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Week 6: The Exiles of the Crystal Boys: Pai Hsien-yungs Taipei (1) [Oct 17 rd, 2013] Instructor: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD. Adjunct Assistant Professor,

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Presentation on theme: "Week 6: The Exiles of the Crystal Boys: Pai Hsien-yungs Taipei (1) [Oct 17 rd, 2013] Instructor: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD. Adjunct Assistant Professor,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Week 6: The Exiles of the Crystal Boys: Pai Hsien-yungs Taipei (1) [Oct 17 rd, 2013] Instructor: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD. Adjunct Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Literature, NTU Taiwan Fiction and Postwar Urban Experience

2 Publication, Adaption, and Translation 1977: Pai started to serialize the novel. The setting of the novel: the Taipei in the : Crystal Boys published in the form of a book-length novel. 1986: Made into a movie [Outcasts]. 2003: Made into a TV series by Public Television Service of Taiwan. 1990: translated into Crystal Boys by Howard Goldblatt. The first modern Asian gay novel. [from the cover] 1995: translated into Treffpunkt Lotossee by Astrid Ehlert. 1995: translated into Garçons de cristal by André Lévy. 2005: translated into Il maestro della notte by Maria Rita Masci.

3 3 This work is from Amazon (http://www.amazon.com/Crystal-Boys-Hsien-Yung- Pai/dp/ ) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET and Amazon Conditions of Use.http://www.amazon.com/Crystal-Boys-Hsien-Yung- Pai/dp/ Conditions of Use This work is from Amazon (http://www.amazon.co.uk/Treffpunkt-Lotossee-Hsien- Yung-Pai/dp/ ) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET and Amazon Conditions of Usehttp://www.amazon.co.uk/Treffpunkt-Lotossee-Hsien- Yung-Pai/dp/ Conditions of Use

4 This work is from Amazon (http://www.amazon.fr/Gar%C3%A7ons-cristal- Xianyong-Bai/dp/ ) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET and Amazon Conditions of Usehttp://www.amazon.fr/Gar%C3%A7ons-cristal- Xianyong-Bai/dp/ Conditions of Use This work is from Amazon (http://www.amazon.com/maestro-della-notte- Xianyong- Bai/dp/ /ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid= &sr=8- 1&keywords=Il+maestro+della+notte) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET and Amazon Conditions of Usehttp://www.amazon.com/maestro-della-notte- Xianyong- Bai/dp/ /ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid= &sr=8- 1&keywords=Il+maestro+della+notte Conditions of Use

5 Works Translated by H. Goldblatt Works by Mo Yan [Red Sorghum, Life and Death are Wearing Me Out and Big Breasts, The Republic of Wine and Wide Hips] Chen Ruoxi [Chen Jo-hsi], The Execution of Mayor Yin and Other Stories from the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Huang Chun-ming. The Taste of Apples. Ang Li, The Butchers Wife and Other Stories. Chu Tien-wen, Notes of a Desolate Man. Chu Tien-hsin, The Old Capital. 5

6 About the Chinese Title Nie-tzu ( ): can be interpreted from different perspectives. Tradition: In a more traditional sense, the term means the son of a concubine ( ). Politics: Anyone who is trapped in a difficult situation. Ethics: To an extent similar to an unfilial son ( ), anyone who is against the will of the parents. Society: Nie also means disaster or evil.

7 A-qings Journey A novel largely about family relationships. A-qings father [the situation of the fathers?]. A-qings mother [left the family for 10 years]. A-qings younger brother, Buddy Surrogate father: Grandpa Guo? Chief Yang? [shihfu] Surrogate brothers: Little Jade, Wu Min, and Mousey. Surrogate brothers: Chapter 7, Book 2: Chao Ying [Barbarian Coffee Shop]/Book 24-29: Sonny 7

8 8 About the English Title According to the translator, Howard Goldblatt: In Taiwan, the gay community is known as the buoliquan [ ], literally glass community, while the individuals are referred to as glass boys. The term crystal boy has been used in this translation. (p. 7) Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

