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Programme of Work on Below-Ground Biodiversity and related Ecosystem Services Jeroen Huising Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute (TSBF), Nairobi.

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Presentation on theme: "Programme of Work on Below-Ground Biodiversity and related Ecosystem Services Jeroen Huising Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute (TSBF), Nairobi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Programme of Work on Below-Ground Biodiversity and related Ecosystem Services Jeroen Huising Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute (TSBF), Nairobi International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Colombia

2 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sustainable Use of Agrobiodiversity 2 A multi-disciplinary approach to research in soil related ecosystem services Ecosystem functions Soil processes Ecosystem services for human welfare Soil Organisms Soil Biodiversity soil biology - microbiology Soil ecology Soil science Environmental economics Resource economics Sociology Political sciences

3 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 3 Assessment 1: Large percentage of species of soil organisms is unknown (Source: Barrios et al, in press)

4 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 4 Assessment 2: Organisms, functional groups and ecosystem process Examples of diverse biota within functional groups are listed for a few ecosystem processes that are similar in soils and sediments (Source: Wall (ed.), 2004) OrganismsFunctional groupsEcosystem process Vertebrates (lizards, beavers); invertebrates (crustaceans, molluscks in sediments; ants, termites in soils) Bioturbators, ecosystem engineers Soil and sediment alteration and structure, laterally and to greater depths, redistribute organic matter and microbes Plant roots, algae, diatomsPrimary producersCreate biomass, stabilize soils and sediments Decapods, millipedesShreddersFragment, rip, and tear organic matter, providing smaller pieces for decay by organisms Bacteria and FungiDecomposersRecycle nutrients, increase nutrient availability for primary production Symbiotic (e.g Rhizobium) and asymbiotic (e.g. Azobacter, Cyanobacter) Nitrogen fixersBiologically fix atmospheric N 2 Methanogenic bacteria, denitrifying bacteria Trace-gas producersTransfer of C, N 2, N 2 O, CH 4 denitrification Roots, soil organismsCO­ 2 producersRespiration, emission of CO 2

5 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 5 KEY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF SOIL BIOTA Pests and Diseases e.g. fungi, invertebrates Decomposers e.g. cellulose degraders Micro-symbionts mycorrhizal Fungi N-fixing Bacteria C&N transformers e.g.methanogens & nitrifiers Microregulators Nematodes Macrofauna (Ecosystem Engineers) –Earthworms –Termites Maize Legume Source Swift (2002)

6 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 6 Assessment 3: Ecosystem services Ecosystem services provided by soil and sediment biota Regulating biogeochemical cycles Retention and delivery of nutrients to plants and algae Generation and renewal of soil and sediment structure Bioremediation Provision of clean drinking water Modification of the hydrological cycle (e.g. erosion control) Translocation of nutrient, particles and gases Regulation of atmospheric trace gasses Modification of anthropogenically driven global change Regulation of animal and plant populations Contribution to plant production for food, fuel and fiber Contribution to landscape heterogeneity and stability Vital component of habitats important for recreation and natural history MEA

7 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sustainable Use of Agrobiodiversity 7 Assessment 4: Importance of processes for provision of goods and services (SCOPE/SSBEF/GLIDE) Provision of goods and services in a temperate grassland ecosystem (Source Wall (Ed.), 2004

8 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 8 Assessment 5: Vulnerability of ecosystem goods and services (SCOPE) Arable tilled ecosystems provided by the soil biota to three agents of global change; invasive species, climate change and land-use change

9 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 9 Results from Indonesia confirm loss of BGBD with increasing land use intensity (termites)

10 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 10 Decrease in earthworm biomass with increasing land use intensity (Indonesia)

11 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 11 Economic valuation of BGBD Economic benefits derived from biological nitrogen fixation using promiscuous soybean cultivars in Sub-Sahara Africa Total benefit in 2004: 180 million US dollars (Chianu et al. unpubl. data)

12 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sustainable Use of Agrobiodiversity 12 Assessment: Guiding Principles Definition of Below-Ground BioDiversity as component of AgroBiodiversity Documentation and mapping of existing below-ground biodiversity and soil biological resources (degradation of soil biological resources) Identifying threats to BGBD and trends in loss of BGBD (monitoring)

13 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 13 Management (adaptive) 1: People Land management and Environmental Change (PLEC) Climatic variability Macro- and meso-climate Cycles and random trends Droughts, floods Agro BioDiversity Use and management of species Production, conservation Demography Population, Migration Gender, age Macro-economy Government services Subsidies, aid, taxation Livelihoods Poverty and food security Sustainability Management diversity Local knowledge Adaptation and innovation New technology Organisational Diversity Household characteristics Resource endowments Farm organisation Biophysical Diversity Soils, productivity Plants, biota Water, Microclimate AGRODIVERSITY Mainly temporal variations Mainly spatial variations Natural Environment Modified environment Related development issues (Source: Stocking 2005)

14 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 14 Management (adaptive) 2 Hierarchical management of soil biota At which scale levels do gradients in BGBD and land use intensity occur and where to intervene. – Preservation of key land uses (e.g. forest patches, landscape elements like hedges); Land use mosaics (conservation biology) – Farm gradients & diversity at farm level. Allocation of resource at the farm (maintaining and improving productivity at farm level; rehabilitating degraded lands?) – Plot level diversity (Integrated pest management) HIERARCHICAL MANAGEMENT OF SOIL BIOTA 1. CROPPING SYSTEM LEVEL Choice of plants Genetic manipulation Design in space and time Micro-symbionts & Rhizosphere 2. SOIL MANAGEMENT LEVEL Organic matter inputs (RQ) Mineral Fertilisers & Amendments Tillage, Irrigation 3. KEYSTONE BIOTA LEVEL Macrofauna Biological control agents Chemical manipulation (Swift, 1998) Scale levels and gradients

15 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 15 Management (adaptive) 3: limited opportunities to manage BGBD directly The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on species diversity

16 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 16 Management (adaptive) 4: Mngt. of biodiversity at plot and landscape scales From Swift et al. (2004) Hypothesised relationship between diversity and the efficiency of function of ecosystem services at the patch-ecosystem (i.e. plot) scale (Curves 1 and 2) and the scale of the landscape (Curves 3 and 4)

17 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 17 Management (adaptive) 3: negotiation of trade-offs Source: Tom Tomich et al. (2005) ASB – matrix trade-off

18 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 18 Management and indicators: stable food webs

19 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB 19 Management (adaptive): Guiding principles Entry points for interventions; tools and techniques Indicators of performance across scales Geographical and socio-economic context (mechanisms) Pathways for intensification of land use/management (use of fertilizers, organic inputs, conservation measures) Platform for negotiating trade-offs Capacity building: – Scientific (viz. taxonomy, soil ecology; technological development) – Technical (adoption, implementation and adaptation of technologies) – Skills (management, organisation and negotiation) – Political (policy development; decentralisation, empowerment)


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