2 Taking a tour of Athens! Historians often refer to the Time period between 460 and 429 BCE as the Golden Age!What does this term suggest to you about life in Athens during this time?Scholars use the term, “Golden Age” to refer to a historical period marked by prosperity and by great achievements in the arts
3 The Parthenon and Acropolis Athens- most important city-stateBirthplace of democracyGave modern society-art, literature & philosophyLocated on peninsula called Attica4 miles from the seaMild climate allowed farmers to grow cropsLand was NOT fertile- traded for many essential food itemsNamed after Athena- Greek goddess of wisdom and military victoryAthens became center of commercial and cultural powerLate 400’s BCE- 150,000 ppl.
4 Map of the City Surrounded by mountains and rocky coasts Enclosed with defensive wallshad a harbor, but discouraged naval invasionStrong defense- Acropolis ( oval shaped rock that rose 300 feet above the cityTemples, statues, and altars located on the AcropolisHighest point is the Parthenon- temple for AthenaTwo other important features- Theater of Dionysus and the Agora, or marketplace located at the base of the AcropolisDensely populated cityNarrow streets and alleys and they were dirty and crowded
5 The Agora Center of Athenian life Temples, government buildings, columned buildings called StoasMerchants sellingFood, clothes, animals, pottery, chariots, furniturePublic officials checking quality of goods- bad ones were finedPublic buildings used to debate lined the AgoraRecreation- men visited gymnasium- track, wrestling court, fields for javelin and discusEvenings men socializedHad barber shops- hair cuts and gossip!
7 Station A: Architecture The Parthenon You are at the Parthenon, the beautiful temple built in honor of Athena, the Greek Goddess of wisdom and war.The Greeks were among the most talented architects of the ancient world. They built their most famous structure, the Parthenon, during the rule of the statesman Pericles. The temple was built to celebrate the end of the war with Persia. Although only partially intact, it is considered the most glorious building of the ancient world- a stunning reminder of Athens’ cultural achievements. Standing atop of the Acropolis and overlooking the city, it is constructed mostly of marble from a nearby mountain. It is 237 feet long, 110 feet wide and 60 feet high. It features 8 columns in the front and back and 17 along each side. The architects and sculptors spent more than 12 million units of Greek currency known as drachmas, over 4 times the annual budget of all of Athens. It has survived for over 2,500 years due to its superior workmanship!The architects designed the Parthenon to allow for optical illusions! The height of each column is 5 times each of its diameter to make them appear more slender. Builders also slanted the roof of the building creating triangular pieces on each end called a pediment. The east pediment shows the birth of Athena. The western pediment shows a contest between Athena and Poseidon, God of the Sea. Another distinctive feature is the 525 foot band of sculpture, or frieze, which surrounds the top of the temple. This frieze shows the Panathenaic Procession, an annual Athenian festival which celebrated the birth of AthenaThe Parthenon also contained a 35 foot high gold and ivory statue of Athena. They left offerings and worshipped at the foot of the statue to bring the protection of Athena to the city and it’s people.
