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NSCA Georgia State Clinic Mike Martino, PhD, ACSM-ETT Georgia College & State University Associate Professor, Exercise Science NSCA Georgia State Director.

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Presentation on theme: "NSCA Georgia State Clinic Mike Martino, PhD, ACSM-ETT Georgia College & State University Associate Professor, Exercise Science NSCA Georgia State Director."— Presentation transcript:

1 NSCA Georgia State Clinic Mike Martino, PhD, ACSM-ETT Georgia College & State University Associate Professor, Exercise Science NSCA Georgia State Director Effective Methods for Cardiovascular Endurance Training

2 Presentation Outline Types of Endurance Training Types of Endurance Training Physiological Adaptations Physiological Adaptations What does the research say? What does the research say? Current Training Philosophies Current Training Philosophies Training Recommendations based on Science Training Recommendations based on Science Applied Information Applied Information Questions Questions

3 Factors of Endurance Muscle force production capacity Muscle force production capacity Biomechanical efficiency Biomechanical efficiency Metabolic efficiency Metabolic efficiency Movement velocity potential Movement velocity potential Psychological abilities Psychological abilities

4 Endurance Training General vs. Specific (Ozolin, 1971) General vs. Specific (Ozolin, 1971) Cardiovascular or Aerobic endurance Cardiovascular or Aerobic endurance Muscular endurance Muscular endurance Acyclic (50-80% 1RM, reps) Acyclic (50-80% 1RM, reps) Cyclic (20-50% 1RM, reps) Cyclic (20-50% 1RM, reps) Anaerobic endurance Anaerobic endurance Power endurance Power endurance Speed endurance Speed endurance

5 Cardiovascular Endurance Long Slow Distance (LSD) Long Slow Distance (LSD) Continuous Continuous Pace/Tempo Pace/Tempo Interval Interval Repetition Repetition Fartlek Fartlek Intermittent Intermittent Parametric Parametric

6 Physiological Adaptations to Endurance Training Central factors Central factors Heart size (Left ventricle*) Heart size (Left ventricle*) Total blood volume Total blood volume Plasma volume Plasma volume # Red blood cells # Red blood cells Stroke volume Stroke volume HR response HR response Cardiac Output (Q) Cardiac Output (Q) Peripheral factors Blood vessel angiogenesis capillarization capillary-to-fiber ratio opening of existing capillaries Effective blood redistribution Cellular oxidation Mitochondrial # and density Oxidative enzyme # and activity Muscle glycogen storage capacity FFA utilization

7 Interval Training Research Jensen, Bangsbo & Hellsten (2004) Methods (Untrained males) Methods (Untrained males) Study 1 (N=6 M) & Study 2 (N=7 M) Study 1 (N=6 M) & Study 2 (N=7 M) Mean V O 2 max 50.2 ml. kg -1. min -1 & 45.4 ml. kg -1. min -1 Mean V O 2 max 50.2 ml. kg -1. min -1 & 45.4 ml. kg -1. min -1 Single leg knee extension ergometer (cycling) Single leg knee extension ergometer (cycling) 150% 1 min exercise 3 min rest for 1 hr (55 rpm) 150% 1 min exercise 3 min rest for 1 hr (55 rpm) 90% V O 2 max 1 min bouts 30 sec rest for 1 hr (55 rpm) 90% V O 2 max 1 min bouts 30 sec rest for 1 hr (55 rpm) Results Results endothelial proliferation & capillary growth endothelial proliferation & capillary growth vascular endothelial growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor basic fibroblast growth factor basic fibroblast growth factor

8 Interval Training Research Overend, Paterson & Cunningham (1992) Methods (N=17, Untrained males) Methods (N=17, Untrained males) 10 weeks of cycle ergometry 10 weeks of cycle ergometry Continuous group (80% V O 2 max ) Continuous group (80% V O 2 max ) 4 x 40 min sessions/wk 4 x 40 min sessions/wk Interval group did same average power output Interval group did same average power output Results Results V O 2 max significantly V O 2 max significantly Ventilatory threshold Ventilatory threshold Improved O 2 uptake kinetics Improved O 2 uptake kinetics

9 Intermittent Training Research Mayer et al. (2001) Methods Methods N=33 sedentary individuals (45-75 yrs) N=33 sedentary individuals (45-75 yrs) 5 days/wk for 10 weeks 5 days/wk for 10 weeks Intermittent exercise Intermittent exercise Target HR + 5 bts. min -1 then rest until 5 bts. min -1 below THR Target HR + 5 bts. min -1 then rest until 5 bts. min -1 below THR Continuous exercise Continuous exercise Non-stop at calculated THR Non-stop at calculated THR 1 st week 20 min per session 1 st week 20 min per session Each week increase sessions by 3 min Each week increase sessions by 3 min Treadmill, bike, stepping, & rowing Treadmill, bike, stepping, & rowing Results Results Similar gains in V O 2 max Similar gains in V O 2 max Significant differences for IT group in mass and body fat% Significant differences for IT group in mass and body fat%

