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Basketball Officials Clinic 3 person mechanics

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1 Basketball Officials Clinic 3 person mechanics

2 3 Person Terminology Rotation Switch L Official (Lead)
C Official (Center) - SLOT T Official (Trail) PCA Close Down Ball Side Strong Side Weak Side Table Side Opposite Side Wide Triangle Call selection Catalog plays Double Whistle Mechanics Don’t come up with prelim signal Game Management Aware of time, game, score, situations Live Ball Communication Patient Whistle Secondary Whistle Communicating Last Second Responsibilities

3 Pre-game Conference Do not overlook this important aspect of the game
Know your partner’s name & tendencies Discuss switching, helping with press, displacement, & communication Make sure to have the shooter & not to grant TO until all communication is done Discuss situations (types of players & style of play) Double whistles (foul vs. violation?) Block/Charge Rebounding fouls Illegal screens New rules (team control fouls) Talk about dealing with technical fouls Discuss last minute & clock responsibilities


5 Pre-game Positions R U2 U1

6 U-1 R U-2 Jump Ball Positioning
R checks both officials, gets players set, blow whistle, indicate directions & tosses U-1 checks table, counts players, check toss & chops clock; U-2 confirms with R U-1 R U-2 Jump Ball Positioning

7 Ball Goes Right

8 Primary Areas of Coverage
L – Mirror ball, referee the lane/post area: T – Get angle/position & on-ball coverage; 3 pt coverage C - Referee Off Ball, look for illegal screens, going through screens, displacement, holding, etc. Primary Areas of Coverage

9 Lines of Responsibility
Lead only has baseline If doing duties and looking at primary, WILL need help on some opposite side out of bounds (blow whistle with arm up & look to “C”) Trail has his/her sideline, midcourt line, and backcourt line (when appropriate) “C” has own sideline (may help with midcourt if rotating or transition)

10 Lines of Responsibility: T-Green, C-Yellow, L-Blue

11 Throw-In Responsibilities
“L” may administer throw-ins on either side of player when staying in frontcourt Administers all Throw-Ins below FT line extended May bounce ball on sideline “T” handles all throw-ins in the backcourt, regardless of location (“bump and run,” if necessary) “T” may bounce any sideline or end line throw-in (may depend on defensive pressure) “C” out of bounds, always have 2 officials ball side for throw in

12 End Line Throw-Ins in the Frontcourt
A. The Lead administers all throw-ins on the end line in the frontcourt. B. The Lead may administer throw-ins on either side of player when staying in frontcourt. The position chosen should give the Lead the best possible angle to officiate the play. L may administer throw-ins on either side of player when staying in frontcourt

13 Shot & Rebound Coverage
Lead should not be positioned within lane lines Both C and T should close down on shots C is primarily responsible for weak side rebounding If shooter is in your area, you must referee the defense and bring the shooter to back to the floor.

14 Shot & Rebound Coverage

15 Three-Point Shot Coverage
Lead should not be positioned within lane lines If both C and T indicate the 3-pt attempt, T should referee the defense on the shooter and stay with the shot; C should release and cover rebounding C/T should mirror the other official’s “good” signal L does not have 3-pt attempt responsibilities in a front court offense, but may need to offer assistance on fast break.

16 Lead help on 3pt shot Only on fast break will Lead Signal 3pt. Signal
Trail will still mirror 3pt. Signal and will go up if good w/ C mirroring made basket

17 Lead Official Closes Down, Prepare for Rotation
ROTATION SEQUENCES Lead Official Closes Down, Prepare for Rotation

18 When to initiate rotation at Lead
YOU HAVE TO USE YOUR PERIPHERAL VISION AT ALL TIMES!!!!! The ball is below the free throw line extended (inside 3 pt. line) for an extended period of time If in the frontcourt (fast break) all 3 officials and the ball are in frontcourt status and the ball is weak-side Want two people strong-side (ball-side) if possible The player has received the ball weak-side and … Is definitely putting the ball into the post to a big man/woman (Think SHAQ…) Has consistently beaten his/her man and looks to drive a lot Person at 3 pt line, looking to drive baseline also

19 When not to rotate? Quick jump shots
Ball is being tossed around the arc or dribbled around the arc without making a drive to the basket When all 3 officials and the ball are not in the frontcourt Last few seconds to quarter or half Loose ball when no team possession is gained Exception: To get a better angle for a foul/jump ball Then fix the move by going back to original position

20 Lead Initiates Rotation, Trail goes to New C, and C goes to New T

21 Responsibilities while rotating
Lead must swivel head so that he/she still can call “old” primary area (lane area) until fully established in new position Don’t pivot early, get to new primary the pivot finishing rotation Trail & “C” must focus on primary area until Lead gets into new “Lead” position STAY WITH COMPETITIVE MATCHUPS AS NEEDED Use body language so partner know you are staying with players

22 Center Official referee off ball & rebound fouls
Lead has ball coverage, Trail looks off ball (screens) & fouls above shoulders on shot Center Official referee off ball & rebound fouls Full Rotation: New Areas of Coverage



