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Cloze Measure. Cloze Measure What is Measured? Comprehension We are only able to infer what others comprehend All measures of comprehension are indirect.

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Presentation on theme: "Cloze Measure. Cloze Measure What is Measured? Comprehension We are only able to infer what others comprehend All measures of comprehension are indirect."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cloze Measure

2 Cloze Measure What is Measured? Comprehension We are only able to infer what others comprehend All measures of comprehension are indirect Students read passages Sensitive to change Measure achievement over time Word level and passage understanding

3 Cloze Measure Characteristics Passages from the curriculum of instruction (Representative Passages) No time limit of the measure. Stop when most students have completed the passage Passage has missing words. (usually every 7th word. Students write in word that fits in each blank. Tool capable of having multiple forms.

4 Creating a Cloze Measure Select representative passage from the curriculum of instruction. Keep title and first sentence intact (untouched). Remove every 7th word. Leave a blank space for writing. Create a key for possible correct responses (see scoring)

5 Administration: Cloze Measure Standard CLOZE Directions You are going to read this story silently. This story has some words missing. There are blank spaces where words are missing. When you read the story, figure out what word should go in the blank space. Write the word you think belongs in the story in the blank space. Do your best reading and try your to fill in every blank space. There is no time limit on this measure.

6 Scoring: Cloze Measure Responses are scored according to the number of exact or semantically correct word matches. There is a one to one correspondence between word and blank space. Two or more words may NOT go in one blank space. Reported score is the number of correct words over the number possible. This score may be expressed as a percent correct. Recommendation, use the key indicating acceptable words that fit each blank in the passage. (see next slide)

7 Administration: Cloze Measure Standard CLOZE Directions You are going to read this story silently. This story has some words missing. There are blank spaces where words are missing. When you read the story, figure out what word should go in the blank space. Write the word you think belongs in the story in the blank space. Do your best reading and try your to fill in every blank space. There is no time limit on this measure.

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9 Cloze in Trinidad & Tobago Sample included 100 boys and 100 girls Standard 1 and Standard 2 Randomly sampled classrooms Group administration (may be individually administered) Measures obtained on parallel forms three periods during the school year

10 p. 66

11 p. 67

12 p. 68

13 Close results in Trinidad & Tobago p. 66

14 Graphic Display Tells us When to make a change Tells us When to make a change Error Analysis What skills need to be taught?

15 Case Study- Cloze

16 Analysis of the data: Describe the data points for this student in relation to the AIMLINE Describe the types of errors this student is making in the close materials. Decision: Collect more data Intervention Increase the goal for this student Intervention description:

17 Case Study 1 Jamie Refer to key in your packet

18 Case Study 1 Jamie Refer to key in your packet

19 Case Study 1 Jamie Refer to key in your packet

20 Vocabulary Instruction...vocabulary instruction often fails to produce measurable gains in reading comprehension because it does not include sufficient depth of word knowledge. Lack of depth of instruction (Nagy, 1988) Therefore: integrate good teaching strategies with vocabulary instruction to help teach word meanings that will become a part of readers oral, written and reading language.

21 Obstacles to Vocabulary Development Appreciate the size of the task: On average, students add 2,000-3,000 words to their reading vocabularies each year. On average, students add 2,000-3,000 words to their reading vocabularies each year. The average student learns from 6-8 new words each day. The average student learns from 6-8 new words each day. Result: Vocabulary Gap

22 Vocabulary Instruction Teach the meanings of words in a passage prior to initial reading of that passage. Teach the meanings of words in a passage prior to initial reading of that passage. Preteaching meaning prior to reading reduces the cognitive load during reading. Preteaching meaning prior to reading reduces the cognitive load during reading. (Brett, Rothlein, & Hurley, 1996; Carney, Anderson, Blackburn, 1984; Wixon, 1986)

23 Effective Vocabulary Instruction Expose students to high quality oral language. Expose students to high quality oral language. Read aloudsStorytelling Audio booksModeling Language Pretend PlaySource Books

24 Effective Vocabulary Instruction Promote word consciousness Promote word consciousness Word consciousness is the knowledge of and interest in words. Word consciousness is the knowledge of and interest in words. Play with language Play with language Word gamesPuns Limericks Anagrams Word Wizard Puzzles Jokes/Riddles Word Wizard Puzzles Jokes/Riddles Provide modeling and instruction in independent word-learning strategies Provide modeling and instruction in independent word-learning strategies

25 Monkeys Paw Vocabulary Monkey Paw Vocabulary Amiably good naturedly; agreeably Antimacassar a protective covering for the backs of chairs and sofas Apathetically indifferently; listlessly Apathy lack of interest in things, indifference Assurance a statement that inspires confidence Avaricious someone fond of accumulating wealth Betokened gave a sigh or sign of things to come Bibulous having to do with social drinking Credulity believing something too quickly; to be gullible Disclaim denying any connection with Doughty courageous; brave Ere before Fakir a Moslem religious beggar Frivolous not worthy of serious attention; insignificance Fusillade a quick discharge of many firearms Hospitable welcoming guests with warmth and generosity; friendly Liability an obligation or debt Maligned spoke evil of Mechanically automatically; like a machine Presumptuous excessively confident; arrogant Prosaic matter of fact; straight forward Pulsating throbbing; expanding and contracting rhythmically Reverberated echoed over and over Rubicund a healthy rosiness Sinister suggesting an evil force or motive; threatening disaster or evil Solemnly seriously; gravely Talisman an object marked with magical signs, believed to give its holder supernatural powers/protection Trifle something of little value Unwholesome offensive; causing injury to physical, mental, or moral health Visage the facial expression of a person Tier I – includes words functional for life long learning. Tier II – includes high frequency words for mature language users. Tier III – includes words whose frequency of use is normally quite low and limited to specific domains. Isabel Beck

