Presentation on theme: "In southeastern Barsa, close to Brasov, the contact between the mountains and plains are a group of seven villages: Baciu, Turcheş, Cernatu, Satulung."— Presentation transcript:
In southeastern Barsa, close to Brasov, the contact between the mountains and plains are a group of seven villages: Baciu, Turcheş, Cernatu, Satulung (now city S ă cele) T ă rlungeni, Zizin and Purc ă reni. Residents of seven villages and Csangos Romanian, living together in the same territory and showing similar features at different levels of existence have become conscious of belonging to the same community, considering s ă celeni. Varied topography, including mountains north side of bars and Ciucaş forests, pastures, meadows and the southern part of Barsa with arable land, has led the development of livestock farming and woodworking and crafts near the city of Brasov has favored practice transport by carts. Csangos were primarily farmers, craftsmen and artisans (masons, carpenters, Rotar, carpenters, blacksmiths, tailors, shoemakers) and Romanians have specialized in sheep farming, in its most advanced, shepherding flocks in processing and use of wool and milk as well as carting.
1930 – Oficial Office of Săcele Today – City Hall
The arable area Săcele - representing a small proportion compared owned forests, grasslands and meadows - has been cultivated plants used in traditional household for food (wheat, potatoes, maize), fodder and feed crops. A particular concern was a supply of barley from the brewery Czell Darste and alcohol distilleries and Ozun Tarlungeni and Bod sugar factory with sugar beet. A specific feature of traditional agriculture was practicing rudimentary techniques: sowing by hand, plowing wood and iron coulter, weeding with the hoe, sickle and scythe to harvest and thresh. Poor quality land săceleni prompted to adopt efficient methods for maximum exploitation of soil resources such as alternating grain crops with hoes and manure fertilization. During the interwar period takes place a comprehensive process of modernization of agriculture, improving agricultural tools and machines appear high efficiency: UNIVERSAL sower, Hanomag tractors and threshing of MAV.
Group of women and men in traditional clothes shepherd Satulung group of girls in holiday costume Csángó, dated 1925. Romanians and csango from Săcele
The seven Săcele villages were strong pastoral zone type flocks, with a period of great enthusiasm in the second half of the eighteenth century and first half of the nineteenth century. Lack of arable land stretched forced people to deal with shepherds here permanently. Mocanii săceleni sheep pastures from spring to autumn on alpine pastures versantele Transylvanian, Wallachian and Moldavian of the Carpathians and their winter hibernation until spring Bărăgan and marshes of the Danube. Interior fold mountains Ciucaş - Ethnographic Museum Săcele reconstitution. Periodic motion in the pastoral area was determined by a strict calendar sequence, resulting in several fold both shepherds and the concern to build specific materials: milk and derived products, wool and hides, near Brasov, is significant marketability of these products.
With significant forest resources, wood săcelenii used in all areas. Until a century ago all the houses, buildings and gates annex "mocăneşti were made by master carpenter in the wrapped beams and shingle roof. Using traditional techniques and simple tools, workshops peasant carts roll over but also made "mocăneşti for carting, breasts, agricultural tools and other utensils used in the household. Dogarii were specialized in making containers of wooden staves and hoops connected iron: barrels, tubs, pots used to fold ciubere and preparation of milk derivatives. Joinery workshops are made building components, furniture, house and annexes. Under the influence of urban fashion of Brasov, some carpenters have specialized in manufacturing furniture and painted Brasov Saxon influence, and shepherds Csangos adopted for decoration "clean house". Wooden architectural ensemble – wooden house and gate, late nineteenth century Carpentry workshop - early twentieth century
Loom in a yard in Sacele, early twentieth century Cloth ironing presses, Tarlungeni, dated 1895 By increasing a large number of sheep flocks grazing in variant "mocanii săceleni" get large amounts of wool that were processed for their own purposes and especially for sale. There has developed a strong domestic textile industry, always present in any household traditional instruments wool processing. In each house there was at least one loom, the woman of all ages executed different types of fabrics for winter clothing, white and gray rough homespun (for ghebe, "zăbune, trousers) and sarici. To decorate the home weave "ţoluri" (carpet) in thick colored lace and clothes. Timis valley and the valley of Tărlung were in operation numerous technical installations peasant thick wool fabric finishing.
Become better by practicing grazing flocks, mocanii săceleni were influenced by the citizens lifestyle of Brasov, since replacing the nineteenth century traditional clothing pieces made of flax, hemp and additional sofas, with new ones of silk, tulle, chiffon, silk, fine cloth. Rapid adaptation of the elements of urban fashion in fabric, cut and color gamut determined fashion to transform this whole port into a real identity for the villages in the area. On holidays, the women wore a suit made of silk and long skirts, bolero, shirt with the sleeves of embroidered tulle gathered cuffs embroidered with gold. The waist was marked by metallic belt whose buckle completed. Towel head was replaced with white silk veil, under which is a scarf printed with reddish brown décor called gimbir. Winter clothes, dulama, knee-long, hump, were made of fine materials from Brasov and lined with natural sheep fur, badger and marten or fox applications. Specifically for men was casing with embroidered collar called shepherd collar, white trousers, leather girdle.
Clothing Csángós săcelene villages illustrates a power of assimilation of urban models and their transformation over time in a suit of identity. There is, in costume for women, cotton linen shirt with the sleeves of tulle and cuffs trimmed with gold metallic thread, black and white pleated dress caught in braces (hamos rokolya), laibare and skirts made from satin. The head ornament reflects the same urban influences. Young girls wore black velvet part of multicolored ribbons, married women wore ceapsa (csepesz) and the gossamer veil caught with needles (boglaros tu). The richest women were as accessories waist belt and pafta on chest made from silver metal with semi-precious stones (es ov kosontyu). Csangos man wore trousers made from rough homespun white, shirt with collar embroidered with yellow, wide leather belt (deszu), black or white cloth coat (Kurt).
Clean house is the space of representation of the family life in her important moments (baptism, wedding, funeral) and also an eloquent expression of the financial situation of the landowner. In rural communities surrounding Brasov inhabited both Csango and Romanian, has been taken in the eighteenth century central-europen fashion with interior painted in fresco. Traditional rustic furniture (bench seating, Blidari, armuroaie, corners, high bed, table and chairs) construct a coherent and harmonious overall with floral motifs of baroque inspiration. Lack of decorative textiles is complemented by the presence of cups and plates with cobalt blue enamel.
Woman with headkerchief gossamer. Silk loom, beginning of XX century. Women from Săcele with the silk Scarfs
It is a traditional celebration held annually around 21 st of July. Santilia is an ancient celebration of Saceles shepherds, on St. Elijahs day, in Poiana Angelescu.
What is specific for this holiday is that the boys used to offer as gifts to the future wives distaffs and cheese molds, which were skillfully notched. After leading their flocks to the mountains, the shepherds of Sacele were not allowed to descent to the village or to be visited by wives or girlfriends. The purpose of this feast is to exchange products and to meet young people in order to get married.