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1Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue UNIT 5, Part 1Acts of CourageClick the mouse button or press the space bar to continue
2Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu. Unit 5, Part 1MAIN MENUActs of Courage (pages 1020–1034)What Makesa Hero?Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.
3Selection Menu (pages 1020–1023) Before You ReadReading the SelectionAfter You Read
4BEFORE YOU READPreview the ArticleBefore you read the article, think about the following questions:What answers can you give to the question in the title of the article?From skimming the first paragraph, what can you predict about the content of the article?
5Set a Purpose for Reading BEFORE YOU READSet a Purpose for ReadingRead to discover contrasting ideas about heroes.
6BEFORE YOU READClarifying MeaningWhen you clarify the meaning of a text, you work to unlock the meaning of each section or paragraph. To clarify meaning, answer the questions on the following slide.
7BEFORE YOU READClarifying MeaningWhat does this section mean? Why might the writer have chosen to include this?How does this information relate to the main idea and other ideas in the text?
8BEFORE YOU READClarifying MeaningCreate a chart similar to the one shown and answer the questions to help you clarify meaning as you read.
10Answer: Answers will vary. READING THE SELECTIONActs of Courage As you read, keep the following questions in mind. How do you define heroism? Who do you see as a hero?Answer: Answers will vary.
11READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyClarifying Meaning Clarifying meaning while you read is important because authors often build ideas on one another. If you don’t clear up a confusing passage, you may not understand main ideas or information that comes later.
12READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyClarifying Meaning If you don’t understand a particular passage, take the following steps:Reread the section more slowly.Look up words you don’t know in a dictionary.Ask questions about what you don’t understand.
13Viewing the Photograph READING THE SELECTIONViewing the PhotographLook at the photograph on page How does this photo illustrate both public and private acts of heroism?Answer: You may see the soldier fighting a public war but also caring for the baby in a very private and intimate way.
14READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyInterpreting Effective readers interpret what they read based on their understanding of the world. Ripley offers many categories of “hero” in her essay, which was originally published in Using what you know about today’s society, what is useful about a discussion of heroism?
15READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnswer: Given that the author wrote the article after September 11, 2001, she may be exploring the issue in the context of that event. Or given that so many people are considered heroes for fairly nonheroic behavior, perhaps the author is attempting to redefine the term.
16Viewing the Photograph READING THE SELECTIONViewing the PhotographLook at the photograph on page What current leaders do you see as heroes and why?Answer: Answers will vary.
18Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRespondDid your ideas about what makes a hero change after you read the article? Explain.Answer: You should explain your opinions and ideas about heroism.
19Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) Why did Xavier Emmanuelli, cofounder of Doctors Without Borders, think that his colleague, Daniel Pavard, was a hero? (b) How does this challenge the traditional definition of a hero?
20Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and InterpretAnswer: (a) Because he quietly helped a dying bomb victim while no one was around to observe him (b) Most people identified as heroes are in the public eye.
21Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret3. (a) According to Oxford University philosopher Roger Crisp, how do people in the United States define heroes? (b) Do you agree with him? Why or why not?
22Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and InterpretAnswer: (a) People in the United States define heroes as “rugged individualists.” (b) Some may say that traditional heroes in the United States are political leaders, soldiers, or entrepreneurs, while others may see Crisp’s definition as a generalization.
23Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) According to the writer, what are two qualities that a hero must have? (b) What do you think some other qualities of a hero might be?
24Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and InterpretAnswer: (a) A hero must be both an idealistic dreamer and a realist. (b) Selflessness, emotional and physical strength, and humanity
25Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateThe article cites German playwright Bertolt Brecht, who once said “Unhappy the land that needs heroes.” What do you think this means? Do you agree? Explain.
26Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateAnswer: A land that “needs heroes” may not be providing for its citizens— and is therefore an unhappy place—or that people seek out heroes regardless of their country’s conditions.
27Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and Evaluate(a) How does the writer conclude the article? (b) Do you think it is an effective conclusion? Why or why not?Answer: (a) With a quote from novelist Jean-Christophe Rufin (b) The quote provides sense of closure-that circumstances make heroes. You; however, may want a definitive statement.
28Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateWhat do you think is the main idea of the article? Support your ideas with evidence from the article.Answer: There are many kinds of heroes and our definition of heroism has changed over time.
29Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectActs of CourageCompare and contrast the heroes of Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur and those described in this TIME article.
30Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectActs of CourageAnswer: Sir Launcelot acted with honor and virtue with women and his allies; however, he was also a public figure and a warrior. Most of the heroes in Ripley’s article save lives rather than take them, as Launcelot does.
