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Presentation on theme: "EMPHYSEMA Linda Dao SBI3U"— Presentation transcript:


2 What is Normal Lung Function? THE ALVEOLI -expands during inhalation -Contains blood vessels where oxygen enters and carbon dioxide exits

3 What is emphysema? An irreversible lung disease characterized by the permanent enlargement of the alveoli and the destruction of the walls between them Occurs in older adults Gradual and gets worse with time WHAT HAPPENS IN EMPHYSEMA 1)Irritants get stuck in lungs 2)Body reacts and send out specific enzymes 3)Enzymes eats up foreign substances PLUS lung tissue and alveolar elastic tissue 4)Alveoli becomes weak, fragile, stretched.. 5)Shortness of Breath, Collapsed Bronchioles, Less Oxygen, Bullas emphysema.html

4 What causes emphysema? SMOKING Second hand smoke Air/environmental pollution Chemical fume exposure at work Genetic defect (Rare)

5 What are the symptoms of emphysema? Wheezing Barrel-chested Fatigue Shortness of Breath Cant tolerate exercise for long

6 What are the effects of emphysema? Lack of oxygen (Hypoxemia) Carbon dioxide retention Stress on heart Cor Pulmonale Labored Breathing Destruction of alveoli/tissue Death http://www.e- 1.jpg Destroyed Alveoli turning into a Bulla

7 **demonstration**

8 How is emphysema diagnosed? Physical exam and interview Chest CT Scan/Chest X-Ray Pulmonary Function test Peak Flow Monitoring Spirometer

9 How is emphysema treated? -incurable and irreversible 1) Quit smoking, eliminate aggravating factors 2 ) Medications - Inhaled/Oral Corticosteroids - Bronchodilators - Expectorants 3) Surgical (uncommon) - Bullectomy - Lung Volume Reduction Surgery (LVRS) - Lung Transplant 4) Other -Breathing exercises -Supplementary Oxygen

10 What are the future outlooks and research? Medication-focused - Current drugs being studied for side effects, long-term benefits, effectiveness - Retinoic acid - Find better drugs Surgical Developments -Effectiveness and long term results of LVRS -New surgical treatment announced this year

11 How can I prevent emphysema? Not only does this decreases chances of emphysema, it reduces chances of many other diseases, cancers etc. Avoid Second-hand Smoke Avoid Air Pollution and Chemical Fume Exposure DONT SMOKE!!!

12 References American Lung Association. (2006). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) factsheet. Retrieved October 15, 2006 on the World Wide Web: Canadian Lung Association. (2006). Emphysema. Retrieved October 15, 2006 on the World Wide Web: Hodder, Rick & Livingstone, Susan. (2003). Every breath I take: A guide to living with COPD. Toronto: Key Porter Books. Litin, Scott C. (Ed.) (2003). Mayo Clinic family health book (3 rd ed.). New York: Harper Collins. Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research (2005). Emphysema. Retrieved October 15, 2006 on the World Wide Web: Schachter, Neil. (2003). Life and breath: Preventing, treating and reversing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New York: Broadway Books. Sharma, Sat. (2006).Emphysema. Retrieved November 24, 2006 on the World Wide Web: Slezak, Jane A.(2002). Emphysema. In Magills Medical Guide (Vol. 1, pp. 735-740). Hackensack: Salem Press, Inc. The University of Chicago Hospitals. (2006). Pulmonary emphysema. Retrieved October 15, 2006 on the World Wide Web:

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