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NSCA Georgia State Clinic

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Presentation on theme: "NSCA Georgia State Clinic"— Presentation transcript:

1 NSCA Georgia State Clinic
Effective Methods for Cardiovascular Endurance Training Mike Martino, PhD, ACSM-ETT Georgia College & State University Associate Professor, Exercise Science NSCA Georgia State Director

2 Presentation Outline Types of Endurance Training
Physiological Adaptations “What does the research say?” Current Training Philosophies Training Recommendations based on Science Applied Information Questions

3 Factors of Endurance Muscle force production capacity
Biomechanical efficiency Metabolic efficiency Movement velocity potential Psychological abilities

4 Endurance Training General vs. Specific (Ozolin, 1971)
Cardiovascular or Aerobic endurance Muscular endurance Acyclic (50-80% 1RM, reps) Cyclic (20-50% 1RM, reps) Anaerobic endurance Power endurance Speed endurance

5 Cardiovascular Endurance
Long Slow Distance (LSD) Continuous Pace/Tempo Interval Repetition Fartlek Intermittent Parametric

6 Physiological Adaptations to Endurance Training
Central factors  Heart size (Left ventricle*)  Total blood volume  Plasma volume  # Red blood cells  Stroke volume  HR response  Cardiac Output (Q) Peripheral factors Blood vessel angiogenesis  capillarization  capillary-to-fiber ratio  opening of existing capillaries Effective blood redistribution  Cellular oxidation  Mitochondrial # and density  Oxidative enzyme # and activity  Muscle glycogen storage capacity  FFA utilization

7 Interval Training Research Jensen, Bangsbo & Hellsten (2004)
Methods (Untrained males) Study 1 (N=6 M) & Study 2 (N=7 M) Mean VO2max 50.2 ml.kg-1.min-1 & 45.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 Single leg knee extension ergometer (cycling) 150% 1 min exercise 3 min rest for 1 hr (55 rpm) 90% VO2max 1 min bouts 30 sec rest for 1 hr (55 rpm) Results  endothelial proliferation &  capillary growth  vascular endothelial growth factor  basic fibroblast growth factor

8 Interval Training Research Overend, Paterson & Cunningham (1992)
Methods (N=17, Untrained males) 10 weeks of cycle ergometry Continuous group (80% VO2max) 4 x 40 min sessions/wk Interval group did same average power output Results  VO2max significantly  Ventilatory threshold Improved O2 uptake kinetics

9 Intermittent Training Research Mayer et al. (2001)
Methods N=33 sedentary individuals (45-75 yrs) 5 days/wk for 10 weeks Intermittent exercise Target HR + 5 bts.min-1 then rest until 5 bts.min-1 below THR Continuous exercise Non-stop at calculated THR 1st week 20 min per session Each week increase sessions by 3 min Treadmill, bike, stepping, & rowing Results Similar gains in VO2max Significant differences for IT group in mass and body fat%

10 Interval & Continuous Training Variables
Interval Training Distance or duration of the work interval Intensity of the work interval Duration of the rest interval Type of rest interval Continuous Training Distance or duration Intensity or pace Modes of training Running Cycling Swimming Cross-Training

11 Interval versus Continuous Training
Work intensity above AT  AE Physiological factors Higher caloric expenditure Shorter time period  pain threshold  speed endurance  power endurance  NM control Type II fibers  buffering capacity  specific endurance Continuous Intensity at or below AT  AE Physiological factors Possible  technique Poor mechanics due to fatigue  General endurance

12 Training Intensities Subcritical, Critical, Supracritical
Zatzyorski (1980) Aerobic, “Lactate Threshold”, V02, Anaerobic Aerobic, Aerobic/Anaerobic mix, Anaerobic, Sprint AE1, AE2, AN1, AN2, AN3 AErec, EN1, EN2, EN3, SP1, SP2, SP3 Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5a, Z5b, Z5c Levels 1-7 V1-V6

13 “Anaerobic Threshold” or “Lactate Threshold”
Anaerobic threshold (AT) Onset of anaerobiosis Ventilatory threshold Ventilatory equivalent VE / VO2 VCO2  > VO2 Rapid  pulmonary VE Lactate threshold (LT) Exercise intensity  VO2  linearly Blood lactate  non-linearly Reflects the balance between lactate entry and removal in the blood! Anaerobic threshold and Lactate threshold are different processes!!

