4Construction of chairs and sofas Frame – Hardwood plywood is been found to be one of the most durable. Can also use oak, maple, and ash.Joinery – Holds the frame and cushion together. Creating a sturdy frame.SpringsEight-way hand-tied spring – A three-dimensional coil springs are attached to webbing on the bottom of chair or sofa. They are tied together with twine in a series of interlocking knots to prevent individual coils from shifting out of position. It provides even comfort. It helps the coils to not compress to the point of “bottoming-out” the seat.Sinuous spring – Two dimensional “S” shaped wires that are fastened to the top of the frame’s front rail and run from the front to the back of the furniture, spaced every few inches. It provides a more comfortable seat and are especially good for upholstered furniture that sits low to the floor.Padding – Proper padding prevents the upholstery fabric from coming into direct contact with the wooden frame. It helps prevents abrasion, which could lead to premature wear of the upholstery. Cotton and poly/Dacron are the most popular.
5Seat CushionHigh Density Foam Wrapped in Dacron – The most commonly used seat cushioning method in upholstered furniture construction. It creates the core of the cushion. The density of the foam and how much Dacron is used have an impact of the softness of the cushion.Spring Down Cushioning – Involves surrounding innerspring coils with foam and then wrapping the entire package in Dacron. Once wrapped in Dacron, the cushion core is then placed inside a muslin bag before it is upholstered.Blend down Cushioning – The process of combining down and feathers, wrapping them around a foam core and then inserting everything into a muslin bag before upholstery fabric is applied. This process is the same as spring down cushioning except that there are no springs in the cushions. Blend down cushioning is the most softest cushions, but it does not retain their shape as well as the other methods.Fabric – A wide variety of fine upholstery fabric are available that are constructed from natural fibers, synthetics, or a blend of both. The types of fibers used in upholstered fabrics has a direct bearing on the feel of the fabric, its durability, clean ability and resistance to fading and deterioration to exposure to sunlight. Fabric combining a tight weave and durable fibers like nylon or polypropylene are a good choice for active use. Leather is also popular choice for durability.
9Different style’s of Chair’s Windsor ChairsFan BackComb BackLoop Back
10Camel backHepplewhite Shield backEamesAdirondackWassily by BreuerTulip by SaarinenSwan by Arne JacobsenCesca by Breuer
11Re-Upholstery VS New Upholstery Family Heirloom? Antique?Good shape/constructionLower cost of frameEase of maintenanceMore fabric options“Green”- environmentally friendlyNew UpholsteryBudget factors- wide range of pricing for same frameDifficult to determine quality of construction & materials usedLimited fabric selectionMore frame & design optionsLengthy order time
12Bed’sBeds in early colonial North America were simple frames with wooden slats or ropes between them to support mattresses filled with straw or feathers. The usually had curtains around the bed for privacy and protection from drafts.
14CasegoodsCasegoods - is a term used for furniture that is not upholstered and is made of wood. It is used to describe furniture that is used in the dining room and bedroom. Pieces of furniture, such as bookcases or chests of drawers, that provide interior storage space are also casegoods.