl (data definition language) will be kept in a source code repository. This ddl should reflect the production/integration database structures. This ddl needs to be able to accurately reproduce the schema without intervention.

10 Services Structure Schema Evolution
Via Makefiles, the eventually cutting script will be versioned and look similar to: <d0ora1> more convert.sql prompt altering tables @alter_tables.sql <d0ora1> more alter_tables.sql PROMPT ALTER TABLE DIMENSIONS TO ADD a column ALTER TABLE DIMENSIONS ADD DIM_ACTIVE NUMBER(1,0) / PROMPT UPDATE DIMENSIONS table for DIM_ACTIVE as 1 UPDATE DIMENSIONS SET DIM_ACTIVE = 1 COMMIT; PROMPT MAKE THE COLUMN AS NOT NULL ALTER TABLE DIMENSIONS MODIFY DIM_ACTIVE NOT NULL PROMPT Creating Trigger 'DIM_CREATES_BEF_I' CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER DIM_CREATES_BEF_I BEFORE INSERT ON DIMENSIONS FOR EACH ROW begin :new.create_date := sysdate; :new.create_user := lower(user); :new.dim_active := 1; end; SHOW ERROR

11 Services Structure Application Evolution
Applications will follow the same 3 stages of evolution as the database, development, integration and finally, production. Applications will not be considered 'production' releases until QA tests on integration show that database/application interaction works as expected Data written by applications moves as expected to replication test database if application functions in a replicated environment. Database roles work as expected within the context of the application Database schema evolution requirements in the previous section are satisfied, ensuring that the production database will be in expected state for new applications. Applications will use a source code library for version control. UPS/UPD/SRT will be used to support application development and deployment.

12 Services Structure Monitoring
Database(s) will be monitored using a commercial monitoring tool. Currently, we are using Oracle's Enterprise Manager. Databases will minimally be monitored for space, database up/down conditions, listener up/down conditions. We will work with the users of the database to monitor additional database, or system needs as required by the user. The details are available in the following document: OEM Planning Database downtime can be expected in order to schedule preventative maintenance. *We also use an additional tool, Toolman, which is home grown and maintained.

13 Services Structure Access Control
By default, individual users in the development databases will be given connect and resource privileges. Application owners will be given connect, resource, create public synonym, drop public synonym privileges. There will be 1 logon to act as application owner. All other access to the application's tables will be provided through roles and grants to be used by application owners or other application logons. Dbas can insist on seeing this structure if necessary. The password to the application owner's logon must be protected. Neither the application owner nor any database user with insert/update/delete authority will share their passwords with another person. A read only account should exist for the application. This may be optional. Any individual can use the read only logon. Roles will be created by the dbas. Grants to those roles will be maintained through Designer and the ddl. Individual users will be granted roles by the dbas. Any application roles granted to a user must be given to the dba through the application owner liason.

14 Services Structure Backup/Recovery
The development database will be backed up with hot backups during the week. Additional disk space needs to be allocated for archived redo logs and RMAN backup files. The integration database will be backed up with hot backups during the week. Additional disk space needs to be allocated for archived redo logs and RMAN backup files. The production databases will be backed up nightly, using hot backups to minimize down time. Additional disk space needs to be allocated for archived redo logs and RMAN backup files. A recovery test, using different types of failure scenarios, will be performed monthly, using development, integration and production databases. Tape backups need to be coordinated with the system administrator.

15 Services Structure Space Requirements Planning
For integration and production, a space allocation report provided through Designer, must be completed and given to the dbas so space can be assessed. Production and integration ddl must contain the storage parameters as suggested by the space report provided by Designer. No space will be allotted until the space assessment has been furnished. Production and integration ddl must be supplied to the dbas, and used in the creation of all tables and indices. These ddl need to reside in a code library repository, and will be compared to the space requirements report. Currently, there is a bug in Designer that attaches a username to the .syn ddl. Until this bug is fixed, the cdsddl.syn file must be checked to delete any reference to a username.

16 Services Structure Maintenance Scheduling
Database downtime can be expected in order to schedule preventative maintenance, security or other patches/upgrades necessary to keep the database in a secure, supportable environment.  It is suggested that maintenance be scheduled every 30 days, and used as needed. 

17 Service Scale Database Support System Support Levels of Support Shifts

18 Service Scale Database Support
Basic Infra Structure The Fermi database systems group (dsg) has a standard operating procedure for production databases. This will be reviewed in future slides. Suffice to say, mention of support for any production database also includes 2 additional databases for production’s support, integration and development databases.