32Selection Menu (pages 1024–1030) Before You ReadReading the SelectionAfter You Read
33Click the picture to learn about the author. BEFORE YOU READMeet D.T. Niane and the StorytellersClick the picture to learn about the author.
34Connecting to the Legend BEFORE YOU READConnecting to the LegendThe Sundiata tells the story of a great leader, his followers, and their larger-than-life deeds. Before you read this passage, ask yourself the questions on the next slide.
35Connecting to the Legend BEFORE YOU READConnecting to the LegendWhat helps you gain the extra confidence and energy you need to perform well in events such as a crucial game or an exam?Why do people enjoy listening to stories about heroes?
36BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundSundiata came to power around 1235, when he freed Mali from the control of a neighboring kingdom. He built his capital in Niani, which was located on a tributary of the Niger River. Enriched by profits from the gold trade, Niani became an important commercial center.
37BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundSundiata continued to expand the empire until his death in Under his successors, the empire flourished. At a time when bandits roamed through other areas, Mali was known as a safe and orderly place. “Neither traveler nor inhabitant in it has anything to fear from robbers or men of violence,” wrote an early Arab visitor.
38Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READSetting Purposes for ReadingActs of CourageAs you read, notice how the characters in the Sundiata display their courage.
39Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READSetting Purposes for ReadingDialogueDialogue is the written conversation between characters in a literary work. Through dialogue, an author reveals the feelings, thoughts, and intentions of characters, develops conflicts, and moves the plot forward.
40Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READSetting Purposes for ReadingDialogueAs you read, analyze the dialogue in this legend and consider how it reveals characters and advances the plot.
41BEFORE YOU READIdentifying GenreGenre is a category or type of literary work characterized by a particular form or style. One important genre of folklore is legends, or stories that are believed to be based on historical events and an actual hero. Legends help convey a culture’s learning, knowledge, and values.
42BEFORE YOU READIdentifying GenreReading Tip: Making a Chart Record details of the Sundiata that help you identify it as a legend.
43BEFORE YOU READscrupulous adj. thoroughly attentive to even the smallest details; precise (p. 1027) Ana’s knitting was scrupulous.elude v. to avoid or escape, especially through cleverness or quickness (p. 1027) As one child gave chase, the other child tried to elude her.Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
44BEFORE YOU READconfidante n. a person who is entrusted with secrets or private affairs (p. 1028) Only Eric’s confidante knew about his secret plans.perpetuate v. to cause to continue to be remembered (p. 1028) Gossip can perpetuate hurtful and untrue rumors.Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
46READING THE SELECTIONActs of Courage Keep these questions in mind as you read: How does Sundiata react to injustice? Is he a warrior or a peacemaker?Answer: Sundiata could be described as both; he waged war to correct social injustice, to defend those who could not defend themselves, and to bring peace.
47READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyIdentifying Genre Read the text highlighted in blue on page Which items in this summary indicate that the legend will include exaggerated elements?Answer: The soothsayer’s instructions, Sundiata’s tearing a tree from the ground, and the sorcerer’s ability to disappear indicate that the legend will include exaggeration.
48READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementDialogue Read the text highlighted in purple on page What does Nana Triban wish to convey to her half-brother?Answer: Her loyalty and the fact that the Mali people are in trouble.
49READING THE SELECTIONActs of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page What risks does Nana Triban take while staying with Soumaoro? What does the legend imply about how one should act in times of danger?
50READING THE SELECTIONAnswer: Though Soumaoro is violent and it could be dangerous to mislead him, Nana Triban pretends that she is loyal to Soumaoro and tries to get him to confide in her. The legend implies that one should be brave and resourceful in times of danger.
51READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementDialogue Read the text highlighted in purple on page What do you think Balla Fasséké means by this remark?Answer: Balla Fasséké means that he, as the storyteller, is the “word,” and Sundiata, as the hero, is the “deed.” Sundiata’s destiny will begin because he will now fulfill the soothsayer’s prophecies of greatness.
52READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the image on page Do you think the statue displays courageous qualities? Why or why not?Answer: Yes, because the soldier stands straight, tall, and stares straight ahead.
53READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementDialogue Read the text highlighted in purple on page Why does Balla Fasséké ask this question?Answer: He is trying to inspire Kamandjan to do great things.
54READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyIdentifying Genre Read the text highlighted in blue on page What characteristic of legends is found in this passage?Answer: The fantastic elements of this passage—as displayed when the mountain is pierced through by a man—are characteristic of legends.
56Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRespondWhat do you think might happen next in this story? Share your predictions with your classmates.Answer: Answers will vary.
57Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) What does Sundiata first plan to do in order to defeat Soumaoro? (b) Later, what does he do before leaving Sibi? What do his methods suggest about him as a leader?
58Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and InterpretAnswer: (a) Destroy his magical powers (b) Consults with soothsayers, showing that he respects the expertise of others
59Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret3. (a) What astonishing deeds do Fran Kamara and Kamandjan perform at the urging of Balla Fasséké? (b) Why do Balla Fasséké’s words cause the warriors to react as they do?Answer: (a) Rush into battle (b) To guarantee their status as heroes
60Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateWhy do you think Sundiata has such a strong desire to be remembered by future generations?Answer: So he can be worshipped and live forever
61Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and Evaluate(a) What knowledge of human nature does Balla Fasséké reveal through his speeches? (b) Does our society today have any methods comparable to Balla Fasséké’s for making people famous? Explain.
62Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateAnswer: (a) He knows that fame motivates people. (b) Newspapers, magazines, and television make people famous.
63Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectActs of CourageAt one point, the story says, “There would not be any heroes if deeds were condemned to man’s forgetfulness.” How would you interpret this statement?
64Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectActs of CourageAnswer: People do great things because they hope for recognition, or heroes exist mainly because we celebrate them.
65AFTER YOU READDialogueIn this legend, dialogue helps to advance the plot and to develop the characters. Dialogue brings characters to life by showing what they are thinking and feeling as they react to other characters.
66AFTER YOU READDialogue(a) Why do you think Nana Triban mentions that she “knew how to flatter [Soumaoro] and make him jealous”? (b) From her words, what impressions do you have of Nana Triban? Explain.
67AFTER YOU READDialogueAnswer: (a) To show that she was behaving in a way that would attract his attention (b) She is crafty, resourceful, brave, and loyal.
68AFTER YOU READDialogueWhat does the king of Tabon mean when he says, “Thus on the Niger plain will the smiths of Tabon cleave those of Sosso in twain”? Explain.
69AFTER YOU READDialogueAnswer: The king of Tabon is assuring Sundiata Fran Kamara that Soumaoro will be defeated.
70Interdisciplinary Activity AFTER YOU READInterdisciplinary ActivityThe heroes of legends usually embody the qualities their particular culture values. Who are some heroes of recent times about whom you could imagine a legend developing?
71Interdisciplinary Activity AFTER YOU READInterdisciplinary ActivityIn a small group, list heroes from the recent past or the present day, including political figures, athletes, or others who exemplify skill, strength, or courage. For each name on your list, write two or three sentences explaining why audiences might enjoy hearing stories about that person.
72AFTER YOU READIdentifying GenreLegends are part of folklore’s oral tradition—the stories and histories that storytellers have retold for generations. Usually, legends celebrate the heroic qualities of a national or cultural hero.
73AFTER YOU READIdentifying GenreIdentify three exaggerated or fantastic details in this legend. Which detail did you consider most entertaining or inspiring? Explain.Answer: List details such as the events of Sundiata’s childhood or the incredible feats performed by the Mali sofas.
74Answer: Loyalty, bravery, and resourcefulness AFTER YOU READIdentifying GenreFrom this legend, what traits or qualities would you say the Mandingo people valued in a person?Answer: Loyalty, bravery, and resourcefulness
75AFTER YOU READPracticePractice with Word Parts Use your knowledge of word parts to answer the questions on the following slides.
76Which of the following words contains a prefix that means “with”? AFTER YOU READPracticeWhich of the following words contains a prefix that means “with”?eludecaptivityconfidante
77AFTER YOU READPractice2. Which of the following words contains a suffix often found in verbs?inhabitantgleeperpetuate
79Selection Menu (pages 1031–1034) Before You ReadReading the SelectionAfter You Read
80BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundThe tale of Sundiata is based on the real person Sundiata, a monarch who established the Sudanese empire of Mali. According to oral tradition, he had eleven brothers, who were heirs to the kingdom of Kangaba in Mali. Sumanguru, ruler of the adjacent land of Kaniaga, ravaged Kanagaba, killing all of Sundiata’s brothers. Sundiata, who was already ill and weak, was spared.
81BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundWill Eisner, an acclaimed graphic novel artist most famous for the character the Spirit, depicts the beginning of this tale in this graphic novel version of “The Lion of Mali.” Eisner grew up in the tenements of New York City, where his first work was published in his Bronx high school’s newspaper.
82BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundHis budding career in comics art was interrupted by service in the U.S. army during World War II; however, the army did make good use of his talents—he created illustrations for posters and comic strips to entertain the troops while serving. Eisner went on to enjoy a sixty-year career in comics, winning seven awards from the National Cartoonist Society, including the prestigious Reuben award in So influential was his art that an award even has been created in his honor: the Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards.
83Set a Purpose for Reading BEFORE YOU READSet a Purpose for ReadingRead to discover similarities and differences between the graphic-novel and text versions of the tale of Sundiata.
84BEFORE YOU READComparing and Contrasting Versions of a StoryThere are many different versions of the tale of Sundiata. When you compare and contrast versions, you identify similarities and differences between them. This graphic-novel excerpt and the prose excerpt by Niane cover different portions of Sundiata’s story, but there are still many points of comparison between them.
85BEFORE YOU READComparing and Contrasting Versions of a StoryAs you read, think about how plot, setting, and characters are conveyed in each excerpt. How is reading each format similar and different? Take notes to help you keep track of the similarities and differences.
86Comparing and Contrasting Versions of a Story BEFORE YOU READComparing and Contrasting Versions of a Story
88READING THE SELECTIONActs of Courage Keep this question in mind as you read: Which type of text—a graphic novel or regular text—best presents the story of Sundiata’s courage? Use examples from both texts to support your opinion.Answer: Answers will vary, but you should be ready to defend your choices.
89READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyComparing and Contrasting Versions of a Story How is this portrayal of Sundiata different from the text you read earlier?Answer: The graphic novel shows a younger Sundiata, one who is playful and innocent. The Sundiata in the excerpt you read was a warrior and leader of an army.
90READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyComparing and Contrasting Versions of a Story Do you prefer seeing the battle, as on page 1033, or reading a detailed description as you did earlier? Which gives you a better sense of the battle?Answer: Answers will vary.
92Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRespondDoes the graphic-novel version of the tale of Sundiata enhance your understanding of the text version? Why or why not?Answer: Most will agree that it helps illustrate the characters and action and provides background to the story.
93Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) What are two examples of simile in this graphic novel? (b) How does Eisner illustrate the similes?
94Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and InterpretAnswer: (a) The phrases “like a cloud of locusts” and “like the horns of the buffalo” are similes. (b) The warriors swarm as if they were locusts. The two groups of warriors are positioned as if they were horns of the buffalo.
95Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) How do the men of Mali plan to outsmart Sumanguru’s army? (b) What happens when they execute their plan? Explain.Answer: (a) Half of the army will hide and surprise them. (b) They are able to trap the enemy.
96Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateDo you think Eisner’s illustrations tell the tale of “The Lion of Mali” in an effective way? Explain.Answer: The illustrations clearly tell the story; however, they do not provide certain details or any background.
97Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateWhat comment about Sumanguru’s powers is Eisner making in the last three panels of the selection?Answer: He foreshadows that Sumanguru’s omnipotence will eventually lead to his downfall.
98Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectActs of CourageWhat characteristics of legends are demonstrated in the graphic-novel retelling of the tale of Sundiata?
99Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectActs of CourageAnswer: Exaggeration is used in the graphic novel. The Mali warriors quickly arm themselves and disperse to attack an invading army. Sumanguru uses magical powers.
101What do you think you would need to be a warrior? Unit 5, Part 1BELLRINGERImagine tools of war, past and present (shields, combat boots, or gas masks).What do you think you would need to be a warrior?Sundiata Bellringer
102Unit 5, Part 1BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCYClick on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency.Sundiata Bellringer Option
103With whom did Sundiata consult in Sibi? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWith whom did Sundiata consult in Sibi?the king of Sossohis fathersoothsayershis mother
104What happened to Nana Triban after Sundiata left Mali? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat happened to Nana Triban after Sundiata left Mali?She was forced to become one of Soumaoro’s wives.She was driven out of Mali and lived in exile.She became one of the new leaders of Mali.She became a servant to Tabon Wana.
105CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWho was Sundiata’s singer, the person who would carry on his memory by his words?Balla FassékéNana TribanSassouma BérétéTabon Wana
106What did all the chiefs do as Balla Fasséké mentioned their names? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat did all the chiefs do as Balla Fasséké mentioned their names?They presented a gift to Sundiata.They recited a story.They pledged their loyalty to Sundiata.They preformed great feats.
107Unit 5, Part 1 Literary Terms Handbook Test-Taking Skills Handbook REFERENCELiterary Terms HandbookTest-Taking Skills HandbookReading HandbookDaily Language Practice TransparenciesFoldablesWriting HandbookGrammar and Writing Workshop TransparenciesBusiness WritingLanguage Handbook
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