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1 UNIT 2 1 65 7 8 9 10 11 12. 1 UNIT 2 2 1 CHAPTER 5 3.

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Presentation on theme: "1 UNIT 2 1 65 7 8 9 10 11 12. 1 UNIT 2 2 1 CHAPTER 5 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 UNIT

2 1 UNIT 2 2

3 1 CHAPTER 5 3

4 1 5 4 What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to identify a contracts elements How to identify valid, void, voidable and unenforceable contracts How to distinguish between express and implied contracts How to distinguish between oral and written contracts Identifying a contracts elements will help you manage your affairs in an intelligent and effective manner.

5 1 CHAPTER 5 5 Understanding Contract Law – Many common daily activities are contracts Fast food Pumping gas – You create a contract anytime that you agree to exchange things of value

6 1 CHAPTER 5 6 The Nature of a Contract – A contract is any agreement enforceable by law. – Contracts are based upon what the involved parties do and say to one another – The Three Theories of Contract Law Equity Theory Will Theory Formalist Theory

7 1. Outside platform Atticus player Gregory (1) 2. Lads stratagems (1) 3. Desire Helvetica or Arial (1) 4. Actress Witherspoons sibs girls (2) 5. Church officer sneakin a look (2) 6. Dunce-cap-shaped Houston newspaper (3)

8 1 CHAPTER 5 8 – The Elements of a Contract Offer Acceptance Genuine Agreement Consideration Capacity Legality

9 1 CHAPTER 5 9

10 Characteristics of a Contract – Can be created in different ways and can assume diverse forms – Valid, Void, Voidable or Unenforceable Valid – legally binding or good Void – has no legal effect Voidable – when a contract can be voided Unenforceable – a contract that the court will not uphold

11 1 CHAPTER 5 11 – Express Words of the contract are in words – Implied Actions performed by the parties – Oral or Written – Contracts created by spoken word are oral contracts. – One offers to do something and the other offers to do something in return – Contracts are written in many cases – Both parties know the exact terms – Provides proof of the agreement – Statute of Frauds requires certain contracts be written

12 1 CHAPTER 5 12 – Bilateral – two sided When the contract contains two promises – Unilateral – one sided When a contract only contains the offer and the condition, but no acceptance Example are reward posters

13 1 CHAPTER 5 13 Reviewing What You Learned – What are the elements of a contract? – What are the differences among valid, void, voidable, and unenforceable contracts? – What are the differences between express and implied contracts? – What are the differences between unilateral and bilateral contracts? – What are the differences between oral and written contracts?

14 1. Garden tilling tool misfortune (1) 2. Ornamental vase plant with fronds (1) 3. Master Skywalkers fists (1) 4. Mostly stylishly attired (1) 5. Not as bright flash of hope (2) 6. Ill-tempered complainers sofas (2)

15 1 CHAPTER 5 15 What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to recognize the requirements of an offer How to distinguish between an offer and an invitation to negotiate How to recognize the requirements of an acceptance How to distinguish between an acceptance and a counteroffer How to recognize when an offer has terminated You need to know when an offer has been made and when an acceptance goes into effect to make sound contracts

16 1 CHAPTER 5 16 Requirements of an Offer – First element of a legally binding contract – Offers have three requirements Made seriously Definite and certain Communicated to the offeree Offerer is the party who offers the contract Offeree is the party to whom offer has been made

17 1 CHAPTER 5 17 – Serious Intent Offer must be made in a serious manner An invitation to negotiate is often confused as an offer – Price tags on items – Signs in windows Exceptions do exist – Advertisers must use phrases like: » First come/first served » Quantities limited » Makes it an offer not a ITN

18 1 CHAPTER 5 18 – Definiteness and Certainty Terms must be clear and have NO doubt – Tenant/landlord plumbing fix – Job offer with reasonable commission – Communication to the Offeree

19 1. Actress Blanchett dined (1) 2. Romantically see 6+2 people (1) 3. Dinner dish shipping box (1) 4. Terrific list of candidates (1) 5. Cargo condition after shipping (1) 6. Cant stand dumbbells and barbells (1)

20 1 CHAPTER 5 20 Requirements of Acceptance Acceptance is the second element of a legally binding contract – Unconditional Acceptance Mirror image rule Counteroffer Exceptions to the MIR – Personal property items – Created by the UCC – uniform commercial code – Non-merchants – non-regular sellers – Sales between merchants or B2B sales

21 1 CHAPTER 5 21 – Method of Acceptance Time limits may be imposed as well Offers may be accepted by actionsactions Cannot impose silence as means of acceptance

22 1 CHAPTER 5 22 Termination of an Offer – Revocation Offer taken off the table by offeror – Rejection Offer rejected by offeree – Counteroffer Negotiating over price – one contract ends and another one starts – Expiration of Time Must accept offer before a set time passes Option contract – Death or Insanity

23 1 CHAPTER 5 23 Reviewing What You Learned – What are the requirements of an offer? – What is the difference between an offer and an invitation to negotiate? – What are the requirements of an acceptance? – What is the difference between an acceptance and a counteroffer? – When is an offer terminated?