9 9 The Setting NOTICE On the night of 3 May, at approximately eleven oclock, Li Qing, a night-school student in the final semester of his senior year, was caught in an immoral act with the lab supervisor, Zhao Wusheng, in the Chemistry Lab. Student Li, a bad influence, has damaged the reputation of the school with his unacceptable conduct. Having received three serious demerits, he is hereby expelled as a warning to others (p.13) Gao Yitian, Principal Yude Provincial High School 5 May 1970 Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

10 Taiwan in the 70s : the US Aid. [ ] January, 1971: the Protect Diaoyutai Islands Movement. [baodiao ] October, 1971: Taiwan was expelled from the UN. September, 1972: Japan ended its diplomatic tie with Taiwan. July, 1973: Ten Major Construction Projects. [ ] 10

11 November, 1974: Chen Jo-hsi published The Execution of Mayor Yin [ ]. April, 1975: Chiang Kai-shek died. September, 1976: the United Daily News Fiction Award [ ] established, and both the Chu sisters were the winners. April, 1977: the Debate over Nativist-realist Literature. [ ] October, 1978: the China Times Literature Award established. January, 1979: the United States ended the diplomatic tie with ROC; the Formosa Incident broke out in December. 11

12 Where did they lived? Our home was on Longjiang Street, all the way at the end, on Lane 28. You can compare where we lived by looking at a map of China and Putting you finger on a barren spot of a land in Heilongjiang Province near the Siberian border. Located in one of Taipeis most remote districts, Longjiang Street is populated by people of very limited means. Given over mainly to living quarters for low-ranking employees of minor government agencies, our lane was lined on both sides by low wooden buildings, black with age and spotted with dry hot rot. The doors, windows, and eaves were broken or crumbling, making the buildings look like a huddled pack of ragged beggars with slumping shoulders and twisted backs. (p. 46) [Chapter 5, Book 2] Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

13 13 This work is licensed by for the use of Course Database of General Education TW ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and we do not have the authorization right.

14 The Filmmaking of Crystal Boys Crystal Boys was made into a movie in 1986 and the movie was renamed as Outcasts, also know as The Outsiders. The movie changed some of the novels details. For example, the character Papa Fu was eliminated and Little Jade was played by an actress, rather than an actor. The director Yu Kan-ping [ ] was quite famous at that time, and hes known as someone with a strong sense of social concerns, which are usually reflected in his works. 14

15 During the period of Martial Law in Taiwan, homosexuality used to be a socio-political taboo, so Outcasts was originally censored and banned by Government Information Office [ ], the censorship institution in Taiwan. But, after great efforts made by Dragons Group Film Co.,LTD [ ], the company responsible for its filmmaking, the ban was at last lifted and became one of the most sensational works in film industry in the year. 15

16 This work is from Ministry of Culture, Encyclopedia of Taiwan but the original source is from (http://taiwanpedia.culture.tw/web/content?ID=8542) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET, and

17 17 This work is licensed by CITYSTORY | for the use of Course Database of General Education TW ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and we do not have the authorization right.http://citystory1.blogspot.tw/2011/05/blog-post_09.html

18 The Plotline Chapter No. Major Parts of the Plotline [Causation] 2.2 The members of the gay community gathered at Taipei New Park Iron Ox, one of the young gay fellows, attacked two heterosexual lovers and is arrested by the police In a police shakedown, the gay fellows were also arrested for violating the parks curfew Chief Yang asked Papa Fu, one of their two patrons and a fellow townsman of Yang, to bail them all out.

19 The Urban Images in Crystal Boys From lung of the city to the scene of homosexuality. Park as a sign of Modernization and Westernization. Established as Taihoku Park in Renamed as Taipei New Park in Renamed as 228 Peace Memorial Park in The development of Taipei: from the West District to the East District. The contrast between old Taipei and new Taipei. Although the novel is set in 1970, but it also has a backstory, the Dragon-Phoenix myth, takes place 10 years earlier.

