2Objectives Identify structures of the female & male sexual anatomy Explain the female and male reproductive cycleUnderstand how STI’s are transmitted, who’s at risk, and ways to decrease the risk of contractionList the 3 different types of STI’sUnderstand how STI’s can be asymptomatic, yet still have chronic effectsDifferentiate between the various STI’sIdentify treatments for the various STI’sUnderstand the complications of STI’s
3Female AnatomyLabia majora & minora: protect the vulva, urethral opening, and vaginaClitoris: consists of erectile tissue and results in swelling during sexual arousalOvaries: eggs produced hereFallopian tube: extends from the ovaries to the uterus, fertilization occurs hereUterus: fetus develops here, two parts: fundus & cervixCervix: connects the vagina & uterus
4Male AnatomyPenis: root – attaches to the body, shaft, & glans penis - covered by foreskinScrotum: holds the testiclesTestes: sperm and hormone productionVas deferens: long tube through which sperm travel during ejaculationSeminal vesicles: secretes fluid, providing nourishment & enhancing sperm motilityProstate: secretes thin, milky fluid into the urethra, increasing sperm motilityCowper’s gland: secretes the lubricating fluid, sperm left in the urethra from a previous ejaculation will combine with the fluid to form the pre-ejaculate lubricant
5Sexually Transmitted Infections WHO’S AT RISK???ANYONE WHO IS SEXUALLY ACTIVECHECK YOUR RISK PROFILE AT UNSPEAKABLE.COMWHAT IS CONSIDERED SEXUAL ACTIVITY???ONLY VAGINAL INTERCOURSE?
6Sexually Transmitted Infections HOW ARE THEY TRANSMITTED?vaginal, oral, or anal intercourseby simply touching an infected areaTHREE MAIN TYPESBacterialViralParasitic
7Asymptomatic STI’s Bacterial STI’s As many as 20% of infected males and 80% of infected females are without symptomsViral STI’s have even higher percentages
9Chlamydia Most common bacterial STI in the U.S. Many cases are asymptomaticIf symptoms are present, they will occur 1-3 weeks after infectionComplicationsBlindnessSterilityEctopic pregnancyTreatment: Tetracycline, Doxyceline, or Erythromycin
10Symptoms of Chlamydia Male Symptoms Female Symptoms thin whitish dischargeitching & burning during urinationpain/swelling of testeslow grade feverFemale Symptomsmoderate vaginal dischargeitching & burning urinationabdominal painbleeding b/w periodsnausea, headaches, low grade fever
11ChlamydiaThe Secret Epidemic: STIs on Campus slides can be used by anyone: health educators, clinicians, peer educators, and other students. There are over 40 slides in the set. The contents include general information about infections, risks, prevention, testing, and the most prevalent STIs.
12Gonorrhea Many cases are asymptomatic If symptoms are present, they will occur 3-5 days after infectionComplications: sterilityTreatment: Penicillin, Spectinomycin, CefiximeTetracycline, or Ceftriaxone
13Symptoms of Gonorrhea Male Symptoms Female Symptoms foul smelling discharge from penispainful urinationblood or puss in urineenlarged lymph nodes in groin areaFemale Symptomssimilar discharge from vaginapainful urinationpelvic painpainful menstruation
14Syphilis THREE STAGES: 1. Painless sore 10-90 days after infection 2. Flu like symptoms 3wks -3 months after primary stage.3. Skin lesions, mental deterioration, blindness, & heart disease yrs after primary and secondary stages.Treatment: Antibiotics, usually penicillinComplications: Can be fatal
15Viral STI’s Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) Hepatitis BGRANT OF LICENSE. This Addendum grants you the following rights: Provided you are a licensed user of the SOFTWARE PRODUCT that includes the Microsoft Clip Gallery, version 3.0 or greater, you may copy or install the CONTENT; you may reproduce, modify and distribute the CONTENT as part of your product and/or service, provided that: (a)You may not sell, license or otherwise distribute the CONTENT or derivative works of the CONTENT on a stand-alone basis or as part of any collection, or as part of any product or service for resale where the primary value of such product or service is the CONTENT; however, the CONTENT may be transmitted and distributed as part of any promotional, marketing or advertising documents distributed through a non-broadcast medium. Examples of permissible use include, but are not limited to: newsletters, brochures, web sites, presentations, flyers, postcards, trade show materials, newspaper advertisements, product catalogs, and reports;
16Genital Herpes Approximately 40 million people infected Simplex I and Simplex IIMany individuals are asymptomaticIf symptoms are present, they will occur 2-20 days after infection
17Genital Herpes cont… Initial symptoms tingling or burning sensation in the genitalslow back painpain when urinatingFlu-like symptomsRed bumps develop into painful blistersTreatment of symptoms: Acyclovir, Famcyclovir, Valacyclovir
18Genital HerpesThe Secret Epidemic: STIs on Campus slides can be used by anyone: health educators, clinicians, peer educators, and other students. There are over 40 slides in the set. The contents include general information about infections, risks, prevention, testing, and the most prevalent STIs.