19 Service Scale Levels of DB Support
Basic DB Support Assist to keep instances up and running during normal working hours. Accounts and privileges. Storage/space consulting support. Query tuning and consultation as time allows. Database monitoring and alerts. General consultation. Higher priority given to crisis situations.

20 Service Scale Levels of DB Support
High Availability Support Install/patch/upgrade/migrate databases on a certified platform/os version/ database configuration. Schedule downtime for patches and upgrades. Unless emergency, 2 weeks notice for production downtime required. One day monthly reserved for routine maintenance. Development, integration instances have no schedule, request 24 hour notice.

21 Service Scale Levels of DB Support
High Availability DB Support Full recovery and backup support from disk. Tape recoveries to disk discussed under system support. 24x7 support of data deemed mission critical. Accounts and privileges. Storage/space support. Query tuning and consultation. Database monitoring and alerts.

22 Service Scale Levels of DB Support
Support with MOU (memorandum of understanding) Relevant on an application(s) level only Full high availability support Full database design support including Entity Relationship diagram. Close consultation with application groups and users on design. Complete database ddl, dml, libraried. Full schema support for modifications.

23 Service Scale Levels of System Support
Basic System  Support Limited monitoring system Security issue notification Space threshold alerts Creation of account This will be limited support by the shift support group.

24 Service Scale Levels of System Support
High Availability System Support Install/patch/upgrade/migrate operating systems on a certified configuration. Schedule downtime for patches and upgrades. Unless emergency, 2 weeks notice for production downtime required. One day monthly reserved for routine maintenance. Development, integration machines have no schedule, request 24 hour notice.

25 Service Scale Levels of System Support
High Availability System Support Full recovery and backup support from tape for os and database files. 24x7 support of data deemed mission critical. OS accounts and privileges. Storage/space support. Consultation with system issues. System monitoring and alerts. Security issues.

26 Service Scale Miscellaneous
Log Book An electronic log book or web page(s) can be maintained to log the activities or action taken on system and databases. MAILING LISTS Mailing lists for db group and system group are maintained.

27 Service Scale Database Support
Database support at Fermi lab includes: High Availability: 4 Run II experiment databases, Oracle 9i 1 large application with MOU on 3 databases mission critical 24x7 support 1 Oracle basic replication instance 1 Oracle streams replication instance 1 Equipment database, Oracle, with MOU

28 Service Scale Database Support
Basic Support: 1 Run II experiment database Freeware database support package new products consultation to users documentation

29 Production Database Storage Sizes
Fermi’s production (high availability) experiment databases sizes are (excluding dev&int): D0 offline 540G and growing 256 annually, 210 users, including application owners and nonapp owners, ~75 roles, ~12 applications. D0 online < 50G CDF offline 166G, ~120 users including application owners(4) and nonapp owners, ~30 roles, 4 applications. CDF online 200G ~230 users including application owners(9) and nonapp owners, ~55 roles, 9 applications. Equipment < 10G ~400 users including application owners(7) and nonapp owners, ~67 roles, 7 applications. Luminosity 365G growing 125G annually Minos <50G

30 Oracle Technologies & Hardware
All experiment databases are running Oracle 9i with rman hot backup processes. All experiment databases are running on Solaris or Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS. Per standards, all Oracle databases run on Oracle certified platforms/os/db versions. See the certification matrix at the Oracle web site. Non certified configurations will not be supported by the database systems group.

31 Oracle Technologies & Hardware
Our equipment database uses Oracle tools such as forms and reports. This is the only database with dependencies over and above the database. There could be argument that other technologies would be an improvement. Intentionally did not tie the experiment databases to Oracle tool sets.

32 Oracle Technologies & Hardware
The experiment databases run on Sun hardware, 64b os & 64b db. Oracle Replica instances run on linux. There is movement afoot, though slowly, to migrate to a linux environment. The first experiment to be deployed on linux is minos.

33 Plans What does the future hold?
Develop policy and strategy for tier0 to tier1 deployments. Work on Oracle replication prototype between Cern and Fermi, read only streams technology to start. Would like to get a consistent and workable framework for long term consistency. Use existing Fermi tools available for streams implementation and support? Platforms? Upgrade/patch procedures? Database versioning? Etc. Identify players and roles. Look at freeware options, what is viable, what is the policy/strategy? How does freeware fit into tier 2 strategy?

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