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Basic Principles of the Stunt Hemisphere by Keith Renecle 7th July 2006 7th July 2006 Belgrade, Serbia.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Principles of the Stunt Hemisphere by Keith Renecle 7th July 2006 7th July 2006 Belgrade, Serbia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Principles of the Stunt Hemisphere by Keith Renecle 7th July th July 2006 Belgrade, Serbia

2 C/L Stunt is Precision Aerobatics!

3 Basic principle Pilots who perform closest to the rules should score the highest points

4 What does this mean?

5 Pilots and judges and judges must have a good understanding of the rules

6 What does this mean? Pilots and judges and judges must have a good understanding of the rules

7 What does this mean? Pilots and judges and judges must have a good understanding of the rules Pilots and judges must have the same understanding of the rules

8 What does this mean? Pilots and judges and judges must have a good understanding of the rules Pilots and judges must have the same understanding of the rules

9 This is a SUBJECTIVE sport!

10 We must ensure that we do not use SUBJECTIVITY as an excuse for a lack of understanding! We must ensure that we do not use SUBJECTIVITY as an excuse for a lack of understanding!

11 What can we do to help?

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13 Benefits of using 3-D graphics in C/L Stunt

14 Competitors: A greater correlation between words and illustration

15 Benefits of using 3-D graphics in C/L Stunt Competitors: A greater correlation between words and illustration WORDS create mental expectation

16 Benefits of using 3-D graphics in C/L Stunt Competitors: A greater correlation between words and illustration WORDS create mental expectation ILLUSTRATIONS create visual expectation

17 Benefits of using 3-D graphics in C/L Stunt Competitors: A greater correlation between words and illustration WORDS create mental expectation ILLUSTRATIONS create visual expectation Conflict in expectations creates confusion

18 Benefits of using 3-D graphics in C/L Stunt Judges: Understanding of shape of manoeuvre on sphere as viewed from outside

19 Benefits of using 3-D graphics in C/L Stunt Judges: Understanding of shape of manoeuvre on sphere as viewed from outside Manoeuvres need to be flown accurately from pilots view. Judge must therefore correlate what is seen with what the pilot sees.

20 TECHNOLOGY The present: (Basically no technology!)

21 TECHNOLOGY Competitor expectation conflicts with judging result:- has always existed.

22 TECHNOLOGY The FUTURE!

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24 TECHNOLOGY Although possible now….. Costs will be prohibitive.

25 TECHNOLOGY The present: Conflict between mental expectation created by words, and visual expectation created by drawing:- has always existed

26 TECHNOLOGY The present: Conflict between mental expectation created by words, and visual expectation created by drawing:- has always existed Technology to address this conflict:- Affordable and available today

27 Use this technology effectively to minimise conflict Create consistent mental & visual expectation for judge & competitor

28 Use this technology effectively to minimise conflict Create consistent mental & visual expectation for judge & competitor Provide consistent training tool to judge & competitor

29 Use this technology effectively to minimise conflict Create consistent mental & visual expectation for judge & competitor Provide consistent training tool to judge & competitor Create consistent understanding of manoeuvre appearance on sphere

30 This presentation shows what is possible now!

31 With 3-D graphics we can: See how the manoeuvres fit the sphere View the manoeuvres from any angle or position in the virtual world Watch them being performed in real time

32 Here are a few screenshots from the CL Sim-1

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36 Basic Principles of our Stunt Hemisphere

37 Why do we have misconceptions about the stunt manoeuvres?

38 Pitch

39 Roll & Yaw

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41 It should be dead easy…………. just like golf! All you basically have to do is hit a small white ball into 18 different holes……… How difficult can that be?? How difficult can that be??

42 How do we go about judging the pattern?

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45 It is obviously important to know exactly how the manoeuvre shapes look, and how they will appear from the various angles. It is obviously important to know exactly how the manoeuvre shapes look, and how they will appear from the various angles. How do we achieve this?? How do we achieve this??