26 Antimacassar macassarAnti

27 Finding Images Bring in your own digital photos Bring in your own digital photos search the internet search the internet google.com google.com Images tab Images tab Type in search word Type in search word Select, cut and paste into PP document Select, cut and paste into PP document Be aware of copyright. Be aware of copyright. use of images for instruction and not distribution is fine use of images for instruction and not distribution is fine

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30 Back to the Vocabulary Lesson Not all word meaning can be taught with images Not all word meaning can be taught with images Sometimes actions are useful Sometimes actions are useful

31 solemnly Categorize -a word about mood or emotions Demonstrate – act out Create the language to support the demonstration Solemnly - seriously; gravely

32 Vocabulary Instruction A third option in many to provide instruction in vocabulary… A third option in many to provide instruction in vocabulary… The graphic organizer

33 Integrated Vocabulary Instruction: An Illustration of both Contextual and Definitional Information New Definition Synonym Antonym Grammar Examples & Non-Examples - CHAOS - The state of disorder or confusion unorganized order noun Expanded Use Chaos in science, in a classroom, in a crowd, in thinking

34 Teach Definition: identify word class, describe how word is unique in class New Definition - CHAOS - The state of disorder or confusion

35 Restate Definition: student paraphrase to make definition their own New Definition - CHAOS - The state of disorder or confusion Expanded Use Chaos in science, in a classroom, in a crowd, in thinking

36 Teach Synonyms: provide single word or a phrase New Definition Synonym - CHAOS - The state of disorder or confusion unorganized Expanded Use Chaos in science, in a classroom, in a crowd, in thinking

37 Antonym: may help identify critical features New Definition Synonym Antonym - CHAOS - The state of disorder or confusion unorganized order Expanded Use Chaos in science, in a classroom, in a crowd, in thinking

38 New Definition Synonym Antonym Examples & Non-Examples - CHAOS - The state of disorder or confusion unorganized order Expanded Use Chaos in science, in a classroom, in a crowd, in thinking Examples & Non-Examples: refine understanding of meaning

39 Grammar: Model appropriate grammatical name and application of the word. New Definition Synonym Antonym Grammar Examples & Non-Examples - CHAOS - The state of disorder or confusion unorganized order noun Expanded Use Chaos in science, in a classroom, in a crowd, in thinking

40 Other resources Texts available at Ministry Texts available at Ministry Direct Instruction Reading Direct Instruction Reading Interventions Interventions Etc. Etc. Documents Documents Vocabulary Vocabulary Vocabulary Comprehension Comprehension Comprehension Web resources Web resources Tier Vocabulary Words Instruction Tier Vocabulary Words Instruction id=282&disp=udlapproach id=282&disp=udlapproach id=282&disp=udlapproach id=282&disp=udlapproach Learn more about how to tier words, based on the research of Beck, McKeown, and Kucan Learn more about how to tier words, based on the research of Beck, McKeown, and KucanBeck, McKeown, and KucanBeck, McKeown, and Kucan Links to videos Links to videos International Reading Association : Video : Reciprocal Teaching International Reading Association : Video : Reciprocal Teaching International Reading Association : Video : Reciprocal Teaching International Reading Association : Video : Reciprocal Teaching This 40-minute video from the International Reading Association includes background on the four reciprocal teaching strategies, lessons that show you how to use reciprocal teaching in a variety of settings (whole-class sessions, guided reading groups, and literature circles), in-class footage of strategies in practice, and testimonials from teachers who use reciprocal teaching. This 40-minute video from the International Reading Association includes background on the four reciprocal teaching strategies, lessons that show you how to use reciprocal teaching in a variety of settings (whole-class sessions, guided reading groups, and literature circles), in-class footage of strategies in practice, and testimonials from teachers who use reciprocal teaching. Reading Rockets : Text Comprehension Reading Rockets : Text Comprehension Reading Rockets : Text Comprehension Reading Rockets : Text Comprehension From Reading Rockets, a short video of a Seattle elementary school teacher using reciprocal teaching to improve the reading comprehension of her students. From Reading Rockets, a short video of a Seattle elementary school teacher using reciprocal teaching to improve the reading comprehension of her students.

41 Case 2 Cloze – Amy Review the chart for Amy Review the chart for Amy Amy is a Standard 2 student Amy is a Standard 2 student Score Amys Cloze measures Score Amys Cloze measures Graph Graph Analyze Analyze Interpret Interpret Intervention? Intervention?

42 Analysis of the data: Describe the data points for this student in relation to the AIMLINE Describe the types of errors this student is making in the close materials. Decision: Collect more data Intervention Increase the goal for this student Intervention description:


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