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The Initiative for a A United Nations Emergency Peace Service A proposal & global movement to address our five big challenges in preventing and managing.

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Presentation on theme: "The Initiative for a A United Nations Emergency Peace Service A proposal & global movement to address our five big challenges in preventing and managing."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Initiative for a A United Nations Emergency Peace Service A proposal & global movement to address our five big challenges in preventing and managing armed conflict

2 2 Challenges Leading to Crisis 1. Preventing genocide & crimes against humanity

3 3 Challenges leading to crisis: 2. Preventing armed conflict

4 4 3. Protecting civilians at risk Challenges leading to crisis:

5 5 4. Prompt start-up of peace operations Challenges leading to crisis:

6 6 5. Addressing human needs in emergencies Challenges leading to crisis:

7 A United Nations Emergency Peace Service

8 8 What is Proposed as a UN Emergency Peace Service? A permanent UN formation A first responder available immediately Requires authorization by the UN Security Council Multidimensional and multifunctional service Military, police and civilian elements Prepared for rapid deployment to diverse crisis Pre-trained, well-equipped 16,000 personnel Composition to be gender-equitable & regionally representative.

9 9 What is Proposed as a UN Emergency Peace Service? (Structure) Co-located at a new UN base Static operational headquarters Two mobile field headquarters Integrated, modular formation Robust security Civilian police Skills and services to address human needs

10 10 Office of SRSG Pers 3 MIL, 2 POL, 10 CIV. -Senior MILAD, POLAD & CIVAD -Policy & Legal EMC Liaison Cell: DPA, DPKO, OCHA,UNHCR, Field Log & National Support SUPPORT Pers 50 MIL, 10 POL&CIV Pers 100 MIL, 1500CIV -Contingency Move -Administration Planning -Personnel -Staging -Housing -Mission Support -Finance -Rotation/Augmentation -Host Nation Support Planning -Airlift/Sealift Contracting -Deployable Movement Support Teams Deployment Cell Base Support & Infrastructure OPERATIONS Pers 100 MIL Pers 25 POL Pers 25 CIV -Contingency -Contingency -Contingency Planning Planning Planning -Operations -Operations -Operations -Training -Training -Training -Logistics -Personnel -Personnel -Personnel -Legal Advisors -Advisors [Joint 24/7 OPS Cell] Military Staff CIVPOL Staff Civilian Staff TRAINING Pers 5 MIL, 2 POL., 2 CIV Pers 10 MIL, 2 POL, 2 CIV Pers 4 MIL, 2 POL, 4 CIV -Ongoing Development of -Set & Assess Standards -Long-Term Planning Doctrine -Course & Curricula -Lessons Learned -SOPS Development -Multidisciplinary -ROE Options -Training & Exercises Think Tank -Interoperability DoctrineTraining Standards Research & Analysis MilitaryPoliceCivilian Annex A Operational Level UN Emergency Peace Service Permanent Operational Level Headquarters and Base Personnel: 270 MIL 40 POL 1540 CIV SRSG DEPLOYABLE ELEMENTS

11 11 Mission HQ (Tactical) Civilian Police Companies Disaster Relief & Humanitarian Assistance Team Human Rights Monitors & Educators Conflict Resolution Teams Peacebuilding & Quick Impact Teams DDDRRR team Environmental Crisis Response Team Medical & Health Teams Public Affairs Technical Recce Unit Light Armoured Recce Unit Motorized Light Infantry Battalion Amoured (Wheeled) Infantry Battalion Helicopter Squardron Engineer Battalion Medical Unit MIL-450 Pers 2 flights of 8 utility Helis 1 flight of 3 Heavy Lift Helis 1 flight of Armed Scout Helis MIL- 2 x 600 Pers MIL- 4 x 50 Pers Augmented by CIV MIL-500 Pers -3 Field Squadrons -3 Support Troops MIL-400 Pers -Forward Surgical Teams POL- 3 x 125 Per CIV- 4 x 30 Per CIV- 2 x 10 Per CIV – 4 x 10 Per CIV- 4 x 40 Per CIV- 2 X 20 Per CIV- 10 Pers CIV- 4 X 50 Per CIV- 4 x 5 Per Civilian Police Companies Civilian Police Companies Mission HQ (Tactical) Technical Recce Unit Light Armoured Recce Unit Motorized Light Infantry Battalion Amoured (Wheeled) Infantry Battalion Disaster Relief & Humanitarian Assistance Team Human Rights Monitors & Educators Conflict Resolution & Mediation Teams Public Affairs Deployable ElementsUN Emergency Peace Service Annex B. Composition of Deployable Elements for a UN Emergency Peace Service (assume 2 MHQ with 2 complete formations) (assigned to UN Base under a Static Operational HQ and 2 Missions HQs) Total Personnel in Each: MIL 5000, CIV 610, POL 400 MSN HQ Includes: Military, Police and Civilian Staff Political and Legal Advice Translation/Comms/Signals/Intell. Defense & Security Platoon NGO Liaison Team Deputy/SRSG Military&Police Commander MIL-1 x 250 Pers CIV-1 x 20 Pers POL- 1 x 20 Pers Technical Recce Unit Logistics Battalion MIL- 2 x 150 Pers MIL- 1 x 500 Pers