24 1 CHAPTER 5 24 Workbook Exercises – Terms – page 45 – Judge – page 46 – Concepts – page 47 & 48 – Case – page 49 – Self Assessment – page 52

25 1 CHAPTER 6 25

26 1 CHAPTER 6 26 What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to identify the elements of fraud How to distinguish between fraud and concealment How to distinguish between fraud and innocent misrepresentation How to distinguish between the remedy available for fraud and the remedy available for misrepresentation Learning the elements of fraud may prevent you from being victimized or help you claim your rights if you are defrauded

27 1 CHAPTER 6 27 Defective Agreements – Something goes wrong – What you thought was a valid contract is nothing of the such – Agreement is defective Fraud Misrepresentation Mistake Duress Undue influence

28 1 CHAPTER 6 28 Fraud – Is the deliberate deception intended to secure an unfair or unlawful gain. You were talked into entering a contract Rescind the contract or sue for money damages Deliberate deception may lead to punitive damages – Award money greater then the amount needed to pay back These 5 elements must be present to succeed in a fraud lawsuit

29 1. Atop a mafia Chief (1) 2. Imprison a Disney chipmunk (1) 3. Not so sharp actress Helen (1) 4. Computer nerds seven-day spans (1) 5. Cosmetics drastic reorganization (2) 6. More miserly snoozer (2)

30 1 CHAPTER 6 30 – False Representation of Fact Material Fact – Is a fact that is important » Matter to one of the parties » Cannot be a promise of future actions or an opinion » Not limited to oral or written statements » Actions intended to deceive Concealment – Is when chooses not to reveal important information » Also called passive fraud or nondisclosure Hidden problems in a house

31 1 CHAPTER 6 31 – Representation Known to be False The party making the false representation must be aware that the representation is false – Statement made without regard for the truth

32 1 CHAPTER 6 32 – False Representation Intended to Be Relied Upon The person making the misrepresentation must intend that the other party will rely on the information as part of negotiations – False Representation Actually Relied Upon When someone uses misrepresented information as part of negotiating a contract – Resulting Loss Actual monetary loss must have resulted

33 1 CHAPTER 6 33 Innocent Misrepresentation – Sometimes a person will make an innocent statement that turns out to be false. Honestly believed that statement was true at the time it was made. The law gives you the right to rescind the contract Damages not awarded

34 1 CHAPTER 6 34

35 1. That guyll pass out poker cards (1) 2. Long, measureless history (1) 3. Supermans last name lost money (1) 4. Movie intended for women (1) 5. Gridiron meeting in a rainwater pool (2) 6. Port-au-Prince native country (2)

36 1 CHAPTER 6 36 Reviewing What You Learned – What are the elements of fraud? – What is the difference between fraud and concealment? – What is the difference between fraud and innocent misrepresentation? – What is the difference between the remedy available for fraud and the remedy available for misrepresentation?

37 1 CHAPTER 6 37 What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral mistake How to recognize the types of mistake that will allow rescission of a contract How to recognize the requirements of economic duress How to recognize the requirements of undue influence Recognizing how mistake, duress, and undue influence can affect agreements will help you make better decisions in such situations

38 1 CHAPTER 6 38 Mistake – Unilateral Mistake – Is a mistake on the part of one of the parties to the contract – Reasonable expectations should not be blocked because of a mistake » Mistake as to the Nature of the Agreement – What exactly did you agree too? – If you dont understand the language, bring someone who does and can explain it. Mistake as to the Identity of a Party – Making the contract to the wrong person.

39 1 CHAPTER 6 39 – Bilateral Mistake Sometimes both parties involved in a contract make mistakes. – Contract is voidable by either party Mistake as to the Possibility of Performance – Something happens that will not allow the contract to be completed Mistake as to the Subject Matter – When both parties are mistaken as to the identity of the subject matter – Contract may be voided

40 1 CHAPTER 6 40

41 1 CHAPTER 6 41 Duress – Influencing a persons will by use of force or threat – Physical or Emotional Duress Agreements made under duress are void or voidable – Mob offering protection to merchants – Threat made against the party of a member of their family – Economic Duress Is the threat of a persons business or income as establishment of a contract.

42 1 CHAPTER 6 42 Undue Influence – Is when one person used unfair and improper persuasive pressure to force someone else into a contract Ill health Old age Mental instability – The stronger persons substitutes his will for the will of the weaker person

43 1 CHAPTER 6 43 Reviewing What You Learned – What is the difference between unilateral and bilateral mistake? – What types of mistake will allow rescission of a contract? – What are the requirements of economic duress? – What are the requirements of undue influence?