9 Station B: Commerce & Trade The Agora You are at a shop in the Agora, the place where Athenians gather to buy and sell goods.Athenians conducted most of their commerce at the Agora, the huge marketplace at the base of the Acropolis. On the eastern side, the merchants sold goods from small stands. Citizens could purchase lettuce, onions, cucumbers, sardines, olive oil and wine. They could also buy pottery, furniture like chests, chairs and sofas and clay oil lamps, which provided the only source of light to Athenian homes. Even though most Athenians made their own clothing, leather sandals and jewelry was also bought at the Agora. Slaves were also bought and sold here as well.The Greeks began using coins in the 600’s BCE. Each city-state had its own coins, though each used metals like gold, silver, bronze and a gold silver mixture called electrum. Initially coins were imprinted on one side only, but Athenians eventually imprinted both sides. Athens had the tetradrachm, which was worth 4 drachmas. It had the image of Athena on one side and Athena’s bird, the owl on the otherThe Athenians traded with other city-states as well as foreign lands to obtain many goods and resources. This was necessary as the Athenian soil was not fertile enough to provide them with enough food for their population. Farmers could only grow olives so the Athenians had to trade for their essential food items. Egypt was one major Greek trading partner where they obtained valuable grains. Another important trading partner was sicily, where they obtained timber along with Thrace, from the Black Sea coast. In exchange the Greeks would trade their beautifully painted pottery and wool and olives
10 Station B: Commerce and Trade Catalogue of Athenian goodsFood and DrinkFruits: apples, pears, pomegranates, or olives—1 drachmaVegetables: lettuce, onions, or carrots– 1 drachmaSardines—1 drachmaBread– 2 drachmasJug of wine– 2 drachmasHousehold goodsWooden furniture: chair, chest, sofa—12 drachmasClay dishware– 7 drachmasOil-filled clay lamps– 6 drachmasVase for storing grain, oil, perfume, water, wine—5 drachmasPersonal itemsLinen garment—4 drachmasLeather sandals—5 drachmasJewelry: bracelet, earrings, rings—10 drachmasGlass mirror—3 drachmasMiscellaneousPapyrus scroll—8 drachmasReed pen– 2 drachmasToy animal, clay soldiers, dolls—4 drachmasLyre—8 drachmasYou have 4 tetradrachms – decide what you’d like to purchase.Write the name of the item, the quantity and how much you have spent on that item. Use up all of your money and various items that you think you’d need.List the reason you purchased each item!List other items that are NOT listed on the catalogue that you’d like to purchase.Check to see what you missed!Other items: Slaves, olive oil, grain, timber and wool
12 Station C: Drama Theater of Dionysus You are at the Theater of Dionysus. A place where dramatic plays are performed in Athens.Theater was an important part of Athenian social life. In the 400’s and 500’s BCE, Athenians developed 2 types of plays that we still have today, comedy and tragedy. The tragic play presented the downfall of a great hero. Extreme arrogance towards the gods usually caused this downfall. The somber lessons of the tragedy was that humans should act with respect towards the gods and that dishonorable behavior had severe consequences. Comedy did not contain a serious message and provided entertainment of the audiences. Comic plays made fun of, or satirized, Athenian politicians and other well-known personalities.Athenian plays were staged in an outdoor marble theater which were built into the sides of hills. Stone rows or tiers of seats were arranged in a semicircle around the stage. Behind the stage, wooden or marble columns were draped with cloth to form a tent where actors changed their costumes and masks and where extra scenery was stored. Sometimes painted scenery was hung in front of the tent to provide a backdrop for a play.During the plays, 2 or 3 male actors performed both male and female roles. They were joined by a chorus of men who stood on the side of the stage and helped to explain the actions. The actors and chorus wore HUGE masks that had exaggerated expressions to indicate the personalities of their characters. The feelings of the characters were shown by colored costumes. Bright colors meant happiness while black meant despair.Many plays were staged here, built in the honor of the God Dionysus. This theater could hold 14,000 people. All classes of society except slaves could attend. Athenian playwrights presented their new plays in competitions held in the spring. A panel of nobles would judge the plays of excellence and quality
14 Station D: Education gymnasium You are at a gymnasium, a place where many Athenian children complete part of their education.A proper education was highly valued by the people of Athens. By approximately 600 BCE, the majority of Athenian male citizens were able to read and write. Young children were taught at home until they were 6 or 7, when they began school. Both boys and girls attended school, but they had separate schools. Schools for girls were not as numerous and the work was not as demanding. Since schools were private, parents were required to pay for the education their children received. For this reason, many children from poor families left school after they learned basic skills, which usually took 3-4 years. Children from wealthy families continued their education for as long as 10 years.Athenian children attended 3 different types of schools. At one school, teachers called grammatistes taught reading, writing, arithmetic and literature. Students memorized long passages from the epic poems of Homer, and from tragic plays. At a second type of school, coaches called paidotribes taught sports such as wrestling and gymnastics to strengthen the students muscles. At a third type of school, kitharistes taught music-specifically singing and playing the 7-stringed lyre to accompany reading of poetry.At the age of 18, Athenian males began 2 years of military training. After this service, a wealthy young male might resume his education by studying with a traveling philosopher called sophists. These tutors charged high fees and the gave lessons in debate and public speaking to young men eager to enter politics.
