Presentation on theme: "Using Physician Extenders to Create a CKD Clinic Theresa Becker, MSN, APNP Midwest Nephrology Assoc. Chronic Kidney Disease Clinic."— Presentation transcript:
Using Physician Extenders to Create a CKD Clinic Theresa Becker, MSN, APNP Midwest Nephrology Assoc. Chronic Kidney Disease Clinic
CKD Clinic The ideas of: Linking CKD Clinics & Anemia Management Programs Using physician extenders in a multidisciplinary approach Are not new!
CKD Clinic ADEPT Clinic Arizonia Disease Education Prevention & Treatment Started as an anemia management clinic but soon developed into a CKD Clinic Patients are referred to the Vascular Access Program when GFRs are 25-30 mL/min. Curtis C, Yee B. The process of implementing a CKD Clinic Nephrology News & Issues. 2005;19:53-54.
CKD Clinic SHAPE UP Program Staging & Smoking Cessation Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, Hyperphosphatemia, Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperkalemia, & Hypervolemia Anemia Proteinuria Evaluation for KRT Undo nephrotoxins Preservation of veins & Patient education Gnanasekaran I, Kim S, Dimitrov V, Soni A. SHAPE UP-A management program for chronic kidney disease Dialysis & Transplantation. 2006;35: 294-302.
CKD Clinic One step further : A study by Curtis et al. suggested that even after appropriate & timely referral to a nephrologist, there is additional value of a multidisciplinary team approach in optimizing both short and long term patient outcomes. Curtis BM, Ravani P, Malberti F, et al. The short and long term impact of multi- disciplinary clinics in addition to standard nephrology care on patient outcomes. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:147-154.
CKD Clinic CKD Care Plan CKD Staging KDOQI Guideline Follow up CKD Education Patient Community Professional Vaccination Component Flu Pneumovax Hepatitis B Anemia Management Program Aranesp Iron Therapy Midwest Nephrology Associates CKD Clinic Model
CKD Clinic Components of the CKD Care Plan GFR < 60 ml/min. HTN Anemia Nutritional Status/DM Bone/Mineral Metabolism Neuropathy Functioning & Well-being Delaying Progression of CKD
CKD Clinic Components of the CKD Care Plan GFR < 30 ml/min. Review Modality Options Preparation for chosen option Transplant referral GFR < 15 ml/min. Tour Clinic Monitor for ESRD signs & symptoms
CKD Clinic CKD Patient Education Topics CKD and consequences; anemia and bone disease Common medications used in CKD Avoidance of nephrotoxic agents KRT Modalities Arm Preservation for HD access, Access placement & care of site Healthy living
CKD Clinic Access Teaching Pre AV access: Evaluation for appropriate arm such as vein mapping and instruction on saving that arm. Post AV access: Care of the site, exercising the access, and monitoring its development as well as instruction on its future use.
CKD Clinic Documentation Medication List Clinical Action Plan Health Maintenance Clinic Note Surgical Referral Form Vascular Access Record Chart Label
CKD Clinic Surgical Referral Form Date: __________________ Surgeon: __________________________ Phone: ______________ Fax: ________________ Patient: _________________________________________________ DOB: _______________ Nephrologist: ________________________ Phone: ______________ Fax: _______________ PCP: ______________________________ Phone: _______________ This patient is being referred to you for access placement. The desired access is an AV Fistula. In the event you are not planning to place an AV Fistula in this patient, please call the nephrologist prior to placing any other access. Patients non-dominant are is: Right Left Patient has been saving the following arm: Right Left Comments (ie: arm injury/mastectomy/pacemaker/previous access): Vein Mapping done pre-referral: No Yes – Date/Location: ______________________ Patient is currently on dialysis: Days: ____________________________________________________________________ Location/Phone: ____________________________________________________________ Patient is not on dialysis at this time: Anticipated hemodialysis start date: _______________________ months Most recent serum creatinine: ________ mg/dL & Creatinine Clearance/GFR: ________ ml/min Patient is on Anti-Coagulant Therapy: No Yes ___________________________________ Allergies: NKDA Yes _______________________________________________________ The following patient information is also enclosed: Face Sheet Vein Mapping Report H & P Recent Labwork Medication List
CKD Clinic Vascular Access Record Stage 4 (GFR < 30 ml/min): Surgical consult should be for AVF Only. Instruct Patient to Preserve Veins of Non- Dominant or Appropriate Arm Obtain Vein Mapping KDOQI Benchmark: AVF placement of > 65% for prevalent patients.