20 A Picture Drawn in 1931

21 Wikipedia Peellden

22 22 Wikipedia Fred Hsu

23 23 Wikipeida Taiwan Junior

24 The East District: Dunhua South Road On the afternoon Wu Min slashed his wrists I went over to Guangwu Villa on Dunhua South Road to see Mr. Zhang. Id been there once before, to see Wu Min when he was living there. He was on his hands and knees mopping the floor with a rag. Shirtless, barefoot, and covered with sweat, he was so happy to see me he went over to the refrigerator and got me a bottle of apple cider. Then he got back down on his hands and knees to continue mopping the floor as we chatted. [Chapter 2, Book 2] (p.27) Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

25 The East District Mr. Zhang lived in a classy apartment furnished with high-backed black leather sofas and chrome and glass tables. The front wall of the living room was nearly filled with a wet bar stocked with every imaginable type of Western liquor. This place is so nice I wouldnt mind living here for the rest of my life, Wu Min said as he looked up at me with a smile on his red, sweaty face. When I went to see Mr. Zhang that day, he was sitting on one of the living-room sofas with his feet up, watching TV. The air conditioning made the room nice and cool.(p.27) Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

26 26 Guangwu Village, 1965 This work is from Continental Engineering Corp. (http://www.continental-engineering.com/english/page.php?cat_id=81&eng_id=13) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET and Continental Engineering Corp. Terms of Usehttp://www.continental-engineering.com/english/page.php?cat_id=81&eng_id=13Terms of Use

27 The East District: Songjiang Road The offices of the Seijyo Pharmaceutical Company were on the ground floor of an office building on Songjiang Road. The clerical equipment was all brand new, the office was brightly lit by fluorescent lights, the air conditioner was humming. Large advertisements filling the display windows featured roly-poly babies with snow-white skin playing on the floor, and smiling young maidens in eye-catching attire.... What about Lin san? Hes down in Taoyuan inspecting the plant. Theyve just installed the equipment and begin production next week.... (pp ) [Chapter 18, Book 2] Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

28 28 The West District: Yuanhuan The window of room 25 on the second floor of the Yaotai Hotel faced the night market in Yuanhuan, from which sounds of talking and laughing came rolling over like waves; once in a while we heard the urgent sound of a horn, distant, drawn out, cracking, the signal that someone was selling sea-dogs, an aphrodisiac. Flashing neon signs across the way sent their red and green lights into the room, which was incredibly hot and stuffy that night. The rickety old fan at the head of bed rotated back and forth forcing gusts of hot air our way. (p. 32) [Chapter 3, Book 2] Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

29 29 I blurted out as I walked out the door and ran down the creaky stairs bathed in darkness, out of the Yaotai Hotel, down the narrow, foul- smelling lane, and into the crowds at the Yuanhuan night market… (p. 38) Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

30 The Change of Taipei 30 In the conversation between Wang Kuilong and A-qing in the Yaotai Hotel, Wang asked where location of the Eternal Repose Cemetery is: At the end of Xinyi Road. The Eternal Repose Cemetery is on the top of Six Plows Mountain. You mean past Xinyi Road, Section Four. The streets in Taipei have changed so much I cant find my way around the city. Its been ten years I just return from the States the night before last. I went over to see the house on Nanking [East] Road where wed lived, and it was completely surrounded by high rises. I didnt even recognize the house itself. Back then there was nothing behind our house but rice paddies.... (p.34) Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

31 31 Taipei Circle, established in 1908 This work is from Ministry of Culture, National Repository of Cultural Heritage but the original source is from (http://nrch.cca.gov.tw/ccahome/search/search_meta.jsp?xml_id= &dofile=cca hp i.jpg) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET, and

32 32 This work is from Ministry of Culture, National Repository of Cultural Heritage but the original source is from c_021_ i.jpg) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET, and c_021_ i.jpg

33 : This work is licensed by for the use of Course Database of General Education TW ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and we do not have the authorization right.