44 1. Junk a baseball players headgear (1) 2. Funny Groucho dog talk (1) 3. Move a car that stopped running (1) 4. More adorable cheering fan (2) 5. Bottom scraping creamy chocolate treats (2) 6. Faster football punter (2)

45 1 CHAPTER 6 45 Workbook Exercises – Terms – page 53 – Judge – page 54 – Concepts – page 55 & 56 – Case – page 57 – Self Assessment – page 60

46 1 CHAPTER 7 46

47 1 CHAPTER 7 47 What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to explain the legal concept of minority How to identify the rights of minors in relation to contract How to identify contract that are voidable by a minor How a person can ratify a contract made in minority How to identify other, besides minors, who can rescind contracts Understanding the rights afforded to minors in contract law will enable you to exercise your rights and help others

48 1 CHAPTER 7 48 The Requirement of Capacity – Weve covered Offer, Acceptance, and Genuine Agreement – The fourth element is Capacity Deals with minors and contracts they enter The law permits minor to rescind their contracts Its intent was to protect minors from dishonest adults

49 1 CHAPTER 7 49 Minors Rights and Obligations – Capacity is the legal ability to enter a contract. – Rebuttable presumption The assumption that the other party is of legal age. – Definition of Minority Legal Age Emancipation and Abandonment

50 1 CHAPTER 7 50 – Misrepresentation of Age When minors who lie about their age or use a fake ID They have committed fraud Some states allow minors to be sued for fraud while others do not. It is often considered a criminal offense to buy age- restricted products

51 1. Scolding the making of a toothed knife edges (3) 2. Stage background plants and trees (3) 3. Being suspicious of recon work (2) 4. Singer Bonnies 3-of-a-kind beaters (1) 5. Tiered stadium seats traits (2) 6. Sandy strands security lapses (2)

52 1 CHAPTER 7 52 Contracts of Minors Law shields minors from making contracts as a protective measure. Does not give the right of the minor to take advantage of others. – Voidable Contracts Contract made by minor are voidable Even if they damage or destroy the item Some states allow for deduction for damage – Returning the Merchandise Items should be returned when contract is disaffirmed

53 1 CHAPTER 7 53 – Disaffirming the Whole Contract The whole contract must be disaffirmed – Disaffirming Contracts Made With Other Minors Both parties have the right to disaffirm

54 1 CHAPTER 7 54

55 1 CHAPTER 7 55 – Ratification of Minors Contacts When one turns of majority age they can ratify, or approve, their contract – Ratification ends the privileges that they had as a minor – Can be done orally, in writing, or by actions » Using or selling items » Making payment for items » Keeping for a reasonable amount of time

56 1 CHAPTER 7 56

57 1 CHAPTER 7 57 – Contracts for Necessaries Minors are held responsible for the fair value of necessaries – Food, Clothing, Shelter, & Medical Care One Station in Life has a bearing on what is necessary – $150 pair of shoes » Necessary if you have a foot injury » Luxury if you just want them – Special Statutory Rules

58 1 CHAPTER 7 58 Other Contractual Capacity Rules – Mentally Impaired Persons Must be given the right to disaffirm a contract They are responsible for the fair value of necessaries – Intoxicated Persons If you enter into a contract while drunk you may disaffirm Treated in the same way as minor and mentally impaired – Other Capacity Limitations Aliens may not have the ability to enter into contacts

59 1. Made of acorn tree strangle (1) 2. The major bodies of water right here (1) 3. Devoted to bear Winnie (1) 4. Angrier one who sums (2) 5. Crazy ones T-bones and porterhouses (1) 6. Publicly commending a mass sending (2)

60 1 CHAPTER 7 60 Workbook Exercises – Terms – page 61 – Judge – page 62 – Concepts – page 63 & 64 – Case – page 65 – Self Assessment – page 68

61 1 CHAPTER 8 61

62 1 CHAPTER 8 62 What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to explain the legal concept of consideration How to explain the types of consideration How to identify certain problems regarding consideration How to identify the principles that apply to consideration in everyday life By understanding the concept of consideration, you will be able to avoid problems that frequently result when agreements lack this important contractual element

63 1 CHAPTER 8 63 Requirements of Consideration – Where each party surrenders something of value Many agreements are not legally binding because they lack consideration Social agreements have no consideration

64 1 CHAPTER 8 64 – The Legal Concept of Consideration Consideration is the exchange of benefits and detriments by parties to an agreement. A Benefit is something that you were not previously entitled to. A detriment is any loss suffered – Three types of consideration » Giving up something that you have the legal right to keep » Doing something that you have the legal right not to do » Not doing something that you have the legal right to do forbearance

65 1 CHAPTER 8 65 – The Characteristics of Consideration Bargained-for-Exchange – Both parties gain something when the promises are kept and the exchange is made Something of Value – No specific value requirements » Value does not have to be the same as market value » Courts will not consider value, but rather enforcement – One exception – when a contract is deemed unconscionable » A great inequality exists between the parties Legality of Consideration – Consideration must be legal, if not then the contract is invalid

66 1 CHAPTER 8 66

67 1. Which beer belly? (1) 2. Little devils astronaut apes (1) 3. Apple or berry sloping channel (1) 4. Influenced a cleaning lady (1) 5. Early U.S. luxury car sign (2) 6. Havin faith in singer Timberlake (2)

