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JPN494: Japanese Language and Linguistics JPN543: Advanced Japanese Language and Linguistics Phonology & Phonetics (4)

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Presentation on theme: "JPN494: Japanese Language and Linguistics JPN543: Advanced Japanese Language and Linguistics Phonology & Phonetics (4)"— Presentation transcript:

1 JPN494: Japanese Language and Linguistics JPN543: Advanced Japanese Language and Linguistics Phonology & Phonetics (4)

2 Phonological Rules A phoneme (or a sequence of phonemes) may be realized in different ways (as different phones/sequences of phones). The alternation between allophones is generally conditioned by phonological (or morpho-phonological) rule.

3 Phonological Rules Phonological rules refer to phonological contexts (surrounding the target phoneme) only. E.g. A voiceless stop sound becomes aspirated when it occurs in the initial position of a stressed syllable (in English) – /p/, /t/, /k/ [p h ], [t h ], [k h ]

4 Phonological Rules Morpho-phonological rules refer to specific expressions or classes of expressions. E.g. The plural marker -s /z/ is realized as: – [əz] when it follows (a noun that ends with) /s/, /z/, / ʃ /, / ʒ /, / ʧ /, or / ʤ / (aces, quizzes, churches) – otherwise: [s] when it follows a voiceless consonant (chips, kicks) – otherwise: [z] (sofas, kegs)

5 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese #1 Devoicing Rule 1. A high vowel (/i/ or / ɯ /) is voiceless when (i) it follows a voiceless consonant and (ii) either it precedes a voiceless consonant or it occurs at the end of a word 2. Otherwise, it is voiced.

6 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese : /k ɯ sa/ [k ɯ sa] : /k ɯ ma/ [k ɯ ma] : /k ɯ si/ [k ɯʃ i] : /kisi/ [k j i ʃ i] : /kis ɯ / [k j is ɯ ] : /s ɯ toraik ɯ / [s ɯ to ɾ aik ɯ ]

7 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese #2 Nasal Assimilation 1. /N/ is realized the nasal sound that shares the same place of articulation as the immediately preceding consonant. 2. When /N/ is not followed by any consonant, it is realized either as [ ɴ ] or [ŋ] Assimilation is a phenomenon whereby a phonetic feature (p-o-a, voicing, etc.) extends to a neighboring sound.

8 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese ( ) /hoN/ [ho ɴ ] ( [hoŋ]) ( ) /saNpo/ [sampo] ( ) /iNtai/ [intai] ( ) /teNki/ [teŋki] /koNnitiwa/ [kon j n j i ʧ iwa]

9 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese #3 Alveolar Alternation (1) 1. /t/ is realized as [ ʦ ] when it is followed by / ɯ /. 2. /t/ is realized as [ ʧ ] when it is followed by /i/ (or /j/). 3. Otherwise, /t/ is realized as [t]. #4 Alveolar Alternation (2) 1. /s/ is realized as [ ʃ ] when it is followed by /i/ (or /j/). 2. Otherwise, /s/ is realized as [s]. #5 Alveolar Alternation (3) 1. /z/ is realized as [ ʒ ] (or [ ʤ ]) when it is followed by /i/ (or /j/). 2. Otherwise, /z/ is realized as [z] (or [ ʣ ]).

10 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese ik- ɯ ( ; u-verb) – : ik-ana-i ikanai – : ik-imas- ɯ ik (j) imas ɯ – : ik- ɯ ik ɯ – : ik-eba ikeba kat- ɯ ( ; u-verb) – : kat-ana-i katanai – : kat-imas- ɯ ka ʧ imas ɯ – : kat- ɯ ka ʦɯ – : kat-eba kateba

11 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese kas- ɯ ( ; u-verb) – : kas-ana-i kasanai – : kas-imas- ɯ ka ʃ imas ɯ – : kas- ɯ kas ɯ – : kas-eba kaseba (, infer) [hanz ɯ r ɯ ] vs. (, puzzle) [han ʒ imono] [asi] vs. [a ʃ i]; [azi] vs. [a ʒ i]

12 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese ( ) [sakai] vs. ( ) [ ʃ akai] – : /sakai/ – : / ʃ akai/ (option 1) or /sjakai/ (option 2) ( ) [ta] vs. ( ) [ ʧ a] – : /ta/ – : / ʧ a/ or /tja/

13 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese #6 Alternation 1. /h/ is realized as [ ɸ ] when it is followed by / ɯ /. 2. /h/ is realized as [ç] when it is followed by /i/ (or /j/). 3. Otherwise, /t/ is realized as [h].