34 34 The West District: the China Bazaar It was dark inside. The light bulb was broken, so the only light in the room came from the neon signs of the China Bazaar filtering in through the window facing the railroad tracks. I could see his eyes in the dark, the urgent gleam of those cat-like pupils. The tall, heavy-set man was waiting anxiously in the middle of the room. I stood in front of the sink and tuned on the faucets, then washed my hands over and over under the running water. The strong smell of ammonia rose from the toilet beside me in the heated air of the dark room. Several music stores downstairs turned up the volume on their recorded pop songs to see who could play it the loudest before closing up for the day. (p. 69) Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

35 A train came rumbling down the tracks behind the China Bazaar, right through the heart of Westgate district. The sound was drawing nearer, getting louder, it was right beneath the windowsuddenly, all the buildings in the China Bazaar began to shake. I looked out the window at the bright lights, and was nearly overcome by a desire to flee, to fly right out the window. But I didnt succumb to the urge; instead I stuffed the wad of warm, damp bills into my pants pocket without counting them … (p. 29) 35 Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

36 History of the China Bazaar 1949: a long row of illegal shanty houses were built along Chung-hua Road, one of the thoroughfares in Ximending [the Seimon-chō, ]. 1961: the shanty houses were torn down and rebuilt as a building complex with 8 units, whose first floors were used as stores and the second and the third residences. 1992: the Bazaar was torn down again for urban renovation. 36

37 37

38 , Year One

39 39 This work is from Ministry of Culture, National Repository of Cultural Heritage but the original source is from (http://nrch.cca.gov.tw/ccahome/search/search_meta.jsp?xml_id= ) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET, and

40 40 This work is from Wikipedia (http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%E4%B8%AD%E8%8F%AF%E5%95%86%E5%A0%B406.jpg) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET andhttp://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%E4%B8%AD%E8%8F%AF%E5%95%86%E5%A0%B406.jpg 1989, 3 Years before its being torn down

41 Mapping the Gay Community The news spread like wildfire. From morning on, it was disseminated throughout Taipei, in every corner of our secret underground kingdom. From Eight Virtues Road it spread to Sun Yat-sen North Road, from there to the Westgate district, where it crossed the Tamsui River and moved on to Sanchong City, then turned and headed back to the remote, hot, foul-smelling, filthy lane off Three River Street in the Wanhua district. It was passed up and down major street and small lanes, throughout the Barbarian basement, around the back rows of the New South Seas Theater, and ultimately, of course, filtered into our nest the park. Whenever we met we happily confirmed the news: Lord Shengs throwing a party. Eight Virtues Road, Section Two. Ten p.m. (p. 98) Source: Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Howard Goldblatt(Eds.), Crystal boys : a novel. San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

42 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 3 This work is from Amazon (http://www.amazon.com/Crystal-Boys-Hsien-Yung- Pai/dp/ ) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET and Amazon Conditions of Usehttp://www.amazon.com/Crystal-Boys-Hsien-Yung- Pai/dp/ Conditions of Use 3 This work is from Amazon (http://www.amazon.co.uk/Treffpunkt-Lotossee-Hsien-Yung- Pai/dp/ ) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET and Amazon Conditions of Usehttp://www.amazon.co.uk/Treffpunkt-Lotossee-Hsien-Yung- Pai/dp/ Conditions of Use 4 This work is from Amazon (http://www.amazon.fr/Gar%C3%A7ons-cristal-Xianyong- Bai/dp/ ) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET and Amazon Conditions of Usehttp://www.amazon.fr/Gar%C3%A7ons-cristal-Xianyong- Bai/dp/ Conditions of Use 4 This work is from Amazon (http://www.amazon.com/maestro-della-notte-Xianyong- Bai/dp/ /ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid= &sr=8- 1&keywords=Il+maestro+della+notte) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET and Amazon Conditions of Usehttp://www.amazon.com/maestro-della-notte-Xianyong- Bai/dp/ /ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid= &sr=8- 1&keywords=Il+maestro+della+notteConditions of Use 8 In Taiwan, the gay community is known as the …been used in this translation. Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.7). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press 9 On the night of 3 May, at … expelled as a warning to others Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.13). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