68 1 CHAPTER 8 68 Types of Consideration – Money, Property, and Services qualify as valid consideration – Money as Consideration Money is exchanged for anothers performance Free to negotiate and exchange any amount Exception is where the government regulates – Minimum wage – Rent controlled – Property and Services as Consideration Barter agreements are valid agreements

69 1 CHAPTER 8 69 – A Promise Not to Sue One party has the right to sue but gives up that right – Example of forbearance – not doing something you have the right to do Auto Accidents Home Improvements – Charitable Pledges Organizations enter into contracts and rely upon donations to pay for things – Your charitable pledge is a verbal contract is treated as such

70 1 CHAPTER 8 70 Problems With Consideration – Parties can disagree about the amount of money that the debtor owes the creditor A problem in regard to the consideration involved

71 1 CHAPTER 8 71 – Disputed Amounts Parties dont agree on amount owed – A per hour contract Settled by accord and satisfaction – Accord is the acceptance of less by the creditor – Satisfaction is the acceptance of the accord – Undisputed Amounts Mutually agreed upon price per contract – A fixed price contract

72 1 CHAPTER 8 72

73 1 CHAPTER 8 73 Reviewing What You Learned – What is consideration? – What are the types of consideration? – What problems can arise regarding consideration? – What are the principals that apply to consideration in everyday life?

74 1. Prison bucket (1) 2. Props to a merit badge earner (1) 3. Deluge dirt that is wet (1) 4. Royal Harry, meet actor Vaughn (1) 5. One ridiculing Betty on food labels (2) 6. Narrow urban passageways peaks opposites (2)

75 1 CHAPTER 8 75 What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to identify agreements that are enforceable without consideration How to explain the legal concept of promissory estoppel How to identify agreements that are not enforceable without consideration How to distinguish between past consideration and preexisting duties Understanding the difference between contract that require consideration and those that do no will enable you to avoid common problems associated with consideration or the lack thereof.

76 1 CHAPTER 8 76 Enforceable Agreements W/O Consideration A contract is usually invalid if there is no consideration Some agreements where there is no consideration – Promises Under Seal A seal is a mark or impression made on a written contract – Must have the word seal or L.S. – Promises After Discharge in Bankruptcy One can choose to pay debts after discharge – Must be in writing – It is optional – It is a new contract

77 1 CHAPTER 8 77 – Debts Barred by Statutes of Limitations Establishes the time frame within which a party is allowed to bring suit. – Times vary by state – 3 to 10 yearsstate – Partial payment is affirmation – Option Keeping the contract OPEN for a reasonable period of time – Not to exceed 3 months

78 1 CHAPTER 8 78 – Promises Enforced by Promissory Estoppel Promissory = containing a promise Estoppel = restraint to prevent from contradicting a previous act – The promise must be made to bring about action by another – Offeree relied upon the promise and changed position – Injustice avoided by enforcing promise

79 1 CHAPTER 8 79 Unenforceable Agreements Without Consideration Some promises will not be enforced by the courts because they lack basic considerations – Illusory Promises Both parties are under obligation to do something – Look like a valid contract but are hollow – Future Gifts A promise of a future gift is not enforceable where there is no consideration – Past Consideration Actions of the past can not be used as current considerations

80 1 CHAPTER 8 80 – Preexisting Duties Promising to do something that you are already under a contract to provide – Promise to Attend a Social Engagement All contracts are agreement Not all agreements are contracts – Going to lunch with a friend is not legally binding. – Nothing given as consideration

81 1. Donated to an Atlanta player (1) 2. Turned a schnoz to ice (1) 3. Took advantage of agent 007 (1) 4. Delaware capital shamrock (2) 5. Laid-back chap (2) 6. Talented Screen Actors association (1)

82 1 CHAPTER 8 82 Reviewing What You Learned – What agreements are enforceable without consideration? – What is the legal doctrine of promissory estoppel? – What agreements are not enforceable without consideration? – What is the difference between past consideration and preexisting duties?

83 1 CHAPTER 8 83 Workbook Exercises – Terms – page 69 – You be the Judge – page 70 – Concepts – page 71 &72 – Case – page 73 – Self Assessment – page 76

84 1 CHAPTER 9 84

85 1 CHAPTER 9 85 What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to explain what make a contract illegal How to identify the consequences of illegality in relation to contract law How to identify contract that are illegal by statutory law How to identify different types of licenses By understanding the concept of illegality in contract law, you will be able to avoid problems that might arise when you consider entering a contract

86 1. Weird Massachusetts cape fish (1) 2. Say to inventor Alexander Graham (1) 3. NASCAR event location (1) 4. Offer gratitude to singer Sinatra (1) 5. Teacher of the blind Louis buckets (1) 6. Priest assistants lighthouse lights (2)