14 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese [h ɯ ] vs. [ ɸɯ ]; [hi] vs. [çi] [ha ɴ ] vs. [ ɸ a ɴ ] – : /haN/ – : / ɸ aN/ (option 1) or /hwaN/ (option 2) [hak ɯ ] vs. [çak ɯ ] – : /hak ɯ / – : /çak ɯ / (option 1) or /hjak ɯ / (option 2)

15 (Morpho-)phonological Rules in Japanese #7 Conjugation Rules (morpho-phonological rules) – Verbal roots ending with a consonant (ru-verbs; ) (kari-r ɯ ), (jame-r ɯ ), (tasuke-r ɯ ), … – Verbal roots ending with a consonant (u-verbs; ) (kak- ɯ ), (mat- ɯ ), (sir- ɯ ), (kaw- ɯ ), … – Irregulars (,,, …)

16 7-1. plain present (non-past) form The sequence of a verb root (VR; ( )) and the present marker (morpheme) /r ɯ / is realized as: 1. [VR + r ɯ ] when the verb root ends with a vowel; 2. [VR + ɯ ] when the verb root ends with a consonant. Pairs (tuples) of forms like [r ɯ ] and [ ɯ ] are called allomorphs.

17 Similar pairs of allomorphs – [na] (tabe-na-i) and [ana] (kak-ana-i) – [ ɾ eba] (tabe- ɾ eba) and [eba] (kak-eba) – [sase] (tabe-sase- ɾɯ ) and [ase] (kak-ase- ɾɯ ) – [ ɾ a ɾ e] (tabe- ɾ a ɾ e- ɾɯ ) and [a ɾ e] (kak-a ɾ e- ɾɯ ) – [mas] (tabe-mas- ɯ ) and [imas] (kak-imas- ɯ )

18 7-2. plain past form The sequence of a verb root (VR) and the past marker (morpheme) /ta/ is realized as: 1. [VR + ta] when the verb root ends with a vowel; 2. Otherwise …

19 If the root ends with a velar consonant (/k/ or /g/) or /s/, insert /i/ after it (insertion) If the root ends with a sequence of a velar consonant and /i/, delete the velar consonant (deletion) – /kak+ta/ /kaki+ta/ /kai+ta/ [kaita] ( ) – /ojog+ta/ /ojog+da/ /ojogi+da/ /ojoi+da/ [ojoida] ( ) – /hanas+ta/ /hanas+i+ta/ [hana ʃ ita] ( )

20 If the root ends with /t/, /r/, or /w/, replace it with /Q/ (trwQ) – /kat+ta/ /kaQ+ta/ [katta] ( ) – /kaer+ta/ /kaeQ+ta/ [kaetta] ( ) – /kaw+ta/ /kaQ+ta/ [katta] ( ) If the root ends with a voiced consonant, change /ta/ into /da/ (voicing) If the root ends with /b/, /m/ or /n/, replace it with /N/ (bmnN) – /job+ta/ /job+da/ /joN+da/ [jonda] ( ) – /jom+ta/ /jom+da/ /joN+da/ [jonda] ( ) – / ʃ in+ta/ / ʃ in+da/ / ʃ iN+da/ [jonda] ( )

21 A note on /Q/ If the root ends with /t/, /r/ or /w/, replace it with /Q/ (trwQ) – /kat+ta/ /kaQ+ta/ [katta] ( ) – /kaer+ta/ /kaeQ+ta/ [kaetta] ( ) – /kaw+ta/ /kaQ+ta/ [katta] ( ) If the root ends with /r/ or /w/, replace it with /t/ (rwt) – /kat+ta/ [katta] ( ) – /kaer+ta/ /kaet+ta/ [kaetta] ( ) – /kaw+ta/ /kat+ta/ [katta] ( )

22 A note on /Q/ Why do we want the phoneme /Q/? – [ippai]: /ippai/ or /iQpai/? – [ittai]: /ittai/ or /iQtai/? an alternative rule: a sequence of two occurrences of the same consonant is realized as a single long consonant. *[iptai] (cf. captain [cæptən]) coda: {φ, /N/, /Q/}

23 A note on /Q/ Transformation Rules: change a phonemic representation into another phonemic representation () Realization Rules: connect a phonemic representation and a phonetic representation ( ) (e.g. /si/ [ ʃ i]) The alternation rules & the nasal assimilation rule are realization rules The final phase of transformations should not contain a syllable ending with a consonant other than /Q/ or /N/.