46 Judges need a good understanding of the principles that govern our stunt hemisphere Judges need a good understanding of the principles that govern our stunt hemisphere

47 Judges Guide 4B.4 Judging focus 1. Shape 2. Size 3. Intersections 4. Bottoms

48 Judges Guide 4B.4 Judging focus 1. Shape 2. Size 3. Intersections 4. Bottoms

49 The flight path of a tethered object like a C/L model

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59 C/L Manoeuvre shapes They are just shapes drawn on the surface of spheres

60 C/L Manoeuvre shapes They are just shapes drawn on the surface of spheres The shapes are not dependent on how we view them

61 C/L Manoeuvre shapes They are just shapes drawn on the surface of spheres The shapes are not dependent on how we view them They are shapes governed by the rules of spherical geometry

62 C/L Manoeuvre shapes They are just shapes drawn on the surface of spheres The shapes are not dependent on how we view them They are shapes governed by the rules of spherical geometry

63 To understand the stunt hemisphere, we need to understand the following:

64 Basic principles of lines and paths on spheres To understand the stunt hemisphere, we need to understand the following:

65 Basic principles of lines and paths on spheres How these paths apply to manoeuvre shapes To understand the stunt hemisphere, we need to understand the following:

66 Basic principles of lines and paths on spheres How these paths apply to manoeuvre shapes How the manoeuvres fit on the surface of the sphere To understand the stunt hemisphere, we need to understand the following:

67 How are shapes made up?

68 F2B Rule book

69 How are shapes made up? Flat plane geometry

70 3-D Object

71 3-D objects can be manipulated

72 Rules of spheres 1. All lines on spheres surface are circles

73 Rules of spheres 1. All lines on spheres surface are circles 2. There are 2 types of circles: Great Circles Minor circles

74 Mathematical definition Any plane section of a sphere is a circle. That is, slide a plane along in space like a knife. If you slice off a piece of a spherical shell, the edge that is exposed will be a circle. If the slicing plane goes through the center of the sphere, the exposed edge will be a great circle, otherwise it is called a minor circle.

75 The Great Circle

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78 The Minor Circle

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81 There are NO straight lines on the surface of spheres

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83 The spherical equivalent of a straight line, is the great circle path.

84 There are NO straight lines on the surface of spheres The spherical equivalent of a straight line, is the great circle path. It is the shortest distance between two points on the surface of the sphere.

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86 Great Circle path

87 FAI rule definition of Straight line Means the closest distance between two points as seen in two dimensions. These words are marked with inverted commas throughout to provide a constant reminder that the requirement (in all the square and triangular manoeuvres for example), is for a number of turns ("corners") which should be joined together with flight paths which appear to be straight lines when seen by the pilot.

88 The Spherical Straight line The shortest distance between two points

89 The Spherical Straight line The shortest distance between two points A path with no change in direction or heading

90 The Spherical Straight line The shortest distance between two points A path with no change in direction or heading Question: Is flying around parallel to the ground at 45 degrees a straight line?

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94 Why do we need to understand this point so well?

95 These two distinct paths will project very different shapes from almost any point of view.

96 Why do we need to understand this point so well? These two distinct paths will project very different shapes from almost any point of view. These two distinct paths are not interchangeable. These two distinct paths are not interchangeable.

97 Interesting Sphere facts There are NO parallel great circles

98 Interesting Sphere facts There are NO parallel great circles Minor circles can be parallel

99 Interesting Sphere facts There are NO parallel great circles Minor circles can be parallel In plane geometry, there are no interesting polygons with only 2 straight sides

100 Polygons

101 Interesting Sphere facts On the sphere surface, a polygon can be formed by 2 great circles ie. 2 straight sides

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103 Global mapping

104 How does all this apply to our stunt pattern?

105 Minor circle paths = Cone

106 Loops are cones

107 Figure eights = 2 cones

108 The straight side shapes How do they look on the sphere?

109 The straight side shapes

110 The hourglass

111 FAI rule definition of Straight line Means the closest distance between two points as seen in two dimensions. These words are marked with inverted commas throughout to provide a constant reminder that the requirement (in all the square and triangular manoeuvres for example), is for a number of turns ("corners") which should be joined together with flight paths which appear to be straight lines when seen by the pilot.