43 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 12 Our home was on …with slumping shoulders and twisted backs. Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.46). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press 13 This work is licensed by for the use of Course Database of General Education TW ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and we do not have the authorization right. 16 This work is from Ministry of Culture, Encyclopedia of Taiwan but the original source is from (http://taiwanpedia.culture.tw/web/content?ID=8542) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET, and 17 This work is licensed by CITYSTORY | post_09.html for the use of Course Database of General Education TW ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and we do not have the authorization right.http://citystory1.blogspot.tw/2011/05/blog- post_09.html 20 Wikipeida: Author Unknown 2013/10/15 visited 21 Wikipedia Peellden 2013/10/15 visited

44 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 22 Wikipedia Fred Hsu l_Park_FRD_7226.jpg 2013/10/15 visited 23 Wikipeida Taiwan Junior 2013/10/15 visited 24 On the afternoon Wu Min slashed his wrists I… to continue mopping the floor as we chatted. Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.27). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press 25 Mr. Zhang lived in a classy apartment … The air conditioning made the room nice and cool. Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.27). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press 26 This work is from Continental Engineering Corp. (http://www.continental- engineering.com/english/page.php?cat_id=81&eng_id=13) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET and Continental Engineering Corp. Terms of Usehttp://www.continental- engineering.com/english/page.php?cat_id=81&eng_id=13Terms of Use 27 The offices of the Seijyo Pharmaceutical … and begin production next week.... Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (pp.116-7). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press

45 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 28 The window of …forth forcing gusts of hot air our way. Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.32). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press 29 I blurted out as I walked …Yuanhuan night market… Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.38). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press 30 In the conversation between Wang.. nothing behind our house but rice paddies.... Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.34). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press 31 This work is from Ministry of Culture, National Repository of Cultural Heritage but the original source is from (http://nrch.cca.gov.tw/ccahome/search/search_meta.jsp?xml_id= &dofile=cca hp i.jpg) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET, and hp i.jpg 32 This work is from Ministry of Culture, National Repository of Cultural Heritage but the original source is from mage.jsp?d= &id= &filename=cca ar-c_021_ i.jpg) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET, and mage.jsp?d= &id= &filename=cca ar-c_021_ i.jpg : This work is licensed by for the use of Course Database of General Education TW ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and we do not have the authorization right.

46 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 34 It was dark inside …loudest before closing up for the day. Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.69). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press 35 A train came rumbling …pocket without counting them … Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.29). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press 37 Wikipedia ( ) 401.jpghttp://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%E4%B8%AD%E8%8F%AF%E5%95%86%E5%A0%B 401.jpg According to Taiwan Copyright Act Article 30, the copyright of the work has expired and inapplicable. It belongs to public domain and publicly available. The copyright on published photographs taken before 1960 expired 50 years after the creation. 38 Wikipedia, (1961) 402.jpghttp://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%E4%B8%AD%E8%8F%AF%E5%95%86%E5%A0%B 402.jpg According to Taiwan Copyright Act Article 30, the copyright of the work has expired and inapplicable. It belongs to public domain and publicly available. The copyright on published photographs taken before 1961 expired 50 years after the creation. 39 This work is from Ministry of Culture, National Repository of Cultural Heritage but the original source is from (http://nrch.cca.gov.tw/ccahome/search/search_meta.jsp?xml_id= ) It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET, and 40 This work is from Wikipedia (http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%E4%B8%AD%E8%8F%AF%E5%95%86%E5%A0%B 406.jpg) and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET andhttp://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%E4%B8%AD%E8%8F%AF%E5%95%86%E5%A0%B 406.jpg

47 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 41 The news spread like…Road, Section Two. Ten p.m. Pai, Hsien-yung.(1995). Crystal boys Howard Goldblatt(Eds.) Crystal boys : a novel. (p.98). San Francisco : Gay Sunshine Press


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