15 Station D: EducationCopy the Greek word from the hand out into the triangle in your notesRead the poem several times and then recite to your partner from memory. Have them check for accuracy!Go into the hallway and do a standing two foot jump. Keep both feet together. Record your initials onto the tape to record your distanceDraw 3 visuals and write a caption for each to represent the three types of Athenian teachers. Use the three points of the triangleCheck your answersgrammatistes, taught reading, writing and arithmetic.Paidotribes, taught wrestling and gymnastics to strengthen muscleskitharistes, taught singing and playing of a lyre
16 Station E: Law Pnyx The Pnyx: Site of the Athenian Assembly This is the speaker’s the Pynx with the Acroplis and Parthenon in the background.
17 Station E: Law PynxYou are at the Pnyx (nix) a hillside west of the Acropolis where the Athenian assembly meets to vote and make legal decisions.The Greeks had a well-established legal system. In the days before the Greeks invented their alphabet, the handed down their laws by oral traditions. This meant that officials and their assistants had to memorize entire legal codes. However by 600 BCE writing had spread throughout Greece and laws were written down for easy reference. Law codes covered both civil and criminal cases. Civil cases between citizens could involve disputes about inheritances and land boundaries while criminal cases might involve charges of murder or theft. Legal codes were different in each of the Greek city-states.The main lawmaking body of the Athenian democracy was the Citizens Assembly, which was open to all male citizens. A smaller executive body, the Council of 500 was responsible for proposing the laws and for voting on important political issues. Many people considered politics so important that they walked as far as 20 miles to participate in debates.In Athens, there were no lawyers. Any male citizen could bring criminal or civil charges against another citizen. Each citizen argued his own case but he could ask for help from a friend who had better speaking skills. Large juries- numbering anywhere from members heard the cases. Jury members were chosen by lottery and were paid for their services. The jury used small tokens to cast their innocent or guilty verdicts. Since there were no judges in the Athenian courtroom, the jury was responsible for interpreting thee laws and deciding on a verdict. Athens did not have prisons, so other punishments were enforced. The punishment for civil cases included fines and confiscation of property. In serious criminal cases, a guilty person could be exiled (sent away from the city) or sentenced to DEATH.
19 Look at the six examples of Greek Pottery. Station F: PotteryACELook at the six examples of Greek Pottery.Identify which style it is and list the reasons for your answerBDFA= Black-figureB= GeometricC= Red-figureD=Black-figureE=GeometricF= Red-figure
20 Station G: Religious beliefs Panathenaic Way You are at the Panathenaic Way, a path that connected a cemetery for Greek heroes with the religious shrine on top of the Acropolis. Athenians walked along this path during funerals and religious festivals.