112 The present FAI rules are written from the pilots viewpoint

113 Some good reasons: The pilot is at a constant distance from the spheres surface. (fixed by line length)

114 The present FAI rules are written from the pilots viewpoint Some good reasons: The pilot is at a constant distance from the spheres surface. (fixed by line length) The pilot sees the manoeuvres with the least spherical distortion.

115 The present FAI rules are written from the pilots viewpoint Some good reasons: The pilot is at a constant distance from the spheres surface. (fixed by line length) The pilot sees the manoeuvres with the least spherical distortion. Vertical always looks vertical to the pilot.

116 Seeing things in perspective

117 There are various drawing views:

118 Seeing things in perspective There are various drawing views: Plan or orthographic views Isometric views Perspective views

119 Plan or orthographic view

120 Isometric view

121 Perspective view

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123 Orthographic versus Perspective

124 Orthographic Vertical 8

125 Perspective view of Vertical 8

126 Charles Mackeys Stunt judging machine

127 Whats the big deal? Does it really make any difference?

128 What do you think?

129 How do we see things?

130 Peripheral vision: 120 to 140 degrees wide

131 How do we see things? Peripheral vision: 120 to 140 degrees wide Peripheral perception: What we do with the info that we see Eye/hand co-ordination e.g. Tennis players, racing drivers etc.

132 How do we see things?

133 What is the Pilots view?

134 It is close to a view from the geometric centre of the sphere

135 What is the Pilots view? It is close to a view from the geometric centre of the sphere Depends where the pilot holds the handle

136 What is the Pilots view? It is close to a view from the geometric centre of the sphere Depends where the pilot holds the handle Viewing distance is fixed by the length of the lines, and is almost like viewing a flat plane

137 CAUTION!! The surface of the sphere from the pilots view is NOT the same as a flat surface!

138 CAUTION!! The rules of spheres still apply. Minor circles remain minor circles Great circles remain great circles

139 CAUTION!! The surface of the sphere from the pilots view is NOT the same as a flat surface! The rules of spheres still apply. Minor circles remain minor circles Great circles remain great circles The pilots view is still a perspective view

140 The orange test

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142 The Pilots view

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145 The Square manoeuvres!!

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147 Judges Square

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152 Judges Square 8

153 Great Circle Square

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156 Great Circle Square 8?

157 GC & MC Square

158 GC & MC Square Vertical 8

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163 FAI square

164 FAI square 8

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166 FAI square judges view

167 FAI square 5 ft. corners

168 Can our models turn a 5ft. radius corner?

169 Loren Nell

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172 FAI square 16 ft. corners

173 How close to the rulebook shapes are the top fliers flying??

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176 Ted Fancher

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178 Billy Werwage

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180 Serge Delabarde

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183 Summary All our manoeuvre shapes are spherical

184 Summary The shapes are independent of of how we view them

185 Summary All our manoeuvre shapes are spherical The shapes are independent of of how we view them We need to learn to understand these principles

186 Summary All our manoeuvre shapes are spherical The shapes are independent of how we view them We need to learn to understand these principles This 3-D software shown here can help to enhance our training methods, and is freely available.

187 Where to from here?

188 Work together to ensure a common understanding of the manoeuvre shapes

189 Where to from here? Work together to ensure a common understanding of the manoeuvre shapes Correct the basic problems in the rules

190 Where to from here? Work together to ensure a common understanding of the manoeuvre shapes Correct the basic problems in the rules Develop a judges training system

191 Thank you for attending this workshop

192


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