25 How to fix a rotation During frontcourt team possession
Use verbal or non-verbal communication with fellow officials During change of possession (going the other way) Easiest way to fix is for Old lead that rotated to go back to original position and work new Trail position If old Trail recognizes switch but new trail does not, Old lead (New Trail) can tell official to bump up to New Lead If old Trail does not recognize switch (may have 2 new leads), verbally tell person to be at new C

26 Fixing a Unnecessary Rotation, Quick Turnover, Lead Banana Back

27 Trail Positioning Work the angles and see space
Move to improve Don’t get stuck too far in court In way for transitions

28 When the “C” can facilitate rotation
Team just established frontcourt possession on “C” Side Player is feeling pressure or is being trapped “C” must get angle and may need to go “High” to see the players/play Lead must recognize situation and rotate over Trail must recognize and help at 1st then move down to “C” Only use when appropriate and this may be missed by the Lead and Trail (be aware of situation) The T or C can facilitate a rotation, but ONLY the L initiates a rotation A rotation should only take place when all three officials are in the frontcourt A rotation begins when L moves laterally and penetrates the key area

29 Center Initiates Rotation: Trap on Center Side by Mid-court

30 Press Coverage Old Lead/New Trail stay out of bounds until ball goes above FT line Has ballhandler & defender Center stays at FT line & moves w/ second wave of players L should have deepest player in front and boxed-in All officials prepare for help calls

31 C responsibilities in transition
Center may have ball responsibilities on quick passes In any transition, can call across court to other sideline May have best view across paint even in front court play

32 Foul Reporting Mechanics
Only 2 officials should be moving 3rd official dead ball officiating Calling official freeze after call & notify players/partners situation Report Foul & Stay Table side Hustle around players & Stop in reporting area (Federation mechanics) Table side official go to calling official’s previous area for throw-in or prepare FT Do not cross vision line of reporting official

33 Foul Reporting Mechanics: Lead non-shooting foul on baseline
Trail gets ball for throw-in going outside players & pointing to spot of throw-in C watches all players during dead ball Center Official watches all players during foul report Lead whistles foul, pauses, gets info & communicates with partner situation, points to spot of throw-in Foul Reporting Mechanics: Lead non-shooting foul on baseline

34 Foul Reporting Mechanics: Center non-shooting foul on baseline
Lead gets ball, goes to opposite baseline for throw-in & point to spot of throw-in Trail Official watches all players during foul report & rotates to New C position Center whistles foul, pauses, gets info & communicates with partner situation, points to spot of throw-in Foul Reporting Mechanics: Center non-shooting foul on baseline

35 After report, trail stays in position for throw-in
Lead Official watches all players during foul report Center Official watches all players during foul report & stays at same position Trail whistles foul, pauses, gets info & communicates w/ partner situation, points to spot of throw-in & stays in position for throw-in After report, trail stays in position for throw-in Foul Reporting Mechanics: Trail non-shooting foul on sideline

36 Foul Reporting Mechanics: Lead non-shooting foul on baseline

37 Foul Reporting Mechanics: C non-shooting foul on baseline

38 Foul Reporting: Trail calls shooting foul

39 Foul Reporting: Lead calls shooting foul

40 Foul Reporting: Center calls shooting foul

41 Foul Reporting: Trail calls shooting foul

42 Foul Reporting : Center calls shooting foul

43 Foul Reporting: Lead calls shooting foul

44 Free Throw Mechanics: Non-rebounding free throw
Trail bring in subs

45 Free Throw Mechanics: Rebounding free throw
Both Trail and Center step down on FT and Center chop clock, lead picks up arm to chop if made basket

46 Bump & Run: C calls travel on White in transition

47 Bump & Run: Trail calls backcourt on White in transition

48 No Long Switches: Lead calls player control foul on White

49 Last Second Shot C or T – Opposite table official is responsible
L may need to offer assistance or be responsible if on fast break Responsible official should communicate with partners that he/she has the last second shot (discussed during pre-game)

50 Timeout Mechanics & Positioning
On any TO, make sure to know situation & communicate w/ officials & teams Prior to report, tell fellow officials who’s ball or who the shooter is Timeout Mechanics & Positioning