10 Interval & Continuous Training Variables Interval Training Interval Training Distance or duration of the work interval Distance or duration of the work interval Intensity of the work interval Intensity of the work interval Duration of the rest interval Duration of the rest interval Type of rest interval Type of rest interval Continuous Training Distance or duration Intensity or pace Modes of training Running Cycling Swimming Cross-Training

11 Interval versus Continuous Training Interval Interval Work intensity above AT Work intensity above AT AE Physiological factors AE Physiological factors Higher caloric expenditure Higher caloric expenditure Shorter time period Shorter time period pain threshold pain threshold speed endurance speed endurance power endurance power endurance NM control Type II fibers NM control Type II fibers buffering capacity buffering capacity specific endurance specific endurance Continuous Intensity at or below AT AE Physiological factors Possible technique Poor mechanics due to fatigue General endurance

12 Training Intensities Subcritical, Critical, Supracritical Subcritical, Critical, Supracritical Zatzyorski (1980) Zatzyorski (1980) Aerobic, Lactate Threshold, V02, Anaerobic Aerobic, Lactate Threshold, V02, Anaerobic Aerobic, Aerobic/Anaerobic mix, Anaerobic, Sprint Aerobic, Aerobic/Anaerobic mix, Anaerobic, Sprint AE1, AE2, AN1, AN2, AN3 AE1, AE2, AN1, AN2, AN3 AErec, EN1, EN2, EN3, SP1, SP2, SP3 AErec, EN1, EN2, EN3, SP1, SP2, SP3 Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5a, Z5b, Z5c Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5a, Z5b, Z5c Levels 1-7 Levels 1-7 V1-V6 V1-V6

13 Anaerobic Threshold or Lactate Threshold Anaerobic threshold (AT) Anaerobic threshold (AT) Onset of anaerobiosis Onset of anaerobiosis Ventilatory threshold Ventilatory threshold Ventilatory equivalent Ventilatory equivalent V E / V O 2 V E / V O 2 V CO 2 > V O 2 V CO 2 > V O 2 Rapid pulmonary V E Rapid pulmonary V E Lactate threshold (LT) Exercise intensity VO2 linearly Blood lactate non-linearly Reflects the balance between lactate entry and removal in the blood! Anaerobic threshold and Lactate threshold are different processes!!

14 Zatzyorski Approach Subcritical Subcritical Reduced speed with a low energy expenditure Reduced speed with a low energy expenditure O 2 demand below the athletes aerobic power O 2 demand below the athletes aerobic power O 2 meets the physiological demands O 2 meets the physiological demands Athlete functions at a steady-state Athlete functions at a steady-state Critical Critical Intensity increases and the O 2 demand equals supply Intensity increases and the O 2 demand equals supply Exercise is in the anaerobic threshold zone Exercise is in the anaerobic threshold zone Speed is directly proportional to respiratory potential Speed is directly proportional to respiratory potential Supracritical Supracritical Intensity is greater than the O 2 supply Intensity is greater than the O 2 supply

15 USA Swimming 7 Energy Zone System Aerobic (recovery) Aerobic (recovery) Aerobic Development (EN1) Aerobic Development (EN1) Aerobic/Anaerobic Mix 1 (EN2) Aerobic/Anaerobic Mix 1 (EN2) Aerobic/Anaerobic Mix 2 (EN3) Aerobic/Anaerobic Mix 2 (EN3) Anaerobic 1 (SP1) Anaerobic 1 (SP1) Anaerobic 2 (SP2) Anaerobic 2 (SP2) Sprint (SP3) Sprint (SP3)

16 7 Energy Zone System Set Distance (meters) Set Duration (min)HR(bpm)HR (% max) Work:RestRatio Aerobic(Recovery)VariableVariable<140<70N/A Aerobic Dev. (EN1) > sec rest AE/AN Mix 1 (EN2) sec rest AE/AN Mix 2 (EN3) Max sec rest Anaerobic 1 (SP1) Max100 2:1 – 1:1 Anaerobic 2 (SP2) Max100 1:2 – 1:4 Sprint(SP3) Max100 1:3 – 1:4

17 Parametric Training Dr. Sergei Gordons concept (1960s) Dr. Sergei Gordons concept (1960s) Focuses on a specific training parameter Focuses on a specific training parameter Convert the art of coaching into a scientific method Convert the art of coaching into a scientific method Algorithm (Prediction method) Algorithm (Prediction method) Limitations Limitations More Info More Info Swimming, Running, Cycling, Rowing, Triathlon, etc. Swimming, Running, Cycling, Rowing, Triathlon, etc.