19Transmitted one of four ways: HIV & AIDSTransmitted one of four ways:Vaginal, anal, oral intercourseSharing a needleBlood products containing HIVMother to childBodily fluids containing virus:blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milkPrimary Population at Risk:young adults in their teens & 20’s
21HIV/AIDS cont… May be asymptomatic for years HIV may not progress to AIDS for over 10 yearsNo known cure at this timeSymptoms: Fatigue, dry cough, fever, night sweats, diarrhea, skin rashes, swollen lymph nodes, vaginal yeast infections, and/or unexplained weight lossTreatment: mixture of different drugs to boost the immune system
22Human Papilloma Viruses Most common viral STI in the U.S.3 million new cases a yearMajority of Cases are ASYMPTOMATIC> 70 strains of HPVMeans of Contraction: skin to skin contact, oral, anal, & vaginal intercourse
23Human Papilloma Viruses The Secret Epidemic: STIs on Campus slides can be used by anyone: health educators, clinicians, peer educators, and other students. There are over 40 slides in the set. The contents include general information about infections, risks, prevention, testing, and the most prevalent STIs.
24Human Papilloma Viruses The Secret Epidemic: STIs on Campus slides can be used by anyone: health educators, clinicians, peer educators, and other students. There are over 40 slides in the set. The contents include general information about infections, risks, prevention, testing, and the most prevalent STIs.
25HPV cont… Male symptoms: Female symptoms: No known cure at this time Genital warts on foreskin or shaft of penisFemale symptoms:Genital warts on vaginal opening, cervix, or inner walls of vaginalNo known cure at this timeTreatment of symptoms: Topical application or surgery to reduce size and spreading
26Hepatitis B Transmitted through blood, semen, and vaginal secretions Spread mainly through sexual contact90% eliminate the virus through immunoglobulinsOf the chronic carriers, 15-20% will die from cirrhosis or liver cancerVaccination is available50% of adults infected are asymptomatic
27Symptoms of Hepatitis B Prodrome phase: diminished appetite, weight loss, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle aches, cough, low grade fever, right-sided upper abdominal painIcteric phase: urine darkens, stools becomes a clay color, liver becomes enlarged and tender, itching, yellow cast to the skin or eyesRecovery phase: may develop a chronic diseaseTreatment for chronic disease: Interferon
29Pubic Lice & Scabies (“crabs”) (“itch mites”) Tiny insects that live on the skinPubic Lice infect hairy parts of skinSome may have no symptoms, while others have severe itchingScabies result in an itchy rash on the skinItching may get worse at nightRash on folds of skin between fingers, wrists, elbows, abdomen, & genitals
30Pubic Lice cont… Treatment: Shampoos and creams with lindane Clean all clothes, linens, & towels in HOT waterAvoid close contact with others……..You must tell anyone whom you have had close contact or shared your bed linens, clothes, or towels
31How do we prevent STI’s? ABSTINENCE BE MATURE & RESPONSIBLE: Mutually monogamous relationships with an uninfected individual - testingLimit number of partners & always use condomsRealize Condoms aren’t 100% effective in protecting you!!If infected, avoid sexual contact & visit your physician, local STI clinic or hospital for diagnosis / treatment
32Testing is Everyone’s Responsibility Symptoms of STI’s can develop slowly or be asymptomaticRegular & accurate evaluations are necessaryOnly way to have adequate knowledge of your history is to be testedYou’ll never know unless you’re tested!Communicate with your partner
33Methods of Testing STI’s 3 CategoriesInspectionSymptomatic genital warts, herpes, and pubic liceBlood or Urine testsBlood tests: Hepatitis B, Syphilis, & HIVUrine tests: Chlamydia & GonorrheaSmears form vagina or urethra/Fluid collectionFluid collection: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, & Herpes
34Complications of STI’s InfertilityComplications during pregnancyInfections can be passed onto the newbornSome can be fatalAIDS, Hepatitis B, Syphilis
35SummarySTI’s are transmitted by skin to skin contact, touching an infected area, vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse3 main types of STI’s: bacterial, viral, & parasiticMany STI’s are ASYMPTOMATICBacterial STI’s can be treated with antibioticsViral STI’s are life long infectionsParasitic STI’s can be treated with shampoos and creamsSTI prevention includes: abstinence, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected individual, limit number of partners, use condoms, STI testing, communicating with your partner
36Local Contacts and Websites: Texas A&M UniversityHealth CenterWomen’s ClinicHealth ServicesAIDS Services of Brazos ValleyTexas Dept of Health:Hope Pregnancy Center of Brazos CountyGood Samaritan Pregnancy ServicesPlanned ParenthoodProject Rachel
37Contacts and Websites cont… Center for Disease ControlCDC National STI HotlineRisk ProfileSTD QuizOther STI slides
38Contacts and Websites cont… Emergency Contraception HotlineNational Council on AdoptionNational Abortion Federation