12 12 A UN 911 designed to be: A complement to existing arrangements (UN, national, and regional) A lead service or first-responder Deployable within 48 hrs, sustainable for 6 months Competent in diverse emergencies A cost-effective investment for we the people and the international community UNEPS Key Components

13 13 Criteria for Deployment (short list) An emergency or complex emergency only; Authorization from the UN Security Council; A clear & viable mandate with appropriate ROE & SOFAs; A reasonable expectation of success; A high probability of augmentation, prompt arrangements for extraction after six months, with (or without) rotation & sufficient support.

14 14 Additional Criteria (for Deployment of UNEPS) there must be a just cause; intervention must be undertaken with a right in­tention; it should occur only when there is an immediate, evident threat (of substantive armed conflict, particularly mass atrocity crimes); the means employed must be proportional to and consistent with the ends sought; and (6) there needs to be a reasonable prospect of success. N.B. For UNEPS to work rapidly, the fourth criteria from the report of the ICISS, stipulating intervention should only arise as a last resort, once all other options were exhausted, may be modestly revised to emphasize legitimate rapid responses and preventive deployments to address its primary roles.

15 15 UNEPS is for emergencies only! Definitions of an emergency: a serious situation that happens unexpectedly and demands immediate action. a sudden, volatile crisis, with an urgent need for action or assistance. Definition of a complex emergency: A crisis typically characterized by: extensive violence and loss of life; massive displacements of people; widespread damage to societies and economies; the need for large-scale, multi- faceted humanitarian assistance; the hindrance or prevention of humanitarian assistance by political and military constraints; and, significant security risks for humanitarian relief workers in some areas.

16 16 Merit and professionalism Universal representation Gender equitable representation Not national/political affiliation Contracted and assigned Extensive preparation/training Reliability, readiness, dedication Flexibility in managing diverse assignments Paid, full-time (UN Civil Servant) Recruitment & Personnel Selection

17 17 Recruitment: Is This Really Credible or Any Improvement? As noted in the 1995 Canadian report, Towards A Rapid Reaction Capability For The United Nations: As professional volunteers develop into a cohesive UN force, they can assume responsibility for some of the riskier operations mandated by the Council, but for which troop contributors have been hesitant to contribute. UN volunteers offer the best prospect of a completely reliable, well-trained rapid reaction capability. Without the need to consult national authorities, the UN could cut response time significantly, and volunteers could be deployed within hours of a Security Council decision… No matter how difficult this goal now seems, it deserves continued study, with a clear process for assessing its feasibility over the long term.... No matter how difficult this goal now seems, it deserves continued study, with a clear process for assessing its feasibility over the long term.

18 18 Process for Recruitment Similar to all UN civil-servants; Specific positions would be advertised world-wide; Individuals submit an application, including their resume and credentials for specific skills, training and experience for employment within UNEPS; A specific UN recruitment team would be developed to: review applications, verify qualifications, interview, screen, test and assess competence, as well as dedication prior to selecting any for employment in UNEPS.

19 19 Why this Model for UNEPS? Alleviates pressure on national governments; Builds on and beyond the existing UN foundation; Universal composition to ensure universal legitimacy; Advanced training, equipment and standards to ensure cohesive sophisticated services for diverse tasks;

20 20 Corresponds to requirements of UN missions; Provides useful incentives to address human needs; Assures services to restore law and order; Maintains robust disincentives to dissuade or deter and repel further violence; Ensures a more rapid, reliable, effective response when the need is imminent; Why this Model for UNEPS?

21 21 Provides a dedicated, lead service; a first responder for the critical, initial 4-6 months of complex peace operations; Functions until replacement/rotation needed and secured from multinational contingents; Provides a modular formation that can be tailored; Cost-effective and a sound investment for saving lives and money. Why this Model for UNEPS?

22 22 A UNEPS would be gender-equitable. Since U.N. Res. 1325, women have done peacekeeping as well, if not better. There are no decent excuses left…

23 23 1.Number of armed conflicts and war crimes 2.Massive suffering and violent deaths 3.Size, duration and number of peacekeeping operations 4.Pressure on national governments and national armed forces to contribute in the high-risk, critical start-up phase of operations 5.High costs associated with violent conflict and post conflict reconstruction UNEPS would Help Reduce:

24 24 Applicability If available, where might it have helped? Rwanda Srebrenica East Timor Haiti Sierra Leone The Democratic Republic of the Congo Darfur & South Sudan Cote DIvoire Libya

25 25 Any wider potential? Possibly, an over-the-horizon security guarantor to initiate a much-needed process to facilitate: Wider disarmament Wider development Wider efforts at environmental protection Sustainable global security How?