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19 AM / PM Appr. Trainin g Time 00:00 Dist. # of Reps Target Time, hh:mm :ss.00 Target Speed Rest (sec) Target HR (b/min) Target Power (Watt) Zone Sele- cted A.M.5: yards 14: yd/s> Ib A.M.29: yards 123: yd/s Ib A.M.45: yards yd/s15*Par IVb A.M.48: yards 1jogging3.67yd/s>60< Ic A.M.52: yards 13: yd/s Ib A.M.1:06:49 50 yards yd/s60*Par IVa A.M.1:12: yards 14: yd/s> Ib

20 Training Recommendations based on Science 1. Use a combination of training methods Continuous plus interval maybe intermittent Continuous plus interval maybe intermittent Monitor overreaching weekly Monitor overreaching weekly 2. Change programs regularly Organizational schemes or Periodization plans Organizational schemes or Periodization plans Biological systems are adept to change Biological systems are adept to change Homeostasis Homeostasis Incorporate 4 week cycles (This is not an absolute!) Incorporate 4 week cycles (This is not an absolute!) 3. General vs. Specific endurance changes General conditioning focus on continuous General conditioning focus on continuous Specific focus on interval variations Specific focus on interval variations

21 Training Recommendations based on Science 4. Intermittent training for less fit individuals 30 sec at 70% HRR 30 sec at 70% HRR 5. If you use continuous training do it hard! > 80% V O 2 max > 80% V O 2 max 6. No scientific evidence to support LSD recovery bouts!

22 Applied Conclusions Interval training Interval training Can lead to acute and chronic overtraining Can lead to acute and chronic overtraining Overuse injuries associated with intensity Overuse injuries associated with intensity Acute and chronic fatigue Acute and chronic fatigue Increased pain threshold Increased pain threshold Continuous training Continuous training Lower caloric expenditure Lower caloric expenditure Increased level of self-confidence in client Increased level of self-confidence in client Overuse injuries associated with chronic overload Overuse injuries associated with chronic overload Less work for the trainer Less work for the trainer

23 Applied Conclusions: Sample Programs GC&SU Mens Basketball WeekMonTuesWedThursFri Resistance training 1 Pick up ball min Run.5–1 mile 70% HRR Pick up ball min Run.5–1 mile 70% HRR Pick up ball min T R Total body 2 Pick up ball min Run 1 mile 70-75% HRR Pick up ball min Run 1 mile 70-75% HRR Pick up ball min T R Total body 3* Run 1.5 miles 75-80% HRR 50% Elite 8 Run 1.5 miles 75-80% HRR 50% Elite 8 Run 1.5 miles 75-80% HRR M R Upper T F Lower 4 Run 1.5 miles 75-80% HRR 75% Elite 8 Run 1.5 miles 75-80% HRR 75% Elite 8 Run 1.5 miles 75-80% HRR M R Upper T F Lower 5 Run 2 miles 80-85% HRR 100% Elite 8 Indian Run 15 lb med ball 75% Elite 8 Run 2 miles 80% HRR M R Upper T F Lower 6 Run 2 miles 80-85% HRR 100% Elite 8 Indian Run Floor Circuit 100% Elite 8 Run 2 miles 80-85% HRR M R Upper T F Lower 7 Run 2.5 miles 85-90% HRR 100% Elite 8 Indian Run Floor Circuit 100% Elite 8 Run 2 miles 80% HRR T R Total body * Every day now has 60 min Pick up ball after the group workout!

24 Applied Conclusions Include surging in the routine regardless of mode Include surging in the routine regardless of mode Progress from 5 sec hard up to 1 to 2 min hard Progress from 5 sec hard up to 1 to 2 min hard Follow-up with 3 min easy to moderate pace Follow-up with 3 min easy to moderate pace 30 sec hard + 3 min easy x 5 30 sec hard + 3 min easy x 5 Create hybrids Create hybrids 2-5 min rhythmic movement with surging 2-5 min rhythmic movement with surging reps of resistance training mode (ie. kettlebells) reps of resistance training mode (ie. kettlebells) 2-5 min rhythmic movement with surging 2-5 min rhythmic movement with surging reps of resistance training mode (ie. kettlebells) reps of resistance training mode (ie. kettlebells)

25 References Baechle, T.R. & Earle, R.W Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. 2 nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Bompa, T.O Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training. 4 th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Jensen, L., Bangsbo, J. & Hellsten, Y. Effect of high intensity training on capillarization and presence of angiogenic factors in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol, 557:2, Mayer H, DeRose D, Charles-Marcel Z, Jamison J, Payne S, Roberts SO, Nethery V. Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of intermittent vs. continuous aerobic training. Med Sci Sports Exerc May; 33(5):S19. Ozolin, N Athletes training system for competition. Moscow: Fizkultura i Sport. Pilegaard, H., Domino, K., Noland, T., Juel, C., Hellsten, Y., Halestrap, A.P., & Bangsbo, J. Effect of high-intensity exercise training on lactate/H + transport capacity in human skeletal muscle. AM J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 276:E Siff, M.C Supertraining. 6 th ed. Denver, CO: Supertraining Institute. Zatzyorski, V Athletes physical abilities. Moscow: Fizkultura i Sport.

26 Questions?


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