Presentation on theme: "NSCA Georgia State Clinic"— Presentation transcript:
1 NSCA Georgia State Clinic Effective Methods for Cardiovascular Endurance TrainingMike Martino, PhD, ACSM-ETTGeorgia College & State UniversityAssociate Professor, Exercise ScienceNSCA Georgia State Director
2 Presentation Outline Types of Endurance Training Physiological Adaptations“What does the research say?”Current Training PhilosophiesTraining Recommendations based on ScienceApplied InformationQuestions
3 Factors of Endurance Muscle force production capacity Biomechanical efficiencyMetabolic efficiencyMovement velocity potentialPsychological abilities
4 Endurance Training General vs. Specific (Ozolin, 1971) Cardiovascular or Aerobic enduranceMuscular enduranceAcyclic (50-80% 1RM, reps)Cyclic (20-50% 1RM, reps)Anaerobic endurancePower enduranceSpeed endurance
5 Cardiovascular Endurance Long Slow Distance (LSD)ContinuousPace/TempoIntervalRepetitionFartlekIntermittentParametric
6 Physiological Adaptations to Endurance Training Central factors Heart size (Left ventricle*) Total blood volume Plasma volume # Red blood cells Stroke volume HR response Cardiac Output (Q)Peripheral factorsBlood vessel angiogenesis capillarization capillary-to-fiber ratio opening of existing capillariesEffective blood redistribution Cellular oxidation Mitochondrial # and density Oxidative enzyme # and activity Muscle glycogen storage capacity FFA utilization
7 Interval Training Research Jensen, Bangsbo & Hellsten (2004) Methods (Untrained males)Study 1 (N=6 M) & Study 2 (N=7 M)Mean VO2max 50.2 ml.kg-1.min-1 & 45.4 ml.kg-1.min-1Single leg knee extension ergometer (cycling)150% 1 min exercise 3 min rest for 1 hr (55 rpm)90% VO2max 1 min bouts 30 sec rest for 1 hr (55 rpm)Results endothelial proliferation & capillary growth vascular endothelial growth factor basic fibroblast growth factor
8 Interval Training Research Overend, Paterson & Cunningham (1992) Methods (N=17, Untrained males)10 weeks of cycle ergometryContinuous group (80% VO2max)4 x 40 min sessions/wkInterval group did same average power outputResults VO2max significantly Ventilatory thresholdImproved O2 uptake kinetics
9 Intermittent Training Research Mayer et al. (2001) MethodsN=33 sedentary individuals (45-75 yrs)5 days/wk for 10 weeksIntermittent exerciseTarget HR + 5 bts.min-1 then rest until 5 bts.min-1 below THRContinuous exerciseNon-stop at calculated THR1st week 20 min per sessionEach week increase sessions by 3 minTreadmill, bike, stepping, & rowingResultsSimilar gains in VO2maxSignificant differences for IT group in mass and body fat%
10 Interval & Continuous Training Variables Interval TrainingDistance or duration of the work intervalIntensity of the work intervalDuration of the rest intervalType of rest intervalContinuous TrainingDistance or durationIntensity or paceModes of trainingRunningCyclingSwimmingCross-Training
11 Interval versus Continuous Training Work intensity above AT AE Physiological factorsHigher caloric expenditureShorter time period pain threshold speed endurance power endurance NM control Type II fibers buffering capacity specific enduranceContinuousIntensity at or below AT AE Physiological factorsPossible techniquePoor mechanics due to fatigue General endurance
13 “Anaerobic Threshold” or “Lactate Threshold” Anaerobic threshold (AT)Onset of anaerobiosisVentilatory thresholdVentilatory equivalentVE / VO2VCO2 > VO2Rapid pulmonary VELactate threshold (LT)Exercise intensity VO2 linearlyBlood lactate non-linearlyReflects the balance between lactate entry and removal in the blood!Anaerobic threshold and Lactate threshold are different processes!!