14 Zatzyorski Approach Subcritical Critical Supracritical
Reduced speed with a low energy expenditure O2 demand below the athlete’s aerobic power O2 meets the physiological demands Athlete functions at a steady-state Critical Intensity increases and the O2 demand equals supply Exercise is in the “anaerobic threshold” zone Speed is directly proportional to respiratory potential Supracritical Intensity is greater than the O2 supply

15 USA Swimming 7 Energy Zone System
Aerobic (recovery) Aerobic Development (EN1) Aerobic/Anaerobic Mix 1 (EN2) Aerobic/Anaerobic Mix 2 (EN3) Anaerobic 1 (SP1) Anaerobic 2 (SP2) Sprint (SP3)

16 7 Energy Zone System Variable <140 <70 N/A 1500-4000 >15
Set Distance (meters) Set Duration (min) HR (bpm) (% max) Work:Rest Ratio Aerobic (Recovery) Variable <140 <70 N/A Aerobic Dev. (EN1) >15 70-80 10-30 sec rest AE/AN Mix 1 (EN2) 10-40 80-90 15-30 AE/AN Mix 2 (EN3) 8-30 180-Max 90-100 30-60 Anaerobic 1 (SP1) 2-15 Max 100 2:1 – 1:1 Anaerobic 2 (SP2) 4-12 1:2 – 1:4 Sprint (SP3) 25-100 1-2 1:3 – 1:4

17 Parametric Training Dr. Sergei Gordon’s concept (1960’s) More Info
Focuses on a specific training parameter Convert the art of coaching into a scientific method Algorithm (Prediction method) Limitations More Info Swimming, Running, Cycling, Rowing, Triathlon, etc.

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19 AM / PM Appr. Training Time 00:00 Dist. # of Reps Target Time, hh:mm :ss.00 Target Speed Rest (sec) Target HR (b/min) Target Power (Watt) Zone Sele- cted A.M. 5:12 1100 yards 1 4:12.29 4.36yd/s >60 128 79.5 Ib 29:28 6100 yards 23:16.33 4.37yd/s 45:21 400 yards 13 54.85 7.29yd/s 15*Par 173 305.8 IVb 48:10 jogging 3.67yd/s <123 47.8 Ic 52:37 900 yards 3:26.51 1:06:49 50 yards 5.57 8.98yd/s 60*Par 168 511.5 IVa 1:12:02

20 Training Recommendations based on Science
1. Use a combination of training methods Continuous plus interval maybe intermittent Monitor overreaching weekly 2. Change programs regularly Organizational schemes or “Periodization plans” Biological systems are adept to change “Homeostasis” Incorporate 4 week cycles (This is not an absolute!) 3. General vs. Specific endurance changes General conditioning focus on continuous Specific focus on interval variations

21 Training Recommendations based on Science
4. Intermittent training for less fit individuals 30 sec at 70% HRR 5. If you use continuous training do it hard! > 80% VO2max 6. No scientific evidence to support LSD recovery bouts!

22 Applied Conclusions Interval training Continuous training
Can lead to acute and chronic overtraining Overuse injuries associated with intensity Acute and chronic fatigue Increased pain threshold Continuous training Lower caloric expenditure Increased level of self-confidence in client Overuse injuries associated with chronic overload Less work for the trainer

23 Applied Conclusions: Sample Programs GC&SU Men’s Basketball
Week Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Resistance training 1 Pick up ball 30-60 min Run .5–1 mile 70% HRR T R Total body 2 Run 1 mile 70-75% HRR 3* Run 1.5 miles 75-80% HRR 50% Elite 8 M R Upper T F Lower 4 75% Elite 8 5 Run 2 miles 80-85% HRR 100% Elite 8 Indian Run 15 lb med ball 80% HRR 6 Floor Circuit 7 Run 2.5 miles 85-90% HRR * Every day now has 60 min Pick up ball after the group workout!

24 Applied Conclusions Include surging in the routine regardless of mode
Progress from 5 sec hard up to 1 to 2 min hard Follow-up with 3 min easy to moderate pace 30 sec hard + 3 min easy x 5 Create hybrids 2-5 min rhythmic movement with surging 10-30 reps of resistance training mode (ie. kettlebells)

25 References Baechle, T.R. & Earle, R.W Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Bompa, T.O Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training. 4th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Jensen, L., Bangsbo, J. & Hellsten, Y. Effect of high intensity training on capillarization and presence of angiogenic factors in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol, 557:2, Mayer H, DeRose D, Charles-Marcel Z, Jamison J, Payne S, Roberts SO, Nethery V. Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of intermittent vs. continuous aerobic training. Med Sci Sports Exerc May; 33(5):S19. Ozolin, N Athlete’s training system for competition. Moscow: Fizkultura i Sport. Pilegaard, H., Domino, K., Noland, T., Juel, C., Hellsten, Y., Halestrap, A.P., & Bangsbo, J. Effect of high-intensity exercise training on lactate/H+ transport capacity in human skeletal muscle. AM J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 276:E Siff, M.C Supertraining. 6th ed. Denver, CO: Supertraining Institute. Zatzyorski, V Athlete’s physical abilities. Moscow: Fizkultura i Sport.

26 Questions?


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