21 Station G: Religious Beliefs Panathenaic Way The ancient Greeks were polytheistic. They believed that the gods played a strong role in human lives. They could effect everything from annual sprouting of crops, terrible diseases and even victory in wars and sporting events. The viewed religion as a public, not private matter. People that did NOT believe in the gods could be accused of offending the gods, or impiety. Athenian juries that convicted people of this often put them to death!There were 12 major gods. Each one had power over one or more parts of human life.The Greeks called them Olympian Gods because the believed that they live on top of Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. Zeus was king of the gods and the god of justice. Hera, his wife, was the goddess of marriage. Poseidon was the god of the seas. Hades was the god of the underworld, land of the dead. Apollo was the sun god, and Ares was the god of war. Athena was the goddess of wisdom, the arts and military victory. Artemis was the goddess of moon and wildlife. Aphrodite was the goddess of love, beauty and fertility. Hermes was the messenger of the gods. Hephaestus was the god of blacksmithing and crafts. Hestia was the goddess of home.To honor the gods, most people prayed, made sacrifices and built sacred places to honor them. These places were called sanctuaries and were built in areas of great natural beauty. Zeus is honored at Olympia, the site the Greeks used to hold the Olympic games. Another sacred site is located at Delphi, where the Greeks built a shrine, or oracle to Apollo. At this shrine, the Greeks looked to gods for advice to guide their actions.
22 Station G: Religious Beliefs The members of the procession carried various offerings including pitchers of water and honey, olive branches, baskets of incense and wine jars. The most important offering was a new lady’s robe called a peplos, specially woven by Athenian women. They presented this to Athena attached to the mast of a ship on wheels.At the end of the procession, the Greeks offered sacrifices to the statue of Athena. They slaughtered bulls and cows and roasted them at the alter of Athena. They offered the blood and some of the meat in sacrifice. Then they feasted on the remainder of the meat!654The most important festival held by the Athenians was the Panathenaic Festival. Thus was held every July to honor the birth of Athena. The festival lasted several days and included feasts, athletic contests, music and dancing, sacrifices, and a long march or procession of peopleThe procession of the Festival began at the cemetery of the heroes outside of Athens. It traveled through the Agora and slowly climbed the Acropolis until it reached the temple of Athena at the top.Thousands of people made up this procession. Among the citizens who marched were priests, government officials, women of aristocracy, daughters of resident foreigners, foot soldiers, the Athenian cavalry, musicians playing lyres and children carrying flowers.321
23 Station H: Sculpture Marble workshop You are at a marble workshop south of the Agora. This is a place where artisans create beautiful sculpture out of bronze and marble
24 Station H: Sculpture marble workshop Some of the most remarkable artistic achievements of the ancient Greeks were in the area of sculpture. Greek artists began carving life-size statues in the seventh century BCE. The early figure of men called kourai and females called korai, were strongly influenced by Egyptian styles of art. Just like the Egytians, the Greeks created slightly larger than life statues in positions facing front with arms held stiffly at the sides and the left leg forward. Artists created these works as dedicated offerings in a god’s temple, or for wealthy families who placed them at a young person’s grave.By the 5th century BCE., the Greeks began to create works that showed the human body in more realistic form and natural positions. They created figures that showed bodies in movement or emotional poses. Athenian artists created brilliant marble statues of Gods and heroes that filled the Parthenon. While most sculptors worked in marble, many artists also used metal to create figures.In the early 400’s BCE., a new method of casting bronze allowed artists to create hollow metal figures around wooden cores rather than just solid metal ones. Using this method, artists could create more realistic details of a figure’s muscles, clothing and hair. The new metal-casting method allowed the Athenian artist Phidias to create two of the most famous Athenian works of art: the gold and ivory statues of Athena and the God Zeus. The statue of Athena stood inside the Parthenon. The statue of Zeus stood outside Athens, in Olympia, and is considered one of the seven wonders of the Ancient world!
26 Sculpture Carefully examine the images on the next page. Quickly sketch the sculptures in your notebooks.Respond to the prompt: ‘I think sculpture A was created _________ (before/after) sculpture B because…Check your answers with the one provided!
27 Greek SculpturesABSculpture A was created AFTER sculpture B. Sculpture B reflects the influence of the Egyptian art on early Greek art. The figure faces forward and his arms are rigid at the sides and his left leg is forward. Sculpture A however shows an athlete in the act of throwing a discus. This is more realistic and has greater detail of the muscles!