24 Rule orderings trwQ, voicing, bmnN, insertion, deletion /job+ta/ (voicing) /job+da/ (bmnN) joN+da/ /job+ta/ (bmnN) /joN+ta/ (voicing) /joN+da/

25 Rule Orderings - insertion should apply before deletion /kak+ta/ (deletion) (n/a) /kak+ta/ (insertion) /kak+i+ta/ *[kak (j) ita] /kak+ta/ (insertion) /kak+i+ta/ (deletion) /ka+i+ta/ [kaita]

26 Rule Orderings - voicing should apply before insertion - insertion should apply before deletion /ojog+ta/ (insertion) /ojogi+ta/ (deletion) /ojoi+ta/ (voicing) (n/a) /ojoi+ta/ *[ojoita] /ojog+ta/ (insertion) /ojogi+ta/ (voicing) (n/a) /ojogi+ta/ (deletion) /ojoi+ta/ *[ojoita] /ojog+ta/ (voicing) /ojog+da/ (insertion) /ojogi+da/ (deletion) /ojoi+da/ [ojoida]

27 Alternative past tense formation rules (from Yookoso): – If the root ends with a vowel, put /ta/ after it. – If the root ends with /k/, delete it and put /ita/. – If the root ends with /g/, delete it and put /ida/. – If the root ends with /w/, /t/, or /r/, delete it and put /Qta/. – If the root ends with /n/, /m/, or /b/, delete it and put /Nda/. – If the root ends with /s/, put /ita/.

28 Alternative past tense formation rules: – If the root ends with a vowel, put /ta/ after it. – If the root ends with /k/, delete it and put /ita/. – If the root ends with /g/, delete it and put /ida/. – If the root ends with /w/, /t/, or /r/, delete it and put /Qta/. – If the root ends with /n/, /m/, or /b/, delete it and put /Nda/. – If the root ends with /s/, put /ita/.

29 Lessons The purpose of a reference grammar (a grammar for learners) is to help learners acquire ability to speak the language. Theoretical linguistics, on the other hand, seeks to identify grammatical rules that are stored in speakers minds. (e.g. Are there such things as phonological transformational rules?) cf. coach vs. physiologist

30 A practical application? trwQ, voicing, bmnN, insertion, deletion #1, #2, #3, #4, #5 (Dialect A) #1, #2, #3, #5 (Dialect B) #1, #2, #3, #4, #5 (Dialect C) #1, #3, #6 (Dialect D)

31 Sequential Voicing ( ) ko + taiko kodaiko take + sao takezao hana + ʧ i hana ʒ i (hana ʤ i) tan ɯ k j i + ʃ i ɾɯ tan ɯ k j i ʒ i ɾɯ (tan ɯ ki ʤ i ɾɯ ) ho ɴ + hako hombako tab j i + çito tab j ib j ito k ɯ sa + ɸɯ e k ɯ sab ɯ e

32 /s/ /z/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ /h/ /b/

33 s z/ ʣ ʃ ʒ / ʤ t d ʧ ʒ / ʤ ʦ z/ ʣ k g h b ç b ɸ b

34 Constraint #1: The SV rule applies only when the second member of a compound is a native word ( ), rather than a Sino- Japanese word ( ) or a loan word ( ). – ( ) vs. ( ) – ( ) vs. – Exceptions: ( ),, (?)

35 Constraint #2 (Lymans law): The SV rule does not apply when the second member of a compound has a voiced stop, fricative, or affricate. – ( ) + ( ) = ??

36 Constraint #3 (Right Branching Condition): The SV rule applies only when a potential target is in a right branch constituent at the lowest level

37 [[ + ] + ] vs. [ + [ + ]]

38 [ + ]? – [ + [ + ]]? – [ + [ + ]]? – [[ + ] + ]? – [[ + ] + ]? –

39 Constraint #4: The SV rule does not apply when two members of a compound are semantically juxtaposed. – ( ) vs. ( )


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