52 Reporting Area & Signaling Substitutions Game Awareness
Point of Emphasis Reporting Area & Signaling Substitutions Game Awareness Fighting Situations MECHANICS POINTS OF EMPHASIS Reporting Area & Signaling. Just like your signaling sequence at the spot of the foul, your signals and sequence at the table speak a language. Using signals to report to the scorer is just like talking to the scorer, only you’re using signals instead of words. Delay momentarily after signaling the foul at the spot to ensure there is no continuing action or unsporting behaviors among players. There is no need to go all the way over to the scorer’s table. Go to the spot within the foul-reporting area that will allow you to properly report the foul and then get the resulting throw-in or free throws started as soon as possible. One of your duties while reporting is watching both benches for bench decorum and substitutes. If you’re too close to the table, you lose that perspective. After moving to the reporting area, stop and square up to the scorer. Stopping is critical. If you’re moving while reporting, you increase chances of the scorer missing something. Use one hand to signal the number of the player that fouled. Verbalize the numbers at the same time. When verbalizing a two-digit number, say the full number, not the two parts. For example, a foul on No. 24 should be said, “Blue, twenty-four,” not “blue, two-four.” When giving a number combination like 22, give a distinct pause between the numbers so the scorer doesn’t get confused. Do not spin your hand when giving the second number. That turn can cause confusion. Slow down when reporting. The game can’t restart without you. And when giving the nature or signal of the foul, make sure it’s the same preliminary signal you used at the spot of the foul. Substitutions. The referee should review substitutions prior to the game in a pregame conference with the scorer. Alert the scorer to hold substitutes at the table until those entering players have been properly beckoned into the game. Report any foul before beckoning substitutes. The official beckoning the substitutes into the game will sound his/her whistle along with a motion allowing that substitute to enter. The whistle, along with the stop sign lets your partner(s) know you’ve got a substitute and not to resume play until all players have been counted. Keep the stop sign high and visible for your partner(s) to see. If you anticipate that your partner may resume play too quickly, sound your whistle again to make sure the game is not started until all exiting players have gotten off the court. Game Awareness. Much of adequately managing a game has to do with the prevention techniques that minimize the likelihood of “bad stuff” happening later on in the game. For example, getting teams out of huddles, being approachable, answering the coaches’ questions, recognizing a rise in player emotions and stepping in so players know you are aware and watching for any signs of escalation are situations that can be hard to identify unless you make a concerted effort to look for them. It’s an area where more experienced officials can mentor and teach younger officials the cues to look for and some strategies to use to defuse those situations.        Officials must be aware of game escalators such as hard fouls, chest bumps, trash talking, bench decorum and behaviors of coaches and players. Prevent those types of situations from becoming more serious by using good communication skills and preventive officiating. Know when they happen and deal with them accordingly. A classic example occurs when you take a proactive role in getting into the fray and talking with players after an aggressive held-ball “scrum.” Being aggressive in making your vocal and physical presence known to the players involved prevents a potentially volatile situation from occurring.         “Managing” the game is less defined in the rules books and affords officials some latitude to handle those dead-ball situations. That permission and ability to use more discretion to manage those scenarios will improve the game and overall experience for all those involved. Rather than intuitively reacting to live-ball calls, you can take more time to think about how to take care of the situation during dead-ball periods because time does not have to be an issue. Managing those dead-ball situations can be handled in many different ways by each official and is largely based on experience. Veteran officials usually have learned how to manage the game very well when the clock is stopped. Although you can take the time necessary to make sure you handle dead-ball periods, taking too much time can draw undue attention to your crew and may actually counteract what you are trying to accomplish. There is a fine line that you need to be aware of — address the issue appropriately but do not belabor the point so it detracts from your efforts. Fighting Situations. In recent years there has been an alarming rate of game incident reports citing “fighting” during basketball games. This document will serve as the protocol for game officials. The scenario shall be covered in every official’s pregame meeting prior to taking the court. Knowledge of the rules in reference to a fight situation is critical for three reasons: identification of individuals participating, knowledge of subsequent penalties and knowledge of how play is ultimately resumed. Fighting can be categorized into two groups: One, the ten players legally on the court who participate in a fight situation. Two, all bench personnel leaving the team bench area during a fight or when a fight may break out. Penalties: Flagrant fouls (technical or personal) and disqualification to each offender, plus one or more indirect technical fouls to the coach when bench personnel are involved. Each foul counts toward the team-foul count, with the exception of the indirect technical foul(s) assessed to the head coach. Preventive officiating — Maintain a high degree of focus so you are not surprised when a fight may break out on the court. Be a peacemaker — Step in between opposing players prior to a confrontation escalating into a fight. Find a friend — Solicit the captains of each respective team to assist in addressing unacceptable behavior of teammates. Let’s Get It On – When all else fails to prevent a fight from occurring, use the following procedures: The official nearest the fight should attempt to keep all other players from participating. The official(s) away from the area on the court where the fight is occurring should focus their attention to the bench areas. Head Coaches may be beckoned onto the court to assist in ending the fight and keeping his/her players from participating in the fight. Officials should not attempt to physically separate the combatants. That is a liability matter. It is the responsibility of host game management to administer crowd control. When the fracas has ended, direct all players and coaches to their respective bench area. Meet as a crew to exchange information, address penalties and discuss resuming play procedure. The referee will then meet with both head coaches at the division line to explain the action to be taken. The referee will then go to the scorer’s table to report and ensure that all penalties are accurately documented in the official scorebook. After the conclusion of the game, file a game report with your appropriate state or local jurisdiction and contact your supervisor immediately.

53 Work Hard & Do Your Best! Questions?

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