CKD Clinic Surgeon ___________________ Date _______________ Right Arm _____Left Arm _____ Direct AV Fistula:Transposition AV Fistula:PTFE Graft: Radial/Cephalic ____ Radial/Basilic _____ Straight _____ Brachial/Cephalic ___ Brachial/Basilic _____ Loop _____ Upper____ Lower____
CKD Clinic Access Complication History DateInterventionOutcome
CKD Clinic Save ____________________ Arm Access Placed ___________________________________ Flu Vaccine__________________________ Pneumovax__________________________ Tetanus__________________________ Hepatitis B Vaccine#1 _______________________ Recombivax-HB X 3#2 _______________________ Engerix-B X 4#3 _______________________ #4 _______________________ Transplant Clinic _________________________________ Chart Label
CKD Clinic N=106 Non-CKD Clinic Patients N= 57 CKD Clinic Patients N= 49 AVF Used at Start of HD 12 %35 % AVF Placed at Start of HD 30 %63 % AVF Statistics Patients Initiating HD 1/1/06 to 10/31/06
CKD Clinic N=347N% Flu Vaccine23167 Pneumovax28983 Hepatitis B Vaccine10931 Vaccination Statistics 7/1/06 to 12/31/06
CKD Insurance Issues Office Visit Reimbursement Commercial Insurances reimburse NPs at 100% of MD charges Medicare only reimburses NPs at 80% of MD charges Medicare and a secondary insurance reimburses NPs at 100% of MD charges
Anemia Management Program AgentSimilarity to Endogenous Erythropoietin Estimated T 1/2 Initial DosingMaintenance Dosing Epoetin alfa (Procrit) Ortho Biotech Identical Immunologically ~ 16 to 19 hours 50-150 units/kg TIW Typical Dosing is 150-300 u/kg weekly Generally weekly or QOW dosing Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) Amgen 20% more carbohydrate content ~ 33 to 48 hours 0.45 mcg/kg/wk Typical Dosing is 0.9 mcg/kg QOW Generally every 2 to 4 week dosing Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents (ESA) Available for Stage 1 – 5 CKD Patients McClellan, Schoolwerth A., Gehr, T. Clinical Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Cadido, OK: Professional Communications, Inc.; 2006:185-208.
ESA Agents Epoetin alfa Dose (Units/week) Darbepoetin alfa Dose (mcg/week) < 2,5006.25 2,500 to 4,99912.5 5,000 to 10,99925 11,000 to 17,99940 18,000 to 33,99960 34,000 to 89,999100 > 90,000200 Aranesp Package Insert Amgen®
ESA Agents Side Effect Profile HTN and Headaches Myalgias Diarrhea Contraindications Uncontrolled HTN Known hypersensitivity to the active substance or any of the excipients
ESA Agents FDA Black Box Warning Issued 3/9/07 Use the lowest dose of ESA that will gradually increase the Hgb concentration to the lowest level sufficient to avoid the need for RBC transfusion. ESAs increase the risk for death and serious CV events when administered to target a Hgb > 12 gm/dL.
ESA Agents RPA Renal Physicians Association Risks and benefits must be on individual patient basis Evidence based Hgb targets are helpful and should be reintroduced May lead to unacceptably low Hgb levels AAKP American Association of Kidney Patients Warning may be confusing to patients & providers Supports targeting Hgbs between 11 and 12 Lower Hgb lead to concerns regarding QOL
ESA Agents Epoetin alfa (Procrit) Single-Dose Preservative Free Vials 2,000 units, 3,000 units, 4,000 units, 10,000 units, 40,000 units/1 mL Multi-Dose Preserved Vials 20,000 units/1 mL 20,000 units/2 mL
ESA Agents Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) Single-Dose Preservative Free Vials 25 mcg, 40 mcg, 60 mcg, 100 mcg, 200 mcg, 300 mcg, 500 mcg/1 mL 150 mcg/0.75 mL
ESA Agents Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) Single-Dose Prefilled Syringes 25 mcg/0.42 mL 40 mcg/0.4 mL 60 mcg/0.3 mL 100 mcg/0.5 mL 150 mcg/0.3 mL 200 mcg/0.4 mL SingleJect Syringe SureClick Syringe
ESA Utilization Guidelines Hgb Level of < 11.0 gm/dL within 30 days T. Sat. and/or Ferritin within 30 to 90 days Serum creatinine within 30 days Patients weight in kilograms ESA Dose per kilogram Erythropoietin level is NOT recommended
ESA Utilization Guidelines Target Hgb at or above 11.0 gm/dL Caution when intentionally maintaining Hgb > 13.0 gm/dL Monitor Hgb minimum of every 30 days Target Ferritin > 100 ng/mL and T. Saturation > 20% Monitor Iron Indices Quarterly
ESA Utilization Guidelines Dose Adjustments If Hgb increases by > 2 gm/dL per 4 weeks and/or Hgb level > 12 gm/dL, decrease dose by 20 to 25% If Hgb level is increasing < 1 gm/dL per 4 weeks, increase dose by 20 to 25%
ESA Utilization Guidelines Dose Adjustments 20 to 25% dose adjustments may be achieved by: Altering the ESA dose Altering the time interval between injections
ESA Utilization Guidelines Dose Adjustments Increases in dose should not be made more frequently than once a month. Avoid holding doses to avoid marked drop in ESA sensitive RBC precursors and the seesaw effect of Hgb poor response pattern.