14 Zatzyorski Approach Subcritical Critical Supracritical Reduced speed with a low energy expenditureO2 demand below the athlete’s aerobic powerO2 meets the physiological demandsAthlete functions at a steady-stateCriticalIntensity increases and the O2 demand equals supplyExercise is in the “anaerobic threshold” zoneSpeed is directly proportional to respiratory potentialSupracriticalIntensity is greater than the O2 supply
15 USA Swimming 7 Energy Zone System Aerobic (recovery)Aerobic Development (EN1)Aerobic/Anaerobic Mix 1 (EN2)Aerobic/Anaerobic Mix 2 (EN3)Anaerobic 1 (SP1)Anaerobic 2 (SP2)Sprint (SP3)
16 7 Energy Zone System Variable <140 <70 N/A 1500-4000 >15 Set Distance(meters)Set Duration(min)HR(bpm)(% max)Work:RestRatioAerobic(Recovery)Variable<140<70N/AAerobic Dev.(EN1)>1570-8010-30sec restAE/AN Mix 1(EN2)10-4080-9015-30AE/AN Mix 2(EN3)8-30180-Max90-10030-60Anaerobic 1(SP1)2-15Max1002:1 – 1:1Anaerobic 2(SP2)4-121:2 – 1:4Sprint(SP3)25-1001-21:3 – 1:4
17 Parametric Training Dr. Sergei Gordon’s concept (1960’s) More Info Focuses on a specific training parameterConvert the art of coaching into a scientific methodAlgorithm (Prediction method)LimitationsMore InfoSwimming, Running, Cycling, Rowing, Triathlon, etc.
19 AM / PMAppr. Training Time 00:00Dist.# of RepsTarget Time, hh:mm :ss.00Target SpeedRest (sec)Target HR (b/min)Target Power (Watt)ZoneSele- ctedA.M.5:121100 yards14:12.294.36yd/s>6012879.5Ib29:286100 yards23:16.334.37yd/s45:21400 yards1354.857.29yd/s15*Par173305.8IVb48:10jogging3.67yd/s<12347.8Ic52:37900 yards3:26.511:06:4950 yards5.578.98yd/s60*Par168511.5IVa1:12:02
20 Training Recommendations based on Science 1. Use a combination of training methodsContinuous plus interval maybe intermittentMonitor overreaching weekly2. Change programs regularlyOrganizational schemes or “Periodization plans”Biological systems are adept to change“Homeostasis”Incorporate 4 week cycles (This is not an absolute!)3. General vs. Specific endurance changesGeneral conditioning focus on continuousSpecific focus on interval variations
21 Training Recommendations based on Science 4. Intermittent training for less fit individuals30 sec at 70% HRR5. If you use continuous training do it hard!> 80% VO2max6. No scientific evidence to support LSD recovery bouts!
22 Applied Conclusions Interval training Continuous training Can lead to acute and chronic overtrainingOveruse injuries associated with intensityAcute and chronic fatigueIncreased pain thresholdContinuous trainingLower caloric expenditureIncreased level of self-confidence in clientOveruse injuries associated with chronic overloadLess work for the trainer
23 Applied Conclusions: Sample Programs GC&SU Men’s Basketball WeekMonTuesWedThursFriResistance training1Pick up ball30-60 minRun .5–1 mile70% HRRT RTotal body2Run 1 mile70-75% HRR3*Run 1.5 miles75-80% HRR50% Elite 8M R UpperT F Lower475% Elite 85Run 2 miles80-85% HRR100% Elite 8Indian Run15 lb med ball80% HRR6Floor Circuit7Run 2.5 miles85-90% HRR* Every day now has 60 min Pick up ball after the group workout!
24 Applied Conclusions Include surging in the routine regardless of mode Progress from 5 sec hard up to 1 to 2 min hardFollow-up with 3 min easy to moderate pace30 sec hard + 3 min easy x 5Create hybrids2-5 min rhythmic movement with surging10-30 reps of resistance training mode (ie. kettlebells)
25 ReferencesBaechle, T.R. & Earle, R.W Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Bompa, T.O Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training. 4th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Jensen, L., Bangsbo, J. & Hellsten, Y. Effect of high intensity training on capillarization and presence of angiogenic factors in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol, 557:2,Mayer H, DeRose D, Charles-Marcel Z, Jamison J, Payne S, Roberts SO, Nethery V. Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of intermittent vs. continuous aerobic training. Med Sci Sports Exerc May; 33(5):S19.Ozolin, N Athlete’s training system for competition. Moscow: Fizkultura i Sport.Pilegaard, H., Domino, K., Noland, T., Juel, C., Hellsten, Y., Halestrap, A.P., & Bangsbo, J. Effect of high-intensity exercise training on lactate/H+ transport capacity in human skeletal muscle. AM J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 276:ESiff, M.C Supertraining. 6th ed. Denver, CO: Supertraining Institute.Zatzyorski, V Athlete’s physical abilities. Moscow: Fizkultura i Sport.