28 Station I: Slaves Laurium Silver Mines You are at the entrance to Laurium, a silver mine located 25 miles outside of Athens, where the city gets it’s supply of silver
29 Station I: Slaves Laurium Silver Mine Slaves made up a large portion of the Athenian population. Historians believe that during the Golden Age there were 75,000 slaves living in Athens, a number equal to non-slaves living there. Most slaves were captives from the north and the east whom the Athenians had imprisoned during wartime. The children of these captives were particularly valued as slaves, because the could provide many years of service.Athenian slaves performed work in many areas. Female slaves were often domestic servants. The wore their hair and their clothing short so nothing would interfere with their rigorous tasks. Male slaves were often factory workers, shopkeepers, ship cargo handlers, miners and farmers. Both male and female slaves worked in factories making beds, knives and other household items. In addition, the city owned slaves, mostly males, and used them as coinmakers, policemen, clerks, and executioners.A small number of slaves were allowed to work independently of their owners. They practices trades or managed shops, and then delivered the profits to their masters. Some slaves managed large estates for absentee owners, overseeing farmhands and selling the produce. Some educated male and female slaves even worked as tutors in Athenian schools.Many slaves had to endure great hardships. Often the worked in terrible conditions. Some of the worst conditions were in the Laurium mine! Slaves, including children worked 10-hour shifts, in tunnels 300 feet below the earth’s surface. The tunnels were only 3 feet high and 2 feet wide and had little or no air. Slaves were shackled in chains day and night, and they were often whipped if they stopped to rest!
30 Station J: Women Wealthy Greek home You are at a wealthy home where men and women rarely are allowed to interact with each other
31 Station J: Women wealthy Athenian home Women had very specific roles in society. It was believed that women were under the protection of Hera, queen of the Gods and Hestia, goddess of home and hearth. An Athenian woman also had a father, husband, or brother as a guardian.Young girls were often raised together, apart from the male members of the household. Most Athenian women married at young age, as early as 14, in marriages arranged by their parents. They had several children and were often trained as midwives and nurses to help their sisters, cousins, or female servants give birth. Married women were expected to wear loose-fitting clothing. They also wore their hair pinned up with elaborate hairpieces, while unmarried women often wore their hair in loose, long curls.According to Athenian society, a respectable woman’s main responsibility was overseeing the household. Wealthy wives were responsible for the care and education of their children, tending to their husbands, supervising the servants, spinning wool, and weaving cloth for their families use. Wealthy women often had female slaves to gather produce from the garden as well as to buy food from the marketplace. These slaves were responsible for cooking and cleaning in the household. Women in less wealthy houses often worked at humble jobs outside the home. They sold goods at market, or baked loaves of bread. Few skilled trades were open to women, but there were female potters and leatherworkers.Athenian women from ALL classes participated in the religious celebrations. Some women were priestesses. These priestesses conducted religious ceremonies, recited prayers, and looked after the sacred objects stored in the sanctuaries. Priestesses had high social and legal status and were NOT under the guardianship of men!
32 Drawing an Athenian woman! Draw an Athenian woman and complete the following statements about her surrounding the picture:I see…(characteristics of married women)I think…(describe restrictions they had)I have traveled...(places they frequently visit)I hear… (What men might say about the woman’s role in society)
33 Answers!I see young women, as young as 14 years old having large families. They wore loose clothing and they wore their hair in fancy hairpieces.I have traveled to the marketplace, religious festivals and sanctuaries.I hear that women could oversee their households, they could be potter and leatherworkers, and also priestesses.I think that women had to be raised apart from men, and they could also participate only in a few trades. They also had to have a male guardian
34 The Wonderful Women of Greece! Elaborate hairpieceWhile visiting a wealthy house in Athens, I learned some important facts about women in Greek society. Almost all women in Greek society had to have a male guardian. They also were primarily overseers of their households. Some women could become priestesses and that gave them more legal and social status. Women went to the Agora to shop for their families.loose dressHera-protector