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Using Physician Extenders to Create a CKD Clinic

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Presentation on theme: "Using Physician Extenders to Create a CKD Clinic"— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Physician Extenders to Create a CKD Clinic
Theresa Becker, MSN, APNP Midwest Nephrology Assoc. Chronic Kidney Disease Clinic

2 CKD Clinic The ideas of:
Linking CKD Clinics & Anemia Management Programs Using physician extenders in a multidisciplinary approach Are not new!

3 CKD Clinic ADEPT Clinic
Arizonia Disease Education Prevention & Treatment Started as an anemia management clinic but soon developed into a CKD Clinic Patients are referred to the Vascular Access Program when GFRs are mL/min. Curtis C, Yee B. The process of implementing a CKD Clinic Nephrology News & Issues. 2005;19:53-54.

4 CKD Clinic SHAPE UP Program Staging & Smoking Cessation
Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia, Hyperphosphatemia, Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperkalemia, & Hypervolemia Anemia Proteinuria Evaluation for KRT Undo nephrotoxins Preservation of veins & Patient education Gnanasekaran I, Kim S, Dimitrov V, Soni A. SHAPE UP-A management program for chronic kidney disease Dialysis & Transplantation ;35:

5 CKD Clinic One step further :
A study by Curtis et al. suggested that even after appropriate & timely referral to a nephrologist, there is additional value of a multidisciplinary team approach in optimizing both short and long term patient outcomes. Curtis BM, Ravani P, Malberti F, et al. The short and long term impact of multi- disciplinary clinics in addition to standard nephrology care on patient outcomes. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:

6 Midwest Nephrology Associates CKD Clinic Model
CKD Care Plan CKD Staging KDOQI Guideline Follow up CKD Education Patient Community Professional Vaccination Component Flu Pneumovax Hepatitis B Anemia Management Program Aranesp Iron Therapy

7 CKD Clinic Components of the CKD Care Plan GFR < 60 ml/min. HTN
Anemia Nutritional Status/DM Bone/Mineral Metabolism Neuropathy Functioning & Well-being Delaying Progression of CKD

8 CKD Clinic Components of the CKD Care Plan GFR < 30 ml/min.
Review Modality Options Preparation for chosen option Transplant referral GFR < 15 ml/min. Tour Clinic Monitor for ESRD signs & symptoms

9 CKD Clinic CKD Patient Education Topics
CKD and consequences; anemia and bone disease Common medications used in CKD Avoidance of nephrotoxic agents KRT Modalities Arm Preservation for HD access, Access placement & care of site Healthy living

10 CKD Clinic Access Teaching
Pre AV access: Evaluation for appropriate arm such as vein mapping and instruction on saving that arm. Post AV access: Care of the site, exercising the access, and monitoring its development as well as instruction on its future use.

11 CKD Clinic Documentation Medication List Clinical Action Plan
Health Maintenance Clinic Note Surgical Referral Form Vascular Access Record Chart Label

12 Surgical Referral Form
CKD Clinic Surgical Referral Form Date: __________________ Surgeon: __________________________ Phone: ______________ Fax: ________________ Patient: _________________________________________________ DOB: _______________ Nephrologist: ________________________ Phone: ______________ Fax: _______________ PCP: ______________________________ Phone: _______________ This patient is being referred to you for access placement. The desired access is an AV Fistula. In the event you are not planning to place an AV Fistula in this patient, please call the nephrologist prior to placing any other access. Patient’s non-dominant are is:  Right  Left Patient has been saving the following arm:  Right  Left Comments (ie: arm injury/mastectomy/pacemaker/previous access): Vein Mapping done pre-referral:  No  Yes – Date/Location: ______________________ Patient is currently on dialysis: Days: ____________________________________________________________________ Location/Phone: ____________________________________________________________ Patient is not on dialysis at this time: Anticipated hemodialysis start date: _______________________ months Most recent serum creatinine: ________ mg/dL & Creatinine Clearance/GFR: ________ ml/min Patient is on Anti-Coagulant Therapy:  No  Yes ___________________________________ Allergies:  NKDA  Yes _______________________________________________________ The following patient information is also enclosed:  Face Sheet  Vein Mapping Report  H & P  Recent Labwork  Medication List

13 Vascular Access Record
CKD Clinic Vascular Access Record Stage 4 (GFR < 30 ml/min): Surgical consult should be for ‘AVF Only’. Instruct Patient to Preserve Veins of Non-Dominant or Appropriate Arm Obtain Vein Mapping KDOQI Benchmark: AVF placement of > 65% for prevalent patients.