26 26 Any Wider Potential? Yes! There is an inseparable relationship between the scaling down of national armaments on the one hand and the building up of international peacekeeping machinery and institutions on the other. Nations are unlikely to shed their means of self-protection in the absence of alternative ways to safeguard their legitimate interests. This can only be achieved through the progressive strengthening of international institutions under the United Nations and by creating a United Nations Peace Force to enforce the peace as the disarmament process proceeds. U.S. State Department, "Freedom From War", 1961

27 27 Attract and mobilize people organizations governments Support partnerships global network UNEPS Potential

28 28 Representatives of Diverse Sectors in North and South Agreed that the UNEPS: Concept is far more appealing Case is more compelling Model is more appropriate Has more potential

29 Anything new in 2012? Renewed interest within UN Security Council & General Assembly on timely and decisive responses to stem mass atrocity crimes: a UN strategic reserve ? an over the horizon security guarantor ? 29

30 30 UNEPS Research There is a need for further work to develop: a blueprint that identifies and elaborates upon the various requirements at the political, strategic, operational and tactical level; detailed estimates of the projected start-up costs, annual recurring costs and deployment costs of a UNEPS; a coherent strategic plan and a more inclusive, democratic process.

31 31 Outreach objectives for 2012 Educational efforts to generate an informed constituency world-wide; Development of a more formal network, with a committed working group; Identify and develop 4 UNEPS centre's for related work; Be prepared for a favorable moment soon.

32 32 Historical considerations (i.e., lessons learned) Similar ideas only arise to capture wider public interest and political support in the aftermath of bad wars and/or genocides; The interest tends to be temporal, usually only lasting for two- to-three years; With Iraq, Afghanistan, Darfur, Haiti, Libya, Cote DIvoire and Syria there are likely to be substantive shifts in preferences and priorities; With overlapping systemic crises, the need for a UN Emergency Peace Service becomes more urgent and more evident. Arguably, UNEPS may soon approach a tipping point, with more potential to attract serious global interest; Our common objective: Be prepared!

33 Ideas dont work unless we do! Together, we might make a difference… Your Thoughts & Questions?

34 34 Special thanks for permission to use photos is extended to: The United Nations Human Rights Watch Genocide Watch Presentation created by: Dr. H. Peter Langille, Global Common Security i3 Robbyn Evans, rae Credits For further information please contact: Tel: 1. 519. 709. 1360

35 Sample Endorsements for A United Nations Emergency Peace Service This venture is of the greatest importance both to the UN as a responsible institution and to the millions as of yet unknown, innocent victims who might, in the future, be saved by this essential addition to the UN s capacity to act on their behalf. There is one overwhelming argument for the United Nations Emergency Peace Service. It is desperately needed, and it is needed as soon as possible. – Sir Brian Urquhart, Former United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs This initiative directly responds to the widely recognized need to protect people caught in deadly conflicts. I pleaded on numerous occasions for the rapid deployment of specialized forces. Effective, trained and specialized standing forces would have been invaluable. – Sadako Ogata, Former United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees "The people and policy makers of the world can continue to be shocked, horrified, outraged and grief- stricken by one genocide after another, or we can take meaningful action to stop the killing...Their plan for a United Nations Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS) is thoughtful, well researched and solid. When implemented, it will create a rapid, comprehensive, internationally legitimate response to acts of genocide and other crises and save millions of lives through preventive action." -- Lois Barber, Executive Director of EarthAction "If the objective is to protect people and prevent violence you send a legitimate credible UN presence to start a mission quickly- not wait for 4 to 6 months - then there is far less likelihood of people being murdered, or large scale massive ethnic cleansing. That suggests a dedicated UN mechanism including a range of services- military, police and civilian and capable of using force even when opposed to it - a entity that Peter Langille has called a UN Emergency Service..." - Lloyd Axworthy, former Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs With regard to practical tools--if you like the tool of response … there are many ideas on the table. But I believe one idea on the table that should be pursued more seriously and discussed within the United Nations, maybe a mandate if need be, is an idea which is being proposed by a very serious group of scholars and organizations. They call this the UN Emergency Peace Service. We can discuss this more fully later; I think this is something that should be debated more seriously so that where there is an actual genocide going on, at an early stage there will be the tool for response which does not depend on individual Member States deciding to send their men and women into harm's way or not to do so. -Olara Otunnu, former UN Special Representative to the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict

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