87 1 CHAPTER 9 87 The Nature and Consequences of Illegality A contract can have all of the previous elements but if lacks a legal purpose it is invalid – Illegality in Entire Agreement If any part of the contract is illegal it makes the entire contract would be considered illegal – In Pari Delicto and Divisible Contracts When some elements of a contract can be performed by themselves

88 1 CHAPTER 9 88 Agreements that Violate Statutes Laws passed declaring that certain types of agreements are illegal – Civil and Criminal Statues Contacts that require one party to commit a tort or crime A contract that would protect one party from consequences – Usury Statutes Charging more than the state set interest rate Truth in Lending Act

89 1 CHAPTER 9 89 – Gambling Statutes Gambling agreements are when one person wins and the other loses – Bets on sports and bets on card playing – States regulate types of gambling » Betting at the track if ok » Off track betting is not – Giveaway games as promos are legal as long as there is no purchase necessary Lottery is a state sponsored game of chance

90 1 CHAPTER 9 90 – Sunday Statutes Contracts used to not be made on Sundays Sunday Statutes commonly known as blue laws are state laws that attempt to regulate public and private activity on Sunday. They are called blue laws because they were printed on blue paper in the 17 th century

91 1. Hockey venues whammy (1) 2. Discoloration on a jet (1) 3. Socially exclusive British Cop (2) 4. Cast blame on bank chambers (1) 5. Cheers the spirits of Michigan States team (2) 6. Clothes shedders snorkeling footwear (2)

92 1 CHAPTER 9 92 – Licensing Statutes A license is a legal document stating that the holder has permission from proper authorities to perform that trade or profession. – Licensing Agreements – Vendors License – Occupational Licensing Laws were designed to protect people from dealing with unqualified professionals Revenue generator for local governments – competence not required – Which allows you to enter into a contract with an unlicensed vendor

93 1 CHAPTER 9 93 Reviewing What You Learned – What makes a contract illegal? – What are the consequences of illegality in relation to contract law? – What contracts are illegal by statutory law? – What are the different types of licenses?

94 1 CHAPTER 9 94 What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to explain the legal doctrine of public policy How to identify agreements that are contrary to public policy How to identify contract that involve an unreasonable restraint of trade How to explain the nature of restrictive covenant By understanding public policy and contracts that are contrary to public policy, you will be able to avoid common problems associated with violations of this important legal doctrine

95 1 CHAPTER 9 95 The Nature of Public Policy – Some agreements are illegal because they violate a time-honored legal doctrine know as public policy – The underlying principle is that nobody should get away with doing something that harms the public at large

96 1. Whacked a louse egg (1) 2. Court jesters game regulations (1) 3. Snub-nosed forward section (1) 4. Deal with a birthday cake light (2) 5. Unhappy having to set an old watch (2) 6. S-troubled speakers hushed asides (2)

97 1 CHAPTER 9 97 Violations of Public Policy If an activity harms the health, safety, welfare, or morals of the public, that activity violates public policy – Agreements that involve an unreasonable restraint of trade » Contract do not compete » Price fixing agreements » Defeating competitive agreements – Agreements obstruct justice – Agreements inducing fraud or breach of duty – Contracts that interfere with marriage

98 1 CHAPTER 9 98 – Agreements that Unreasonable Restrain Trade – The law protects the rights of people to make a living and do business in a market economy. – A restraint of trade is a limitation on the full exercise of doing business with others Outright Contracts Not to Compete – Restrictive covenant or a non-compete agreement Price Fixing – When competitors agree on ranges within which to set their prices. Agreements to Defeat Competitive Bidding – Rival submit bids for a project – the best bid wins

99 1 CHAPTER 9 99 – Agreements to Obstruct Justice Any contract that interferes with the administration of justice is illegal – Protecting someone from arrest – Encouraging lawsuits – Giving false testimony – Bribing a juror » Paying a non-expert to testify as an expert » Agree not to prosecute someone in return for money

100 1 CHAPTER – Agreements Inducing Breach of Duty or Fraud Many people hold positions of trust – responsible for the well being of others – Congress critters and other public officials – They owe a duty to work for the best interest of the public – Contracts that tried to influence position for gain are unenforceable – This rule also applies to anyone in a position of trust – Agreements Interfering with Marriage Law encourages marriages and protects family relationships – Contracts that interfere with a marriage are illegal and unenforceable » $1,000 to never marry » $1,000 to leave your spouse

101 1. Cons St. Louis NFL Team (1) 2. Fiercely questions Buffalo NFLers (1) 3. Frightens Chicagos NFL team (1) 4. Kansas City NFL team gripes (1) 5. Does an oil of New Orleans NFLers (1) 6. Baltimore NFL teams refuges (2)

102 1 CHAPTER Effect of Illegality – Generally, a court will not aid either party to an illegal contract Neither party can enforce the contract nor can they receive aid from the court – Exception does exist when the parties are not equally at fault » If you are less at fault the court may award money or property lost – There may be an occasion that only part of the contract is illegal » If the illegal part can be separated, the legal part may be enforceable » If it cant then the entire contract will be void

103 1 CHAPTER 9 103

104 1 CHAPTER Looking at the few contradictory statements we have discovered in just the last few chapters: – A judge once said to Coach Hamilton: Mr. Hamilton, if you are looking for logic and common sense, law is not the place to look

105 1 CHAPTER Reviewing What You Learned – What is the legal doctrine of public policy? – What contracts are considered to be contrary to public policy? – What types of contracts involve an unreasonable restraint of trade? – What is a restrictive covenant?