14 CKD Clinic Surgeon ___________________ Date _______________
Right Arm _____ Left Arm _____ Direct AV Fistula: Transposition AV Fistula: PTFE Graft: Radial/Cephalic ____ Radial/Basilic _____ Straight _____ Brachial/Cephalic ___ Brachial/Basilic _____ Loop _____ Upper____ Lower____

15 Access Complication History
CKD Clinic Access Complication History Date Intervention Outcome

16 Save ____________________ Arm
CKD Clinic Chart Label Save ____________________ Arm Access Placed ___________________________________ Flu Vaccine __________________________ Pneumovax Tetanus Hepatitis B Vaccine #1 _______________________ Recombivax-HB X 3 #2 _______________________ Engerix-B X 4 #3 _______________________ #4 _______________________ Transplant Clinic _________________________________

17 Patients Initiating HD Non-CKD Clinic Patients N= 57
AVF Statistics Patients Initiating HD 1/1/06 to 10/31/06 N=106 Non-CKD Clinic Patients N= 57 CKD Clinic Patients N= 49 AVF Used at Start of HD 12 % 35 % AVF Placed 30 % 63 %

18 Vaccination Statistics
CKD Clinic Vaccination Statistics 7/1/06 to 12/31/06 N=347 N % Flu Vaccine 231 67 Pneumovax 289 83 Hepatitis B Vaccine 109 31

19 CKD Insurance Issues CPT Office Visit Billing Codes
Low complexity visit (~ 15 min.) – 99213 Moderate complexity visit (~ 25 min.) – 99214 High complexity visit (~ 40 min.) – 99215

20 CKD Insurance Issues ICD 9 Office Visit Billing Codes
CKD Stage 1 (GFR > 90) – 585.1 CKD Stage 2 (GFR 60-89) – 585.2 CKD Stage 3 (GFR 30-59) – 585.3 CKD Stage 4 (GFR 15-29) – 585.4 CKD Stage 5 (GFR<15) – 585.5

21 CKD Insurance Issues Office Visit Reimbursement
Commercial Insurances reimburse NPs at 100% of MD charges Medicare only reimburses NPs at 80% of MD charges Medicare and a secondary insurance reimburses NPs at 100% of MD charges

22 Anemia Management Program
Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents (ESA) Available for Stage 1 – 5 CKD Patients Agent Similarity to Endogenous Erythropoietin Estimated T 1/2 Initial Dosing Maintenance Dosing Epoetin alfa (Procrit) Ortho Biotech Identical Immunologically ~ 16 to 19 hours units/kg TIW Typical Dosing is u/kg weekly Generally weekly or QOW dosing Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) Amgen 20% more carbohydrate content ~ 33 to 48 hours 0.45 mcg/kg/wk Typical Dosing is 0.9 mcg/kg QOW Generally every 2 to 4 week dosing McClellan, Schoolwerth A., Gehr, T. Clinical Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Cadido, OK: Professional Communications, Inc.; 2006:

23 ESA Agents Epoetin alfa Dose (Units/week) Darbepoetin alfa Dose
(mcg/week) < 2,500 6.25 2,500 to 4,999 12.5 5,000 to 10,999 25 11,000 to 17,999 40 18,000 to 33,999 60 34,000 to 89,999 100 > 90,000 200 Aranesp Package Insert Amgen®

24 ESA Agents Side Effect Profile HTN and Headaches Myalgias Diarrhea
Contraindications Uncontrolled HTN Known hypersensitivity to the active substance or any of the excipients

25 ESA Agents FDA Black Box Warning Issued 3/9/07
Use the lowest dose of ESA that will gradually increase the Hgb concentration to the lowest level sufficient to avoid the need for RBC transfusion. ESAs increase the risk for death and serious CV events when administered to target a Hgb > 12 gm/dL.

26 Renal Physicians Association American Association of Kidney Patients
ESA Agents RPA Renal Physicians Association Risks and benefits must be on individual patient basis Evidence based Hgb targets are helpful and should be reintroduced May lead to unacceptably low Hgb levels AAKP American Association of Kidney Patients Warning may be confusing to patients & providers Supports targeting Hgbs between 11 and 12 Lower Hgb lead to concerns regarding QOL

27 ESA Agents Epoetin alfa (Procrit) Single-Dose Preservative Free Vials
2,000 units, 3,000 units, 4,000 units, 10,000 units, 40,000 units/1 mL Multi-Dose Preserved Vials 20,000 units/1 mL 20,000 units/2 mL

28 ESA Agents Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp)
Single-Dose Preservative Free Vials 25 mcg, 40 mcg, 60 mcg, 100 mcg, 200 mcg, 300 mcg, 500 mcg/1 mL 150 mcg/0.75 mL

29 ESA Agents Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) Single-Dose Prefilled Syringes
25 mcg/0.42 mL 40 mcg/0.4 mL 60 mcg/0.3 mL 100 mcg/0.5 mL 150 mcg/0.3 mL 200 mcg/0.4 mL SingleJect Syringe SureClick Syringe

30 ESA Utilization Guidelines
Hgb Level of < 11.0 gm/dL within 30 days T. Sat. and/or Ferritin within 30 to 90 days Serum creatinine within 30 days Patient’s weight in kilograms ESA Dose per kilogram Erythropoietin level is NOT recommended