ESA Utilization Guidelines Dose Adjustments More frequent Hgb &/or iron indices monitoring may be necessary when: Recent bleeding or surgery Post hospitalization Post IV iron course Periods of ESA hypo-response
ESA Utilization Guidelines ESA Resistance Infection/Inflammation Blood Loss, Guiac Positive Stools Hyperparathyroidism B12, Folate Deficiencies Sickle cell, Thalacemias Multiple Myeloma/Malignancy ACE Inhibitor Use
ESA Utilization Guidelines Dose Adjustments Recent data indicates Hgb levels can be maintained with every two week epoetin alfa dosing and monthly darbepoetin alfa dosing. Benefits include increased staff productivity and patient satisfaction/compliance. Moore T., Chookie S. Extended dosing od darbepoetin alfa in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis: A review of recent data. Journal of ANNA 2005;32:399-407.
ESA Utilization Guidelines Medicare considers doses exceeding 90,000 units per week for epoetin alfa or 200 mcg per week for darbepoetin alfa to be rarely reasonable and necessary. Medical justification for doses exceeding these amounts should be documented in the patients record.
ESA Utilization Guidelines Name ________________________________ DOB __________ Access____________________________Weight ________ DateESA Dose Lot #SiteHgbBPHRComments Signature _________Iron Studies IronFerritinTIBCT. Sat. Date ESA Flowsheet
Hemoglobin Monitoring HemoCue vs. Lab Draw HemoCue Analyzer utilizes an optical measuring microcuvette. It provides nearly instantaneous Hgb results with very good accuracy. Traditional Lab Draw may be used. However, it will require another appointment or extended patient visit while awaiting lab results.
Hemoglobin Monitoring HemoCue Analyzer HemoCue Inc. 40 Empire Drive Lake Forest, CA 92630 Phone: 1800.881.1611 Fax: 1800.333.7043 www.hemocue.com HemoCue machines require a CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment) Certificate of Waiver www.cms.hhs.gov/clia/
ESA Insurance Issues CPT ESA Billing Codes Epoetin alfa – J0885 (Standard unit 1,000 units) Darbepoetin alfa - J0881 (Standard unit 1 mcg) Injection – 90772 HemoCue Lab – 85018QW
ESA Insurance Issues Benefit Determination Billing Office Review of Patients Insurance Procit – PROCRITline 1800.553.3851 or www.procritline.com Aranesp – Amgen Reimbursement Connection 1800.272.9376 or www.reimbursementconnection.com
ESA Insurance Issues Benefit Assistance HealthWell Foundation P.O. Box 4133 Gaithersburg, MD 20885-4133 Phone: 1800.675.8416 Fax: 1800.282.7692 www.healthwellfoundation.org
ESA Insurance Issues Drug Assistance Drug company vouchers which generally allow one month supply of ESA ESA samples may be available
ESA Self Administration Initial Teaching ESA script must include Anemia & CKD Stage ICD 9 codes Instruct patient on storage, handling, and observe administration of ESA Office visit charge
ESA Self Administration Monitoring Monthly HemoCue lab charge vs. traditional lab draw Office visit charge
New Agents Mircera Developed by Roche First and only Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator (C.E.R.A.) Twice monthly dosing schedule, however generally will be able to administer monthly yet maintain stable Hgb levels IV/SC administration May be used in CKD & dialysis patients
IV Iron Iron Sucrose (Venofer) 100 mg/1 mL vial Administer 200 mg slow IV infusion over 2 to 5 minutes on 5 different occasions within a 14 day period. Typically dosed weekly for 5 weeks. Generally administered when Ferritin < 100 ng/mL and/or T. Saturation < 20%
IV Iron Insurance Issues CPT Iron Billing Code Iron Sucrose – J1786 (Standard unit 1 mg) IV Infusion – 90765 Office charge, high complexity visit - 99215 ICD 9 Iron Billing Code Iron Deficiency Anemia – 280.9