106 1 CHAPTER Workbook Exercises – Terms – page 77 – You be the Judge – page 78 – Concepts – pages 79 & 80 – Case – page 81 – Assessment – page 84

107 1. Late-night comic Leno might (1) 2. In-front warhorse (1) 3. Dupe one of the Jonas Brothers (1) 4. Party thrower made before taxes (1) 5. Boxing titleholders vise grippers (1) 6. Stiff hair on an ICBM (2)

108 1 CHAPTER

109 1 CHAPTER What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to explain the purpose of the Statute of Frauds How to explain the legal status of a contract that is not in writing How to identify the elements that must be included in a written contract How to deal with contradictory and ambiguous terms in a written agreement How to identify which contracts must be writing Understanding which contract must be in writing, as well as the elements of writing, will help you avoid pitfalls associated with the Statute of Frauds

110 1 CHAPTER Purpose of Writing – Breach of Contract Is a wrongful failure to perform one of more promises of a contract – Perjury Is making false statements while under oath of the court – Statute of Frauds Are state laws requiring that certain contracts be in writing A written contract helps the clarify the agreement

111 1 CHAPTER Elements of a Writing – Memorandum Does not need to be formal – Sales slip, invoice, check – Place, date, parties involved, price and terms, and signatures

112 1 CHAPTER – Evaluating Contradictory Terms Hand written term contradict typed contracts Written words prevail over numbers – Evaluating Ambiguous Clauses Written contracts can be understood in different ways Courts will typically rule in favor of the party who did not write the contract

113 1 CHAPTER Contracts Must Be in Writing – Some states require that certain types of contracts be in writing to be enforceable – It does not eliminate the essential elements, but requires the contract to be in writing Debts of others Debts of the dead Year or longer in length Marriage Sales in the amount over $500 Real property

114 1. Spirit sinker of one who curbs emotions (3) 2. Clothes-shedding performers L.A. team (2) 3. Highlight the Black Lagoon monster (2) 4. Completed football pass trickery (3) 5. (with 6) Without ever ceasing… 6. …to be without any pals (3)

115 1 CHAPTER – Contracts to Pay Debts of Others Agreements for one person to pay the debts of an other must be in writing. Co-signer – Contracts to Pay Debts of Deceased Persons Agreeing to pay a dead persons debt needs to be in writing – Contracts Requiring More Than a Year to Perform Must be in writing if they cannot be performed within one year of the date they are made

116 1 CHAPTER – Contracts in Consideration of Marriage Marriage is a valid and binding contract Promises made to one another are the consideration Oral in nature Generally not enforceable – Either party can back out without being liable If a third person agrees to pay two other for marrying, that needs to be in writing Adopting a child from a previous marriage must be in writing as well

117 1 CHAPTER – Contracts of Sale of Goods of $500 or More Must be in writing if price is over $500 to be enforceable Goods are movable items – Contracts to Sell Real Property Must be in writing to be enforceable The exception is called Equitable Estoppel Also called Part performance - changes position in a big way

118 1 CHAPTER Reviewing What You Learned – What is the purpose of the Statute of Frauds? – What is the legal status of a contract that is not in writing? – What are the elements that must be included in a written contract? – How are contradictory and ambiguous terms in a written agreement interpreted by a court? – What contract must be in writing?

119 1. Pennant price label (1) 2. Actor Damons small quarrels (1) 3. Window outcropping brink (1) 4. Not a butterfly thin soup (1) 5. Less comprehending dueling athlete (2) 6. Giving up removing centers from cherries (2)

120 1 CHAPTER What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to explain the parol evidence rule How to identify the exception to the parol evidence rule How to explain the best evidence rule How to change a contractual writing By understanding the parol evidence and best evidence rules, you will know what business records to keep when you enter a contractual relationship that requires a writing

121 1 CHAPTER Special Rules for Written Contracts – Special rules apply to written contracts – Parol Evidence Rule Oral agreements prior to written contract are not enforceable – Parol – from the mouth – Evidence – anything presented as proof – The Best Evidence Rule Original is usually required – Copies are looked at with disfavor by the court – Duplicate originals are your copy of the original contract

122 1 CHAPTER Changing the Writing – Beware of the small print Read the ENTIRE contract BEFORE you sign it. If you dont understand or agree to it, cross it out before you sign. Have the other party initial where you crossed out Dont be afraid to make changes to a printed form. If promises were made to you, write them in. Refuse to sign if you do not agree with everything in writing. Sometimes an oral agreement is a better position. If the contract is too complicated and unclear, consider have a lawyer look at it – it may be worth the price.