31 ESA Utilization Guidelines
Target Hgb at or above 11.0 gm/dL Caution when intentionally maintaining Hgb > 13.0 gm/dL Monitor Hgb minimum of every 30 days Target Ferritin > 100 ng/mL and T. Saturation > 20% Monitor Iron Indices Quarterly

32 ESA Utilization Guidelines
Dose Adjustments If Hgb increases by > 2 gm/dL per 4 weeks and/or Hgb level > 12 gm/dL, decrease dose by 20 to 25% If Hgb level is increasing < 1 gm/dL per 4 weeks, increase dose by 20 to 25%

33 ESA Utilization Guidelines
Dose Adjustments 20 to 25% dose adjustments may be achieved by: Altering the ESA dose Altering the time interval between injections

34 ESA Utilization Guidelines
Dose Adjustments Increases in dose should not be made more frequently than once a month. Avoid holding doses to avoid marked drop in ESA sensitive RBC precursors and the ‘seesaw’ effect of Hgb poor response pattern.

35 ESA Utilization Guidelines
Dose Adjustments More frequent Hgb &/or iron indices monitoring may be necessary when: Recent bleeding or surgery Post hospitalization Post IV iron course Periods of ESA hypo-response

36 ESA Utilization Guidelines
ESA Resistance Infection/Inflammation Blood Loss, Guiac Positive Stools Hyperparathyroidism B12, Folate Deficiencies Sickle cell, Thalacemias Multiple Myeloma/Malignancy ACE Inhibitor Use

37 ESA Utilization Guidelines
Dose Adjustments Recent data indicates Hgb levels can be maintained with every two week epoetin alfa dosing and monthly darbepoetin alfa dosing. Benefits include increased staff productivity and patient satisfaction/compliance. Moore T., Chookie S. Extended dosing od darbepoetin alfa in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis: A review of recent data. Journal of ANNA 2005;32:

38 ESA Utilization Guidelines
Medicare considers doses exceeding 90,000 units per week for epoetin alfa or 200 mcg per week for darbepoetin alfa to be rarely reasonable and necessary. Medical justification for doses exceeding these amounts should be documented in the patient’s record.

39 ESA Utilization Guidelines
Name ________________________________ DOB __________ Access____________________________ Weight ________ Date ESA Dose Lot # Site Hgb BP HR Comments Signature _________ Iron Studies Iron Ferritin TIBC T. Sat. Date ESA Flowsheet

40 Hemoglobin Monitoring
HemoCue vs. Lab Draw HemoCue Analyzer utilizes an optical measuring microcuvette. It provides nearly instantaneous Hgb results with very good accuracy. Traditional Lab Draw may be used. However, it will require another appointment or extended patient visit while awaiting lab results.

41 Hemoglobin Monitoring
HemoCue Analyzer HemoCue Inc. 40 Empire Drive Lake Forest, CA Phone: Fax: HemoCue machines require a CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment) Certificate of Waiver

42 ESA Insurance Issues CPT ESA Billing Codes
Epoetin alfa – J0885 (Standard unit 1,000 units) Darbepoetin alfa - J0881 (Standard unit 1 mcg) Injection – 90772 HemoCue Lab – 85018QW

43 ESA Insurance Issues ICD 9 ESA Billing Codes Anemia – 285.9
CKD Stage 1 (GFR > 90) – 585.1 CKD Stage 2 (GFR 60-89) – 585.2 CKD Stage 3 (GFR 30-59) – 585.3 CKD Stage 4 (GFR 15-29) – 585.4 CKD Stage 5 (GFR<15) – 585.5

44 ESA Insurance Issues Benefit Determination
Billing Office Review of Patient’s Insurance Procit – PROCRITline or Aranesp – Amgen Reimbursement Connection or

45 ESA Insurance Issues Benefit Assistance HealthWell Foundation
P.O. Box 4133 Gaithersburg, MD Phone: Fax:

46 ESA Insurance Issues Drug Assistance
Drug company vouchers which generally allow one month supply of ESA ESA samples may be available

47 ESA Self Administration
Initial Teaching ESA script must include Anemia & CKD Stage ICD 9 codes Instruct patient on storage, handling, and observe administration of ESA Office visit charge

48 ESA Self Administration
Monitoring Monthly HemoCue lab charge vs. traditional lab draw Office visit charge

49 New Agents Mircera Developed by Roche
First and only Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator (C.E.R.A.) Twice monthly dosing schedule, however generally will be able to administer monthly yet maintain stable Hgb levels IV/SC administration May be used in CKD & dialysis patients

50 IV Iron Iron Sucrose (Venofer) 100 mg/1 mL vial
Administer 200 mg slow IV infusion over 2 to 5 minutes on 5 different occasions within a 14 day period. Typically dosed weekly for 5 weeks. Generally administered when Ferritin < 100 ng/mL and/or T. Saturation < 20%

51 IV Iron Insurance Issues
CPT Iron Billing Code Iron Sucrose – J1786 (Standard unit 1 mg) IV Infusion – 90765 Office charge, high complexity visit ICD 9 Iron Billing Code Iron Deficiency Anemia – 280.9

52 Questions


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