123 1 CHAPTER Reviewing What You Learned – What is the parol evidence rule? – What are the expectation to the parol evidence rule? – What is the best evidence rule? – What rules govern the changes in a written contract?

124 1. Took actor Law to Court (1) 2. Final dynamite explosion (1) 3. Street-smart comic strip orphan (2) 4. More ashy letter sender (2) 5. Schemers red-dot disease (2) 6. Most intelligent picture painter (2)

125 1 CHAPTER Workbook Exercises – Terms – page 85 – You be the Judge – page 86 – Concepts – pages 87 & 88 – Case Study – page 89 – Assessment – page 92

126 1 CHAPTER

127 1 CHAPTER What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to identify when time is important in a contract How to distinguish between satisfactory and substantial performance How to explain tender of performance How to explain how contracts can be discharged by agreement Understanding when contracts come to an end will help you determine your legal rights and obligations in such situations

128 1 CHAPTER Ending a Contract – When a contract comes to an end it is referred to as discharged By performance or by agreement Discharge by Performance – Performance meaning the parties complete the terms of the contract You promised to paint my house I promised to pay you

129 1 CHAPTER – Time for Performance If time not stated, performance must be completed in a reasonable time – Reasonable time varies with the circumstances of each case – Tender of Performance A tender is an offer to do what you have agreed to do under a contract – It is important to make tender even if you know the other party will not perform their part of the contract

130 1. Actor Jackman matured (1) 2. Queue right after number 8 (1) 3. Destroys levels on a ship (1) 4. NBA great Moses without company (2) 5. Really skinny Little Rascals Character (2) 6. Clocking the ascending of Everest (2)

131 1 CHAPTER – Satisfactory Performance When services are preformed for others, the law requires that they be done in a satisfactory manner Court will use the reasonable person test if there is a question as to the satisfactory performance One party will agree to perform services for another to the others satisfaction. If satisfied, the other party is bound to the contract – Substantial Performance Is performance that is slightly less than full performance Fulfilled the major requirements, but has left only minor details incomplete

132 1 CHAPTER Discharge by Agreement Contracts may be terminated by mutual agreement – Mutual Release When two parties mutually agree to end their agreement – Accord and Satisfaction When one contract is substituted for another Often used to settle honest disagreements or unforeseen circumstances regarding an amount owed

133 1 CHAPTER Reviewing What You Learned – What is reasonable time for completing a contract? – What is the difference between satisfactory and substantial performance of a contract? – What is tender of performance? – How can contracts be discharged by agreement?

134 1. Intelligent beginning (1) 2. Pawn a group of sheep (1) 3. Out-of-shape taxi driver (2) 4. Choose a masons building block (1) 5. Not a true gliding dance (1) 6. Funny actor Carells shirt arms (1)

135 1 CHAPTER What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to explain situations in which the law will permit a discharge by impossibility How to identify discharges that occur by operation of law How to define the statute of limitations How to identify debts that cannot be discharged in bankruptcy Understanding when contracts are discharged by impossibility and by operation of law will help you know your legal rights and obligations in such situations

136 1 CHAPTER Involuntary Discharge – Impossibility of Performance – Operation of Law Discharge by Impossibility of Performance – a contract the become impossible to perform may be discharged and both parties released from their obligations Death and Pain Destruction of subject matter Means of Performance Illegality

137 1 CHAPTER – Death or Illness in a Personal Service Contract Contract will be discharged if the contract requires personal service Person selected for their ability – Destruction of the Exact Subject Matter If the subject matter that is destroyed through no fault of either party Must occur after the contract accepted, but before carried out

138 1 CHAPTER – Means of Performance Sometimes the means for performance is destroyed and the contract can not be completed. – You sign a contract to get a new roof, but your house burns down before the job is started. – The house must exist for the contract to be performed – Illegality Contract is void if performance is illegal at initiation. Same rule applies if performance becomes illegal after initiation.

139 1. Sketch a dog or cat hand (1) 2. Nix a piece of legislation (1) 3. Air outlet got crooked (1) 4. Dawgs bisque or gazpacho (1) 5. Wet dog sandwich shop (2) 6. Going south Wall Street action (2)

140 1 CHAPTER Discharge by Operation of Law Sometimes the best interest of society demands that a contract be terminated – Wrongful Alteration Altering or changing a contract after acceptance – Statute of Limitations When time voids your right to sue for performance You cant sleep on your rights and expect help You can stop the clock and still collect damages – Bankruptcy Set up for the discharging of debt Debtors used to go to prison

141 1 CHAPTER Reviewing What You Learned – When will the law permit a discharge by impossibility? – When will the permit a discharge by operation of law? – What is the statute of limitations? – What debts cannot be discharged in bankruptcy?

142 1 CHAPTER Workbook Exercises – Terms – page 93 – You be the Judge – page 94 – Concepts – pages 95 & 96 – Case – page 97 – Assessment – page 100

143 1 CHAPTER

144 1 CHAPTER What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to explain the nature of an assignment How to identify contractual rights that can be assigned How to explain the nature of a delegation How to explain the nature of a novation How to identify a situation involving privity of contract Understanding when contractual rights and duties can be assigned will prepare you to deal with such situation when they arise

145 1 CHAPTER Transfer of Rights Some people transfer their rights to receive payment to other parties to pay off debts Some people transfer their duties to other qualified parties – Assignment Is the transfer of right under contract – Assignor and assignee – How Rights May Be Assigned – The person who is owed money can assign it to anyone else – The person who owes the money needs to be notified of the assignment

146 1 CHAPTER – What Right May Be Assigned Any rights that do not change obligations of the other party in an important way. – You complete a job that you agreed to do, but assign the right of the payment to someone else. – The person paying you still needs to pay, but will pay the person you assigned the right of the payment to.

147 1. Jon or Mia chowder bits (1) 2. Broad handbook or tour leader (1) 3. Rotate a plant with fronds (1) 4. More elevated purchaser (2) 5. Placed a pigtail on a scale (1) 6. Afghan makers tot caretakers (2)

148 1 CHAPTER Transfer of Duties When duties are assigned to someone else – Delegation Is where a party of a contract has someone else perform the obligations in their place – Some duties can not be delegated » Party agrees to perform the task personally » Contract calls for personal skill and judgment » Contract prohibits delegation Duties may be delegated but not the responsibility

149 1 CHAPTER Novation – Is an agreement where an original party to a contract is replaced by a new party – The other terms of the new contract remain the save as the original contract – To be effective, the substitution requires the consent of all of the parties involved

150 1 CHAPTER Third Parties Privity of Contract – Is the relationship between the parties of a contract – it determines who can sue in regard to performance » Usually it is the parties to the contract Third Party Beneficiary – Is a person who benefits from the performance of the contract but is not a party in the contract. – A third person may enforce a contract when it is to their benefit

151 1. Permeate a fishs breathing organ (1) 2. Warm up a major Kansas crop (1) 3. Late-night Lenos accolade (1) 4. Disorganized mess in a rain channel (2) 5. Refs blowing device on a Scud (2) 6. Flash cook in water tree limb (1)

152 1 CHAPTER Reviewing What You Learned – What is an assignment? – What? – What is novation? – What is privity of contract?

153 1 CHAPTER What You Will Learn: Why It Is Important: How to explain the concept of anticipatory breach How to identify remedies available for breach of contract How to define specific performance Why you must minimize the damages involved in a breach of contract Understanding the remedies available when a contract is breached will help you pursue satisfaction if this happens to you

154 1 CHAPTER Breach of Contract – Breach of Contract Occurs when one party to a contract fails to perform the duties set out in the terms of the agreement – Anticipatory Breach Occurs when one party to a contract notifies the other that they will not be able to fulfill the contract BEFORE the agreed upon start date Does not apply to the promise of payment of money in the future. – Can only sue for breach of contract after the due date has passes

155 1 CHAPTER Damages – Upon breach of contract, the injured party has a choice of remedies. A remedy is a legal means of enforcing the contract As the injured party, you have three options: – Accept the breach – Sue for money damages – Ask the court for equitable remedy

156 1. Large Fruit in a Newton cookie (1) 2. Model Heidis lenses for close-ups (1) 3. May chomp like a mosquito (1) 4. Barely nick feral animals (1) 5. Heavy metal musicians pants brand (2) 6. Worthy of being cited person of importance (3)

157 1 CHAPTER – Acceptance of Breach Accepting the breach Consider the contract discharged – Money Damages Are the amount recovered in due to breach of contract Actual & Incidental Damages – Actual damages are the difference between contracted price and market value – Incidental damages are any reasonable expenses incurred Liquidated Damages – Agreed upon damages should one of the parties breach

158 1 CHAPTER

159 1 CHAPTER Minimizing Damages – An injured party must take reasonable steps to minimize damages that result from another partys breach. – Sometimes you must protect the other party from unnecessary losses – known as mitigation of damages

160 1 CHAPTER Equitable Remedies – The remedy of money damages is not always enough to repay an injured party Specific Performance Injunction – Specific Performance Is asking the court to enforce the contract Can only be asked for when money damages would be inadequate – Injunction Is a court order that prevents a party from performing an act.

161 1. Weekly news mag green citris fruit (1) 2. Condé Nast health mag bookcase level (1) 3. Capitalist Tool magazine spheres (1) 4. $ magazine bee product (2) 5. Fashion magazine rules of language (2) 6. Us Magazine rivals church spires (2)

162 1 CHAPTER Reviewing What You Learned – What is involved in an anticipatory breach of contract? – What remedies are available to an innocent party when a breach of contract occurs? – What is specific performance? – Why is it necessary to minimize the damages involved in a breach of contract?

163 1 CHAPTER Workbook Exercises – Terms – page 101 – You be the Judge – page 102 – Concepts – pages 103 & 104 – Case – page 105 – Assessments – page 108


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